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2 Installing Oracle Database and Creating a Database

This chapter describes how to install Oracle Database software and create a single instance Oracle Database.

If you are using an earlier release of Oracle Database and want to install a later release of the Oracle Database software, then you can upgrade your existing Oracle Database and use it with the new release of the database software. See "Upgrading a Database".

This chapter contains the following sections:

Note:

This chapter provides an overview of how to install Oracle Database software and create a single instance Oracle Database. This chapter is not a complete installation guide for Oracle Database.

For more detailed information about installing Oracle Database software, see Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

Overview of Installing Oracle Database Software and Creating a Database

To install your Oracle Database software, use Oracle Universal Installer (OUI). OUI is a graphical user interface utility that enables you to install new Oracle Database software. Online Help is available to guide you through the installation process.

During the installation process, you are given the opportunity to create a database. If you choose to do so, then OUI automatically starts Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) to guide you through the process of creating and configuring a database.

Before you start the installation process, see the following sections for information about prerequisites and installation choices:

If you do not create a database during installation, then you must run DBCA at some point after installation to create a database.

Note:

After you create a database, either during installation or as a standalone operation, you do not have to create another. Rather than requiring that you create multiple databases to accommodate different applications, you can separate data into different schemas within a single Oracle Database. See "About User Accounts" for more information about schemas.

Starting with Oracle Database 12c, it is also possible to create a multitenant container database (CDB) that can support zero, one, or many user-created pluggable databases (PDBs). This manual briefly describes the OUI and DBCA options for creating CDBs and PDBs, but does not provide information about managing CDBs and PDBs. See Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about CDBs and PDBs.

Checking Prerequisites

Before installing the software, OUI performs several automated checks to ensure that your computer fulfills the basic hardware and software requirements for an Oracle Database installation. If your computer does not meet a requirement, then an error message is displayed. The requirements may vary depending upon the type of computer and operating system you are using, but some prerequisites include:

  • There is a minimum of 1 GB of physical memory.

  • Sufficient paging space is available.

  • The appropriate service packs or patches for your operating system are installed.

  • An appropriate file system format is being used.

See Also:

Deciding on Installation Choices

Oracle Universal Installer guides you through an interview phase where you specify your choices for installation and database creation. The exact sequence of steps depends on your operating system. As you progress through the installation, you are presented with choices on how to configure the database.

Install Option

You can choose to create and configure a database, or to only install the database software.

You can create a preconfigured database or a custom-configured database during installation. If you choose not to create a database during installation, then you must run DBCA after installation to create a database.

Note:

If you choose to create and configure a database, then OUI will start DBCA at the end of the installation to configure the database.

If you choose to only install the database software using OUI, then you must manually run DBCA after the installation to create and configure the database. With this approach, more options are available for controlling database configuration.

Preconfigured databases are based on templates that Oracle provides or that you create. Each Oracle-provided template is optimized for a particular workload type. See Table 2-2, "Oracle-Provided DBCA Templates and Their Corresponding Workloads" for information about the types of preconfigured databases.

If you choose to use the Desktop Class installation method, then the general purpose database template is used. To create a custom database in which you configure your own database structure, see "About Advanced Installation."


Note:

If you must create a new database, then Oracle recommends that you install a preconfigured database, which is faster and easier. You can customize the database after it has been created.

Installation Method

The installation methods are divided into Desktop Class and Server Class:

  • Desktop Class—This installation class is most appropriate for laptop or desktop computers. It includes a starter database and requires minimal configuration.

  • Server Class—This installation class is for servers, such as you would find in a data center, or used to support enterprise-level applications. Choose this installation class if you need access to advanced configuration options.

During a Desktop Class installation, you make only basic choices. For a Server Class installation, you choose either typical installation (where you make only basic choices) or advanced installation.

During a Desktop Class or a typical installation, Oracle Database automatically installs the sample schemas.

Installation Type

When you install Oracle Database during basic and advanced installations, you need answers for the questions listed in this section. OUI provides default values for every choice.

  • What type of database edition installation do you want to perform?

    Your choices are:

    • Enterprise Edition—This installation type is the full-featured Oracle Database product that provides data management for enterprise-level applications. It is intended for mission-critical, high-security online transaction processing (OLTP) and data warehousing environments.

    • Standard Edition—This installation type is suitable for workgroup or department-level applications, and for small to medium-sized enterprises. It provides core relational database management services and options and includes an integrated set of management tools, replication, Web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications.

    • Standard Edition One—This installation type is suitable for workgroup, department, or web applications. It provides core relational database management services for single-server environments or highly distributed branch environments. Oracle Standard Edition One includes all the facilities necessary to build business-critical applications.

    • Personal Edition (Microsoft Windows operating systems only)—This installation type installs the same software as the Enterprise Edition, but supports only a single-user, development and deployment environment.

  • What are your database configuration options?

Software Installation Directories

You must specify the directory in which the Oracle Database software is installed, or the location where the product binary files are copied from the installation media. You must choose a location that has enough disk space to contain the software and is accessible by the operating system user performing the installation.

You also specify the location of the Oracle base directory, which is used by all Oracle software products installed on the server. The first time you install Oracle software on a server, you are prompted to specify the location of the inventory directory, called oraInventory. This directory provides a centralized inventory of all Oracle software products installed on the server. You should use the same value for the Oracle inventory directory each time you perform an Oracle software installation on the server.

Database File Location

A database includes several files that store the user data, database metadata, and information required to recover from failures. As an administrator, you decide what kind of storage subsystem to use for these files. You can select from the following options:

  • File System—This default option creates database files that are managed by the file system of your operating system. You can specify the directory path where database files are to be stored. Oracle Database can create and manage the actual files.

    If you are not certain about which option to use, then select File System (the default).

  • Automatic Storage Management—This option enables you to place your data files in Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk groups. If you choose Oracle ASM, then Oracle Database automatically manages database file placement and naming. For environments with a large number of disks, this option simplifies database administration and maximizes performance. Oracle ASM performs software striping and mirroring at the file level for maximum storage flexibility, performance, and availability.

    Oracle ASM uses an Oracle ASM instance, which is distinct from the database instance, to configure and manage disk groups. A single Oracle ASM instance can provide storage for multiple databases on the same server.

    For more information, see Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide.

Note:

In past releases, Oracle ASM was installed as part of the Oracle Database installation. With Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle ASM is part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation.

To use Oracle ASM for storing database files, you must have installed Oracle ASM and created one or more disk groups before performing the Oracle Database installation.

Database Identifiers

These options include your global database name and system identifier (SID). The SID is a unique identifier that is used to distinguish this instance from other Oracle Database instances that you may create later and run concurrently on your system.

The global database name is the full name of the database that uniquely distinguishes it from any other database. The global database name is in the form database_name.database_domain, for example sales.example.com. The database name portion sales is a simple name you call your database. The database domain portion example.com specifies the database domain in which the database is located. Together, the database name and domain form the global database name.

About Advanced Installation

During advanced installations using the Server Class method you are prompted to make the additional choices listed in this section, and the choices for a typical installation. The installation process provides default values for every choice.

This guide describes, but does not document, these additional advanced installation choices. For more information, see Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

  • Product Languages

    You choose which language the software should use after it is installed. You can select multiple languages. The default value is English. If you choose a value other than English, it does not change the language used by the installation.

  • Database Configuration Type

    You select a template to use when configuring the database. You can choose either General Purpose/Transaction Processing or Data Warehousing.

  • Database Configuration Options

    You can choose how to configure the database created by the installer. You can select the memory size and management options, the character sets used to store data, the security options for database access, and whether the sample schemas should be installed.

    To complete the exercises in this guide and related course material, you must install the sample schemas. This data is also used in most examples throughout Oracle Database documentation. Oracle recommends that you install the sample schemas.

    This choice is a configuration option only during advanced installation. Sample schemas are installed by default during typical or Desktop class installations.

  • Recovery Options

    You specify whether automated backups should be configured for the database. If you choose this option, you must specify whether the recovery area should be stored on the local file system or in an Oracle ASM disk group. You must also specify the operating system credentials the backup job uses when performing backups.

    Note:

    To use Oracle ASM for recovery area storage, you must have installed Oracle ASM as part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure installation and created one or more disk groups before performing the Oracle Database installation.
  • Schema Passwords

    When you create a database, certain administrative user accounts are created automatically. You are prompted to enter the passwords for the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP accounts, which enable you to manage and administer the database. You can use the same password for each account, or specify passwords for each account individually. If you do not enter a secure password, you will receive a warning message during installation.

  • Operating System Groups

    Administrative access to the database is granted by membership in certain operating system groups. You can choose the operating system group to be used for SYSDBA access (typically dba) and SYSOPER access (typically oper).

    The SYSDBA group identifies operating system user accounts that have database administrative privileges and can log in with SYSDBA access. The SYSOPER group is an optional group for users that should have limited database administrative privileges. See "SYSDBA and SYSOPER System Privileges" for more information about these groups and privileges.

Installing Oracle Database Software

This section briefly describes the steps for a desktop-class installation. Most steps are common to all platforms and involve running the Oracle Universal Installer. Platform-specific steps are noted. For further assistance, consult the online Help or the Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

Note:

The following steps describe the Oracle Universal Installer workflow for a host computer that has no previous Oracle software installed. If your host computer has Oracle software installed, then you may see a different workflow.

To perform a basic installation:

  1. Log on to your computer as a member of the administrative group that is authorized to install Oracle Database software and to create and run the database.

    Refer to your operating system-specific documentation or contact your system administrator to determine whether you have the necessary privileges and permissions to install new software.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • If you are installing from distribution media, then insert the distribution media for the database into your computer.

      The Autorun feature opens the Select a Product to Install window automatically.

    • If you downloaded the installation software from the Oracle Web site, then follow the instructions on the site to run the Oracle Universal Installer. Or, see the Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

  3. The first window that appears is the Configure Security Updates window. To receive notifications about security issues via e-mail, enter your e-mail address in the Email text field. To receive security updates from My Oracle Support, enter the e-mail address registered with My Oracle Support, select the I wish to receive security updates... option, and enter your My Oracle Support password.

    Click Next to continue.

    The Download Software Updates window appears.

  4. You can use the Software Updates feature to dynamically download and apply the latest updates. Select one of the following options:

    • Use My Oracle Support credentials for download: Select this option to download and apply the latest software updates.

      Click Proxy Settings to configure a proxy for Oracle Universal Installer to use to connect to the Internet. Provide the proxy server information for your site and a user account that has access to the local area network through which the server is connecting. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) you can enter the proxy realm information. The proxy realm information is case-sensitive. If you do not have a proxy realm, then you do not have to provide an entry for the Proxy Server, Proxy Port Number, Proxy Username, Proxy Password, and Proxy Realm fields.

      Click Test Connection to ensure that your proxy settings are correctly entered, and the installer can download the updates.

    • Use pre-downloaded software updates: Select this option to apply the software updates previously downloaded using the -downloadUpdates flag.

    • Skip software updates: Select this option if you do not want to apply any updates.

    Click Next to continue.

    The Select Installation Option window appears.

  5. Choose the Create and configure a database option. Or, you also have the option of choosing to only install the database software, but then you must create a database in an additional step after the software is installed. If you are currently using a previous version of Oracle Database, choose Upgrade an existing database. After you have chosen an option, click Next.

    The System Class window appears.

  6. Choose Desktop Class.

    You can choose the Server Class option to customize your installation. For example, you use this method to configure Oracle Automatic Storage Management for your database, install the Sample Schemas, or configure automated backups. Selecting this option guides you through a series of installation steps that are not documented in this guide. For more information about the advanced choices, see "About Advanced Installation". Also see Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

    Click Next.

    The Typical Install Configuration window appears.

  7. Provide the following configuration details for the database:

    • Oracle Base— The Oracle base directory helps to facilitate the organization of multiple Oracle software installations. See Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform for more information about ORACLE_BASE.

      If you did not set the ORACLE_BASE environment variable before starting OUI, then the Oracle base directory is created in an app/username/directory on the first existing and writable directory from /u01 through /u09 for UNIX and Linux systems, or on the disk drive with the most available space for Windows systems. If /u01 through /u09 does not exist on the UNIX or Linux system, then the default location is user_home_directory/app/username.

      You can click Browse to find the directory you want to act as the Oracle base directory.

    • Software Location—The software location is the Oracle home for your database. You must specify a new Oracle home directory for each new installation of Oracle Database software. By default, the Oracle home directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.

      You can click Browse to find the directory where you want to install the Oracle Database software.

    • Database File Location—The database file location is the location where Oracle Database files are stored. By default, this location is Oracle_base/oradata. You can click Browse to select a different location.

    • Database Edition—Select either Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, Standard Edition One, or Personal Edition (Microsoft Windows platforms only). See "Installation Type".

    • Character Set—Choose the character set to use to store the data within the database. You can choose between the Default, which is based on the operating system language settings, or Unicode.

    • OSDBA Group (Linux and UNIX platforms only)—Specify the operating system DBA group. Host computer users in this group have administrative privileges on the database. This group is typically named dba. Refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux or for your UNIX platform for more details.

    • Global Database Name—Enter the fully qualified global database name. See "Installation Type" for more on global database name.

    • Administrative Password—Specify the initial password for the SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP administrator accounts. If the password you choose is not a secure password, a warning message will be displayed.

    • Create as Container database: Enable this option to create the database as a CDB that can support zero, one, or many user-created PDBs.

      If you want DBCA to create a PDB when it creates the CDB, specify the PDB name in the Pluggable database name field.

      See Also:

      Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about CDBs and PDBs

    After you enter the required information, click Next.

    Note:

    On Microsoft Windows operating systems only, the Specify Oracle Home User window appears. This window enables you to use a non-administrator, low privileged Windows User Account as the Oracle Home User. This option is recommended for database installation to ensure that Oracle services run with limited privileges. For single instance databases, you can also choose to allow the Oracle Installer to create a new Windows User Account (local user only) which will then be used as the Oracle Home User.

    If you decline this option, all the services will be installed and will run as the System user.

    See Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about this feature.

    If Oracle software has not previously been installed on this server, then the Create Inventory window appears. If this is not the first installation attempt on this server, then the Perform Prerequisite Checks window appears.

  8. For first time installations on Linux and UNIX operating systems only, specify a directory for installation files and the name of an operating system group that has write permissions for that directory.

    If this is the first time you are installing any Oracle software on this computer, then the Create Inventory Directory window appears. You must specify a local directory for the inventory, which OUI uses to keep track of all Oracle software installed on the computer. This information is used while applying patches or upgrading an existing installation, and while deinstalling Oracle software. Note that this directory is different from the Oracle home directory. The recommended value for the inventory directory is Oracle_base/../oraInventory, or one level above the Oracle base directory, in the oraInventory subdirectory. If your Oracle base directory is /u01/app/oracle, then the Oracle inventory directory defaults to /u01/app/oraInventory.

    In this window you can also specify the operating system group that has write permissions on the inventory directory. This prevents other users from writing over the Oracle product installation files. Typically the oinstall group is selected.

    After you enter a directory path and specify an operating system group, click Next to continue.

    The Perform Prerequisite Checks window appears.

  9. If any checks failed, then take corrective actions.

    OUI performs several environment checks and indicates whether the check was a success, or resulted in a warning or failure. Details of the checks are provided in the displayed window. The installation can proceed only when all checks have a status of either Succeeded or Warning. If any of the environment checks failed, then they must be resolved manually. See "Checking Prerequisites" for more information.

    If all the prerequisite checks passed, or after you click Next, the Summary window appears,

  10. Review the installation summary, then click Finish to start the installation.

    The Install window appears, showing the installation progress. After the installation phase, the Configuration Assistants window appears. This window lists the configuration assistants that are started automatically. If you chose to create a starter database, then Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) starts automatically in a separate window.

    After database creation, a window is displayed that summarizes the database creation.

  11. (Optional) Click Password Management to unlock user accounts to make the accounts accessible to users.

    The SYS and SYSTEM accounts are unlocked by default.

  12. Click OK to continue the installation.

  13. For Linux and UNIX operating systems only, run the specified scripts, then click OK.

    In the Execute Configuration Scripts window, you are prompted to open a new terminal window, and to run scripts as the root user. After you run the scripts, return to this window and click OK.

  14. Make note of the information in the Finish window, then click Close to exit OUI.

    Your installation and database creation is now complete.

    You use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express) to perform common database administration tasks.

    Use the URL for EM Express that is provided in the Finish window to start EM Express, specifying your database hostname instead of 'localhost.' When EM Express prompts you for your username and password, log in as a user with DBA privilege (such as SYSTEM).

    Note:

    By default, DBCA picks a free port from the 5500 to 5599 range to use as the EM Express port.

    If you want a particular port to be used as the EM Express port, specify that port using the DBEXPRESS_HTTPS_PORT operating system environment variable prior to starting OUI or DBCA.

    For more information on setting environment variables, see "Configuring the Operating System Environment Variables."

    See Also:

Creating and Managing a Database with DBCA

Unless you specified that only the Oracle Database software should be installed, Oracle Universal Installer automatically runs Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) after software installation is complete. DBCA then creates a database using the information you provided. If you do not create a starter database and later want to create one, or to create additional databases, use DBCA.

Note:

With Oracle Database, you typically have a single database that hosts multiple applications. You do not need multiple databases to run different applications. Instead, you can separate the objects that support each different application into different schemas in the same database. However, there may be situations in which you want to create multiple Oracle databases on the same host computer. When you do this with DBCA, the new databases typically use the same Oracle home directory as the first database, but store database data files separately from those of the first database.

DBCA also enables you to modify a database configuration, delete a database, and more. This section describes the following DBCA tasks:

Online Help is available by clicking Help. It provides information that guides you in selecting configuration options.

Starting DBCA

Follow the steps in this section to start DBCA.

Note:

If you choose to create a starter database while installing the Oracle Database software, then OUI automatically starts DBCA.

To start DBCA:

  1. Log on to your computer as a member of the administrative group that is authorized to install Oracle Database software and to create and run the database.

  2. Do one of the following:

    • To start DBCA on a Microsoft Windows operating system, click Start, select Programs (or All Programs), then Oracle - HOME_NAME, then Configuration and Migration Tools, and then Database Configuration Assistant.

    • To start DBCA on UNIX or Linux, or at the command-line prompt on the Windows operating system, enter the following command:

      dbca
      

      The dbca utility is typically located in the ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.

Creating a Database Using DBCA

DBCA enables you to create an Oracle database by following a step-by-step guided workflow.

To create a database using DBCA:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Database Operation window, select Create Database and click Next to start the guided workflow for creating a database. If you then select Advanced Mode and click Next, the workflow requests your input in the following windows:

The following sections provide details on each window. Most windows provide default settings. Depending on the options you choose in DBCA, some of these windows may not be displayed.

Step 2 - Creation Mode

This window enables you to create a database with default configuration or to use Advanced Mode to create a database.

If you choose Advanced Mode, you can customize storage locations, initialization parameters, management options, database options, and different passwords for Administrator user accounts.

If you choose Create a database with default configuration, you make fewer choices in the options for your database, which allows you to create your database sooner.

When you select Create a database with default configuration, you can select the following options:

  • Global Database Name: Enter the database name in the form database_name.domain_name.

  • Storage Type: Choose either File System or Automatic Storage Management.

    When you choose File System, your database files are managed by the file system of your operating system.

    When you choose Automatic Storage Management, you place your data files in Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk groups.

  • Database Files Location: The choice you make for the Storage Type option determines what you specify for the Database Files Location option.

    When you choose File System in the Storage Type field, you specify the directory path where the database files are to be stored in the Database Files Location field. Oracle Database can create and manage the actual files.

    When you choose Automatic Storage Management in the Storage Type field, you specify the disk group to use in the Database Files Location field (the disk group must already exist). With Oracle ASM, Oracle Database automatically manages database file placement and naming.

  • Fast Recovery Area: Specify a backup and recovery area.

  • Database Character Set: Choose the character set to use for the database. See "Character Sets" for more information about character sets.

  • Administrative Password: Enter the password to use for the database administrative passwords (such as the SYS, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP accounts).

  • User "Oracle Home User" Password (on Microsoft Windows operating systems only): If during the installation you specified a non-administrator, low privileged Windows User Account (as Oracle Home User) to run the database services under, you are prompted for the password of that user account.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for more information about this feature
  • Create as Container Database: Enable this option to create the database as a CDB that can support zero, one, or many user-created PDBs.

    If you want DBCA to create a PDB when it creates the CDB, specify the PDB name in the Pluggable Database Name field.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about CDBs and PDBs

Step 3 - Database Template

This window enables you to select the type of database template to use to create the database. You can select:

  • General Purpose or Transaction Processing

  • Custom Database

  • Data Warehouse

EM Express supports Oracle single instance databases.

See Also:

Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide for more information about Oracle Real Application Clusters databases

You can use DBCA to create a database from templates supplied by Oracle or from templates that you create. The templates contain settings optimized for a particular type of workload.

Oracle ships templates for the following two workload types:

  • General purpose or transaction processing

  • Data warehouse

Select the template suited to the type of workload your database will support. If you are not sure which to choose, then select the default General Purpose or Transaction Processing template.

For more complex environments, you can select the Custom Database option. This option does not use templates and results in a more extensive interview, which means that it takes longer to create your database.

For more information about using database templates, see "Managing Templates with DBCA".

Step 4 - Database Identification

In the Global Database Name field, enter the database name in the form database_name.domain_name.

In the SID field, enter the system identifier. The SID defaults to the database name and uniquely identifies the instance that runs the database.

If you enable the Create as Container Database option, the database is created as a CDB that can support zero, one, or many user-created PDBs.

If you do not want DBCA to create a PDB when it creates the CDB, enable the Create an Empty Container Database option.

If you want DBCA to create one or more PDBs when it creates the CDB, enable the Create a Container Database with one or more PDBs option. Then enter the number of PDBs to create in the Number of PDBs field. In the PDB Name field, specify the name to use for the PDB or PDBS to be created. When you create multiple PDBs, the PDB name you specify is used as a prefix for the PDBs to be created. For example, if you ask for 3 PDBs to be created and specify SANDBOXPDB as the PDB name, then the names of the PDBs created will be SANDBOXPDB1, SANDBOXPDB2, and SANDBOXPDB3.

See Also:

Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about CDBs and PDBs

Step 5 - Management Options

Use this window to set up your database so it can be managed with Oracle Enterprise Manager. Oracle Enterprise Manager provides Web-based management tools for individual databases, and central management tools for managing your entire Oracle environment.

  • To manage your database locally, select Configure Enterprise Manager (EM) Database Express.

  • If the Oracle Management Agent is installed on your host computer, then you can choose central management by selecting Register with Enterprise Manager (EM) Cloud Control for centralized management and then specifying the host and port for the Management Service and the EM Admin username and password.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control

Step 6 - Database Credentials

In this window, specify the passwords for the administrative accounts such as SYS, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP.

On Microsoft Windows operating systems only: If during the installation you specified a non-administrator, low privileged Windows User Account as Oracle Home User, you are prompted for the password of that user account.

Step 7 - Network Configuration

In this window, the listeners in the current Oracle home are displayed. If you want to create a new listener in the current Oracle home, you can do it in this window.

Step 8 - Storage Locations

In this window, specify the type of storage you would like your database to use. For more information, see "About Advanced Installation".

Then specify the locations for the Oracle database files. Select one of the following options:

  • Use Database File Locations from Template—This option instructs DBCA to use the directory information as specified in the template. Later, you can make modifications to database file names and locations.

  • Use Common Location for All Database Files—This option requires you to specify a new directory for the Oracle home. All the database files are created in this location. Later, you can make modifications to database file names and locations.

    If you specify the Use Oracle Managed Files option, Oracle Database will directly manage operating system files comprising an Oracle database. You specify the default location, called a database area, for all your files. Oracle Database thereafter automatically creates and deletes files in this location, as required. When you select this option, you delegate the complete management of database files to the database. You no longer have to specify the file names, their location, or their sizes.

When you create a new database, it is important to configure the database so you can recover your data if a system failure occurs. Online redo log files contain a record of changes that were made to data files. Online redo log files are stored in online redo log groups. You must have at least two online redo log groups for your database. After the online redo log files in a group have filled up, the log writer process (LGWR) switches the writing of redo records to a new online redo log group. Oracle Database can automatically save the inactive group of online redo log files to one or more offline destinations, known collectively as the archived redo log (also called the archive log). The process of turning online redo log files into archived redo log files is called archiving.

Archiving can be performed only if the database is running in ARCHIVELOG mode. A group of online redo log files cannot be reused by the log writer (LGWR) process until the group is archived. If the database is running in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then when a group becomes inactive after the LGWR process switches to a new group, the inactive group is available for immediate reuse by the LGWR process.

The NOARCHIVELOG mode protects a database from instance failure but not from media failure. Only the most recent changes made to the database, which are stored in the online redo log files, are available for instance recovery. To restore a database operating in NOARCHIVELOG mode, you can use only entire database backups taken while the database is closed. Therefore, if you operate a database in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then back up the entire database at regular, frequent intervals.

The archiving of online redo log files has the following advantages:

  • A database backup, with online and archived redo log files, guarantees that you can recover all committed transactions if the operating system or hardware fails.

  • You can recover the database using a backup that was taken while the database was open and being used, if you have a copy of the archived log files that were written while the database was being backed up.

  • You can perform online tablespace backups, and use these backups to restore a tablespace following media failure.

  • You can keep a standby database current with its original database by continuously applying the original archived redo log files to the standby database.

Before you can archive the online redo log files, you must determine the destination to which you want to archive. Oracle recommends that the archive log be stored in a fast recovery area because it can simplify backup and recovery operations for your database. A fast recovery area is a location in which Oracle Database can store and manage files related to backup and recovery. It is distinct from the database area, which is a location for the current database files (data files, control files, and online redo log files).

When creating your database, you can select the following options:

  • Storage Type—Specify the type of storage you would like your database to use for recovery-related files. For more information, see "About Advanced Installation".

  • Specify Fast Recovery Area—Select this option to specify a backup and recovery area and its directory location and size. You can use variables to identify standard locations.

  • Enable Archiving—Select this option to enable the archiving of database online redo log files, which can be used to recover a database. Selecting this option is the same as running the database in ARCHIVELOG mode.

    Oracle recommends you select Enable Archiving. Selecting this option provides better protection for your database for software or hardware failure. If you do not select this option now, then you can enable ARCHIVELOG mode later. See "Configuring Your Database for Basic Backup and Recovery".

Step 9 - Database Options

This window includes the Sample Schemas tab and the Database Vault & Label Security tab.

On the Sample Schemas tab, you can specify for the sample schemas to be created in your database, and for custom SQL scripts to be run after database creation:

  • Sample Schemas—Select Sample Schemas to include the Sample Schemas (EXAMPLE) tablespace in your database. Oracle guides and educational materials contain examples based upon the Sample Schemas. Oracle recommends that you include them in your database.

  • Custom Scripts—In the Custom Scripts subpage, optionally specify one or more SQL scripts to run after your database is created. Scripts are useful for performing postinstallation tasks, such as loading custom schemas. Note that if you choose to run scripts after installation, then your scripts must include a connection string that identifies the database. Click Help for more information.

On the Database Vault & Label Security tab, you can choose options related to Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security.

See Also:

Step 10 - Initialization Parameters

The links in this window provide access to additional windows that enable you to change the default initialization parameter settings. These parameters fall into the following categories:

You can also click the All Initialization Parameters button at the bottom of the window to display a list of all the database initialization parameters and their current settings.

Memory

Use this window to set the initialization parameters that control how the database manages its memory. You can choose from the following methods for memory management:

  • Typical—This method requires little configuration, and allocates memory as a percentage of total overall physical system memory. Select Typical and enter a value in the Memory Size (SGA and PGA) field. The percentage of memory represented by the value entered is shown in the Percentage field. You can also use the slider to change the value. Click Show Memory Distribution to view the SGA size and PGA size allocated. Click Use Automatic Memory Management to have the system automatically tunes many of the memory components of the SGA, and allocate memory to individual PGAs as needed. The system can also dynamically decrease or increase the total amount of memory allocated to the SGA or aggregate PGA, depending on processing demands. The total memory used for the database instance never exceeds the amount you specify. This automatic memory tuning for the instance is known as automatic memory management. To learn more about PGA and SGA, see "About Instance Memory Structures".

  • Custom—This method requires more configuration than the Typical option, but gives you more control over how the database instance uses system memory. This option is meant for more experienced database administrators. You can directly specify memory sizes for the SGA and aggregate PGA and their substructures, such as the shared pool and buffer cache.

    Select one of the following options for customized memory management:

    • Automatic Shared Memory Management to allocate specific amounts of memory to the SGA and aggregate PGA. With this setting, automatic shared memory management is enabled for the SGA, and memory is allocated to the individual PGAs as needed.

    • Manual Shared Memory Management to enter specific values for each SGA component and the aggregate PGA. This disables automatic shared memory management and enables you to determine how the SGA memory is distributed among the SGA memory components.

See Also:

Sizing

In this tab, you specify the smallest block size and the maximum number of operating system user processes that can simultaneously connect to the database.

  • Block Size—Use this list to select the block size, or accept the default. Oracle Database data is stored in data blocks of the size specified. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical space on disk. Selecting a block size other than the default 8 kilobytes (KB) value requires advanced knowledge and should be done only when absolutely required.

    While using predefined templates, this list is not enabled because the database will be created with the default block size of 8 KB. If you chose Custom Database in the Database Type window, you can change the block size here.

  • Processes—In this field, specify the maximum number of processes that can simultaneously connect to the database. Enter a number or accept the default value of 300. The default value for this parameter is appropriate for many environments. The value you select should allow for all background processes, user processes, and parallel execution processes.

Character Sets

Use this tab to define the character sets used by your database. Character sets are the encoding schemes used to display characters on your computer screen. The character set determines what languages can be represented in the database.

Oracle recommends using Unicode (AL32UTF8) as the database character set. AL32UTF8 is Oracle's name for the UTF-8 encoding of the Unicode standard. The Unicode standard is the universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the world. The use of the Unicode standard is indispensable for any multilingual technology, including database processing.

After a database is created and accumulates production data, changing the database character set is a time consuming and complex project. Therefore, it is very important to select the right character set at installation time. Even if the database does not currently store multilingual data but is expected to store multilingual data within a few years, the choice of AL32UTF8 for the database character set is usually the only good decision.

If you create a CDB, consider that the character set you select determines which other databases you can later plug into the CDB. Only databases with a compatible database character set can be plugged into the CDB.

The default character set used by Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) and Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) for the UNIX, Linux, and Microsoft Windows platforms is not AL32UTF8, but a Microsoft Windows character set known as an ANSI code page. The particular character set is selected based on the current language (locale) of the operating system session that started OUI or DBCA. If the language is American English or a Western European language, then the default character set is WE8MSWIN1252. Each Microsoft Windows ANSI Code Page can store data from only one language or a limited group of languages, such as only Western European, or only Eastern European, or only Japanese.

A Microsoft Windows character set is the default even for databases created on UNIX and Linux platforms because Microsoft Windows is the prevalent platform for client workstations. Oracle Client libraries automatically perform the necessary character set conversion between the database character set and the character sets used by non-Windows client applications.

You may also choose to use any other character set from the presented list of character sets. You can use this option to select a particular character set required by an application vendor, or choose a particular character set that is the common character set used by all clients connecting to this database.

Because AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy character sets supporting the language. Note that the increase in storage space concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.

  • Database Character Set—In this section, select one of the following options:

    • Use the Default—Select this option to select only the language currently used by the operating system for all your database users and database applications.

    • Use Unicode (AL32UTF8)—Select this option to support multiple languages for your database users and database applications.

    • Choose from the list of character sets—Select this option if you want Oracle Database to use a character set other than the default character set used by the operating system.

    Note:

    AL32UTF8 is a variable-width multibyte character set. Applications connecting to a database that uses AL32UTF8 for character data processing must be correctly programmed to work with such character sets. Always verify the character set requirements of the applications that use the database. Contact the application vendor and ask for a Unicode-capable version, if your current application version does not support the Unicode standard.
  • National Character Set—In this list, select a character set or accept the default. The national character set, also called NCHAR character set, is the character set used to store and process data of data types NVARCHAR2, NCHAR, and NCLOB. These data types allow storing of Unicode characters in a database that does not have a Unicode database character set. Unless installation requirements of any of your applications specify otherwise, accept the default value of AL16UTF16 as the national character set.

    Note:

    Although this character set is called "national," after the SQL standard (ISO/IEC 9075), it is not better suited to support globalized applications than the database character set. Because working with national character set data requires additional API calls in client applications, and because national character set data is not supported by some database components, such as Oracle Text, Oracle recommends that multilingual applications use VARCHAR2, CHAR, and CLOB data types and an Oracle database with the database character set AL32UTF8.
  • Default Language—In this list, select a default database language or accept the default. The default language determines how the database supports locale-sensitive information such as day and month abbreviations, default sorting sequence for character data, and reading direction (left to right or right to left).

  • Default Territory—In this list, select the name of the territory whose conventions are to be followed for day and week numbering or accept the default. The default territory also establishes the default date format, the default decimal character and group separator, and the default International Standardization Organization (ISO) and local currency symbols. For example, in the United Kingdom, the default date format is DD-MON-YYYY, where DD is the day of the month (1-31), MON is the abbreviated name of the month, and YYYY is the 4-digit year.

Connection Mode

Use this window to select the database mode. You can run the database in either of the following modes:

  • Dedicated Server Mode—This mode allows a dedicated server process for each user process. Select this option when the number of total clients is expected to be small, for example, 50 or fewer. You might also choose this option when database clients typically make persistent, long-running requests to the database. By default, the database is configured for dedicated server processes.

  • Shared Server Mode—This mode allows several client connections to share a database-allocated pool of resources. Use this mode in configurations in which client load is expected to cause a strain on memory and other system resources. If you choose shared server mode, then you must indicate the number of server processes you want to create when a database instance is started. For more information about setting this parameter, click Help.

Step 11 - Creation Options

In this window, select any of the following options for creating the database:

  • Create Database—Select this option to create your database now.

  • Save as a Database Template—Select this option to save the database definition as a template to use at a later time.

  • Generate Database Creation Scripts—Select this option to generate a SQL database creation script that you can run at a later time.

Step 12 - Prerequisite Steps

This window displays the results of the validation checks that DBCA performs to ensure that your system is capable of creating the database with the configuration options you have selected.

If any of the validation checks fail, Oracle recommends that you click Back to return to the previous window where you can fix the problem. However, you can also click Ignore All if you choose not to fix the problems that caused the failed validation checks.

Step 13 - Summary

This window displays a summary of the configuration options that you have chosen for the database. Review the summary information.

To change any of these options, click Back and return to the window where you can modify the option.

Click Finish to have DBCA begin the creation of the database with the specified configuration options.

Step 14 - Progress

The Progress window displays the progress of the database creation operation.

When DBCA finishes, it displays the Database Configuration Assistant window, which advises you that database creation is complete.

The Database Configuration Assistant window provides information about:

  • The location of the DBCA log files

  • The global database name, SID, and server parameter file name for the database

  • The URL to use to access Enterprise Manager to manage the database

  • Managing the database accounts that were created

Changing the Configuration of a Database Using DBCA

You can use DBCA to change the configuration of an existing database. For example, you can make configuration changes such as:

  • Add database options that were not previously configured (for example, Oracle Label Security or Oracle OLAP)

  • Change default security settings

  • Change the server mode from dedicated to shared, or the reverse

To change the configuration of a database using DBCA:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Database Operation window, select Configure Database Options and click Next.

  3. Follow the instructions in the DBCA guided workflow.

Deleting a Database Using DBCA

You can also use DBCA to delete a database. When DBCA deletes a database, it shuts down the database instance and then deletes all database files. On the Windows platform, it also deletes associated Windows services.

To delete a database using DBCA:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Database Operation window, select Delete Database and click Next.

  3. Select the database to delete and click Next.

Managing Templates with DBCA

DBCA templates are XML files that contain information required to create a database. Templates are used in DBCA to create new databases and duplicate existing databases. The information in templates includes database options, initialization parameters, and storage attributes (for data files, tablespaces, control files, and online redo log files).

Templates can be used just like scripts, but they are more powerful than scripts because you have the option of duplicating a database. Duplication saves time because you copy the files of an existing database, referred to as a seed database, to the correct locations.

Templates are stored in the following directory:

ORACLE_HOME/assistants/dbca/templates

Advantages of Using Templates

Using templates has the following advantages:

  • Time saving. If you use a template, then you do not have to define the database.

  • Easy duplication. By creating a template containing your database settings, you can easily create a duplicate database without specifying parameters twice.

  • Easy editing. You can quickly change database options from the template settings.

  • Easy sharing. Templates can be copied from one computer to another.

Types of Templates

Templates are divided into the following types:

  • Seed templates

  • Nonseed templates

The characteristics of each are shown in Table 2-1.

Table 2-1 DBCA Template Types

Type File Extension Includes Data Files Database Structure

Seed

.dbc

Yes

This type of template contains both the structure and the physical data files of an existing database, referred to as the seed database. Your new database starts as a copy of the seed database, and requires only the following changes:

  • Name of the database

  • Destination of the data files

  • Number of control files

  • Number of online redo log groups

  • Initialization parameters

Other changes can be made after database creation using custom scripts that can be invoked by DBCA, command-line SQL statements, or EM Express.

The data files for the seed database are stored in compressed RMAN backup format in a file with a .dfb extension. The seed database control file is stored in a file with .ctl extension. (This file is needed only when storing data files in Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM) disk groups or as Oracle Managed Files.) The .dbc file contains the location of the seed database data files and contains the source database name used to mount the control file.

Nonseed

.dbt

No

This type of template is used to create a new database. It contains the characteristics of the database to be created. Nonseed templates are more flexible than their seed counterparts because all data files and online redo log files are created to your specification, and names, sizes, and other attributes can be changed as required.


DBCA Templates Provided by Oracle

Oracle provides the templates shown in Table 2-2.

Table 2-2 Oracle-Provided DBCA Templates and Their Corresponding Workloads

Template Workload

Data warehouse

Users perform numerous, complex queries that process large volumes of data. Response time, accuracy, and availability are key issues.

These queries (SELECT statements) range from a fetch of a few records to queries that sort thousands of records from many different tables.

General Purpose or Transaction processing

Many concurrent users perform numerous transactions that require rapid access to data. Availability, speed, concurrency, and recoverability are key issues.

Transactions consist of reading (SELECT statements), writing (INSERT and UPDATE statements), and deleting (DELETE statements) data in database tables.

Custom database

This template allows you maximum flexibility in defining a database because you can change any of the settings for the database being created.


Creating Templates Using DBCA

Follow the instructions in this section to create your own templates.

To create templates:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Database Operation window, select Manage Templates and click Next.

  3. In the Template Management window, select Create a database template and one of the following options, and click Next.

    • From an existing template

      Using an existing template, you can create a new template based on the predefined template settings. You can add or change any template settings such as initialization parameters, storage parameters, or whether to use custom scripts.

    • From an existing database (structure only)

      You can create a new template that contains structural information from an existing database, including database options, tablespaces, data files, and initialization parameters. User-defined schemas and their data will not be part of the created template. The source database can be either local or remote. Select this option when you want the new database to be structurally similar to the source database, but not contain the same data.

    • From an existing database (structure as well as data)

      You can create a new template that has both the structural information and physical data files of an existing database. Databases created using such a template are identical to the source database. User-defined schemas and their data will be part of the created template. The source database must be local. Select this option when you want a template from which you can create an exact replica of the source database.

    When creating templates from existing databases, you can translate file paths into Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) or maintain existing file paths. OFA is a set of file naming and placement guidelines for Oracle software and databases. Using OFA is recommended if the target computer on which you plan to create a database using the template has a different directory structure than computer on which the template was defined. Standard file paths can be used if the target computer has a directory structure that is similar to the directory structure on the source computer.

  4. Follow the instructions in the DBCA guided workflow to create your template.

Deleting Templates

When you delete a template, it is no longer available to create a new database or a new template.

To delete a template:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Database Operation window, select Manage Templates and click Next.

  3. In the Template Management window, select Delete a database template and click Next.

  4. Select the template to delete and click Next.

Managing PDBs

When a CDB exists, you can use DBCA to perform the following PDB operations in the CDB:

  • Create a PDB

  • Unplug a PDB

  • Delete a PDB

Managing PDBs in a CDB using DBCA

You can create, unplug, or delete a PDB in an existing CDB using DBCA.

Note:

The PDB operations can be performed only in a CDB. DBCA issues an error message if you attempt to perform PDB operations in a database that is not a CDB.

To manage PDBs using DBCA:

  1. Start DBCA as described in "Starting DBCA".

  2. In the Manage Pluggable Databases window, select one of the PDB operations and click Next.

  3. In the Database List window, select the CDB in which to perform the selected PDB operation and click Next.

  4. Follow the instructions in the DBCA guided workflow for the selected PDB operation.

See Also:

Oracle Database Concepts and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about CDBs and PDBs

Installation: Oracle By Example Series

Oracle By Example (OBE) has a series on the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA guide. This OBE steps you through the tasks in this chapter and includes annotated screenshots.

To view the Installing Oracle Database Software and Creating a Database OBE, enter the following URL in your web browser:

https://apex.oracle.com/pls/apex/f?p=44785:24:0::NO:24:P24_CONTENT_ID,P24_PREV_PAGE:6281,1