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SQL*Plus® User's Guide and Reference
Release 12.1

E18404-12
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STARTUP

Syntax

STARTUP db_options | cdb_options | upgrade_options

where db options has the following syntax:

[FORCE] [RESTRICT] [PFILE=filename] [QUIET] [ MOUNT [dbname] | [ OPEN [open_db_options] [dbname] ] | NOMOUNT ]

where open_db_options has the following syntax:

READ {ONLY | WRITE [RECOVER]} | RECOVER

where cdb_options has the following syntax:

root_connection_options | pdb_connection_options

where root_connection_options has the following syntax:

PLUGGABLE DATABASE pdbname [FORCE] | [UPGRADE] | [RESTRICT] [ OPEN {open_pdb_options}]

where pdb_connection_options has the following syntax:

[FORCE] | [UPGRADE] | [RESTRICT] [ OPEN {open_pdb_options}]

where open_pdb_options has the following syntax:

READ WRITE | READ ONLY

and where upgrade_options has the following syntax:

[PFILE=filename] {UPGRADE | DOWNGRADE} [QUIET]

Starts an Oracle Database instance with several options, including mounting and opening a database.

Prerequisites for a PDB STARTUP

When the current container is a pluggable database (PDB), the STARTUP command can only be used if:

  • The current user has SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSBACKUP, or SYSDG system privilege.

  • The privilege is either commonly granted or locally granted in the PDB.

  • The current user exercises the privilege using AS SYSDBA, AS SYSOPER, SYSBACKUP, or AS SYSDG at connect time.

  • The PDB is in MOUNTED mode, excluding the use of the FORCE option.

  • The PDB must be in READ ONLY or READ WRITE mode to be in mounted mode.

For more information, see the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide

Note:

Only use db_options to start a Database (Consolidated or otherwise)

Only use root_connection_options to start a Pluggable Database while connected to the Root.

Only use pdb_options to start a Pluggable Database to which you are connected.

Only use upgrade_options to start a Database (Consolidated or otherwise) for upgrade or downgrade.

If neither READ WRITE nor READ ONLY is specified, a PDB will be opened in READ ONLY if a CDB to which it belongs is used as a physical standby database, otherwise the PDB will be opened READ WRITE.

For more information about using Consolidated and Pluggable Databases, see the Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.

Terms

FORCE

Shuts down the current Oracle Database instance (if it is running) with SHUTDOWN mode ABORT, before restarting it. If the current instance is running and FORCE is not specified, an error results. FORCE is useful while debugging and under abnormal circumstances. It should not normally be used.

RESTRICT

Only enables Oracle Database users with the RESTRICTED SESSION system privilege to connect to the database. Later, you can use the ALTER SYSTEM command to disable the restricted session feature.

PFILE=filename

Specifies the client parameter file to be used while starting the instance. If PFILE is not specified, the server attempts to access a default server parameter file (spfile). If the default spfile isn't found, the server then attempts to access a default pfile. The default files are platform specific. For example, the default file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/init$ORACLE_SID.ora on UNIX, and ORACLE_HOME\database\initORCL.ora on Windows.

QUIET

Suppresses the display of System Global Area information for the starting instance.

MOUNT dbname

Mounts a database but does not open it.

dbname is the name of the database to mount or open. If no database name is specified, the database name is taken from the initialization parameter DB_NAME.

OPEN

Mounts and opens the specified database.

NOMOUNT

Causes the database not to be mounted upon instance startup.

Cannot be used with MOUNT, or OPEN.

RECOVER

Specifies that media recovery should be performed, if necessary, before starting the instance. STARTUP RECOVER has the same effect as issuing the RECOVER DATABASE command and starting an instance. Only complete recovery is possible with the RECOVER option.

Recovery proceeds, if necessary, as if AUTORECOVERY is set to ON, regardless of whether or not AUTORECOVERY is enabled. If a redo log file is not found in the expected location, recovery continues as if AUTORECOVERY is disabled, by prompting you with the suggested location and name of the subsequent log files that need to be applied.

UPGRADE

Starts the database in OPEN UPGRADE mode and sets system initialization parameters to specific values required to enable database upgrade scripts to be run. UPGRADE should only be used when a database is first started with a new version of the Oracle Database Server.

See the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details about preparing for, testing and implementing a database version upgrade.

When run, upgrade scripts transform an installed version or release of an Oracle database into a later version, for example, to upgrade an Oracle9i database to Oracle Database 10g. Once the upgrade completes, the database should be shut down and restarted normally.

DOWNGRADE

Starts the database in OPEN DOWNGRADE mode and sets system initialization parameters to specific values required to enable database downgrade scripts to be run.

See the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details about preparing for, testing and implementing a database version downgrade.

When run, downgrade scripts transform an installed version or release of Oracle Database into a previous version, for example, to downgrade an Oracle10g database to an Oracle9i database. Once the downgrade completes, the database should be shut down and restarted normally.

PLUGGABLE DATABASE

Use the pluggable database pdbname option to specify the plugggable database on which you want the STARTUP command to act.

Usage

You must be connected to a database as SYSDBA, SYSOPER, SYSBACKUP, or SYSDG. You cannot be connected to a shared server via a dispatcher.

STARTUP with no arguments is equivalent to STARTUP OPEN.

STARTUP OPEN RECOVER mounts and opens the database even when recovery fails.

Examples

To start a CDB or non CDB instance using the standard parameter file, mount the default database, and open the database, enter

STARTUP 

or enter

STARTUP OPEN database 

To start an instance using the standard parameter file, mount the default database, and open the database, enter

STARTUP FORCE RESTRICT MOUNT 

To start an instance using the parameter file TESTPARM without mounting the database, enter

STARTUP PFILE=testparm NOMOUNT 

To shutdown a particular database, immediately restart and open it, allow access only to users with the RESTRICTED SESSION privilege, and use the parameter file MYINIT.ORA. enter

STARTUP FORCE RESTRICT PFILE=myinit.ora OPEN database 

To startup an instance and mount but not open a database, enter

CONNECT / as SYSDBA 
Connected to an idle instance.

STARTUP MOUNT 
ORACLE instance started. 
 
Total System Global Area                              7629732 bytes
Fixed Size                                              60324 bytes
Variable Size                                         6627328 bytes
Database Buffers                                       409600 bytes
Redo Buffers                                           532480 bytes

To startup a PDB from a PDB container, enter the following sequence

CONNECT SYS/<password>@CDB1_PDB1 AS SYSDBA
Connected.

SHOW CON_NAME
CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB1_PDB1

SHOW PDBS
    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
         3 CDB1_PDB1                      MOUNTED

STARTUP
Pluggable Database opened.

SHOW PDBS
    CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
         3 CDB1_PDB1                      READ WRITE NO

To startup a PDB from root, enter the following sequence

CONNECT / AS SYSDBA
Connected.

SHOW CON_NAME
CON_NAME
------------------------------
CDB$ROOT

SHOW PDBS
     CON_ID CON_NAME                       OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------------------------ ---------- ----------
          2 PDB$SEED                       READ ONLY  NO
          3 CDB1_PDB1                      MOUNTED

STARTUP PLUGGABLE DATABASE CDB1_PDB1
Pluggable Database opened.

SHOW PDBS
     CON_ID CON_NAME     OPEN MODE  RESTRICTED
---------- ------------- ---------- ----------
          2 PDB$SEED     READ ONLY  NO
          3 CDB1_PDB1    READ WRITE NO