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Oracle® Database Express Edition 2 Day Developer's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

E18147-13
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9 Developing a Simple Oracle Database Express Edition Application

This chapter shows how to develop a simple Oracle Database Express Edition application.

This chapter contains:

About the Application

This section contains:

Purpose of the Application

The application is intended for two kinds of users in a company:

  • Typical users (managers of employees)

  • Application administrators

Typical users can do the following:

  • Get the employees in a given department

  • Get the job history for a given employee

  • Show general information for a given employee (name, department, job, manager, salary, and so on)

  • Change the salary of a given employee

  • Change the job of a given employee

Application administrators can do the following:

  • Change the ID, title, or salary range of an existing job

  • Add a new job

  • Change the ID, name, or manager of an existing department

  • Add a new department

Structure of the Application

This section contains:

Schema Objects of the Application

The application is composed of these schema objects:

  • Four tables, which store data about:

    • Jobs

    • Departments

    • Employees

    • Job history of employees

  • Four editioning views, which cover the tables, enabling you to use edition-based redefinition (EBR) to upgrade the finished application when it is in use

  • Two triggers, which enforce business rules

  • Two sequences that generate unique primary keys for new departments and new employees

  • Two packages:

    • employees_pkg, the application program interface (API) for typical users

    • admin_pkg, the API for application administrators

    The typical users and application administrators access the application only through its APIs. Therefore, they can change the data only by invoking package subprograms.

See Also:

Schemas for the Application

For security, the application uses these five schemas (or users), each of which has only the privileges that it needs:

  • app_data, who owns all the schema objects except the packages and loads its tables with data from tables in the sample schema HR

    The developers who create the packages never work in this schema. Therefore, they cannot accidently alter or drop application schema objects.

  • app_code, who owns only the package employees_pkg

    The developers of employees_pkg work in this schema.

  • app_admin, who owns only the package admin_pkg

    The developers of admin_pkg work in this schema.

  • app_user, the typical application user, who owns nothing and can only execute employees_pkg

    The middle-tier application server connects to the database in the connection pool as app_user. If this schema is compromised—by a SQL injection bug, for example—the attacker can see and change only what employees_pkg subprograms let it see and change. The attacker cannot drop tables, escalate privileges, create or alter schema objects, or anything else.

  • app_admin_user, an application administrator, who owns nothing and can only execute admin_pkg and employees_pkg

    The connection pool for this schema is very small, and only privileged users can access it. If this schema is compromised, the attacker can see and change only what admin_pkg and employees_pkg subprograms let it see and change.

Suppose that instead of app_user and app_admin_user, the application had only one schema that owned nothing and could execute both employees_pkg and admin_pkg. The connection pool for this schema would have to be large enough for both the typical users and the application administrators. If there were a SQL injection bug in employees_pkg, a typical user who exploited that bug could access admin_pkg.

Suppose that instead of app_data, app_code, and app_admin, the application had only one schema that owned all the schema objects, including the packages. The packages would then have all privileges on the tables, which would be both unnecessary and undesirable.

For example, suppose that you have an audit trail table, AUDIT_TRAIL. You want the developers of employees_pkg to be able to write to AUDIT_TRAIL, but not read or change it. You want the developers of admin_pkg to be able to read AUDIT_TRAIL and write to it, but not change it. If AUDIT_TRAIL, employees_pkg, and admin_pkg belong to the same schema, then the developers of the two packages have all privileges on AUDIT_TRAIL. However, if AUDIT_TRAIL belongs to app_data, employees_pkg belongs to app_code, and admin_pkg belongs to app_admin, then you can connect to the database as app_data and do this:

GRANT INSERT ON AUDIT_TRAIL TO app_code;
GRANT INSERT, SELECT ON AUDIT_TRAIL TO app_admin;

See Also:

Naming Conventions in the Application

The application uses these naming conventions:

Item Name
Table table#
Editioning view for table# table
Trigger on editioning view table table_{a|b}event[_fer] where:
  • a identifies an AFTER trigger.

  • b identifies a BEFORE trigger.

  • fer identifies a FOR EACH ROW trigger.

  • event identifies the event that fires the trigger. For example: i for INSERT, iu for INSERT or UPDATE, d for DELETE.

PRIMARY KEY constraint in table# table_pk
NOT NULL constraint on table#.column table_column_not_nullFoot 1 
UNIQUE constraint on table#.column table_column_uniqueFootref 1
CHECK constraint on table#.column table_column_checkFootref 1
REF constraint on table1#.column to table2#.column table1_to_table2_fkFootref 1
REF constraint on table1#.column1 to table2#.column2 table1_col1_to_table2_col2_fkFootref 1 Foot 2 
Sequence for table# table_sequence
Parameter name p_name
Local variable name l_name

Footnote 1 table, table1, and table2 are abbreviated to emp for employees, dept for departments, and job_hist for job_history.

Footnote 2 col1 and col2 are abbreviations of column names column1 and column2. A constraint name cannot have more than 30 characters.

Creating the Schemas for the Application

Using the procedure in this section, create the schemas for the application, whose names are:

  • app_data

  • app_code

  • app_admin

  • app_user

  • app_admin_user

Note:

For the following procedure, you need the name and password of a user who has the CREATE USER and DROP USER system privileges.

To create the schema (or user) schema_name:

  1. Using SQL*Plus, connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as a user with the CREATE USER and DROP USER system privileges.

    The SQL> prompt appears.

  2. In case the schema exists, drop the schema and its objects with this SQL statement:

    DROP USER schema_name CASCADE;
    

    If the schema existed, the system responds:

    User dropped.
    

    If the schema did not exist, the system responds:

    DROP USER schema_name CASCADE
              *
    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-01918: user 'schema_name' does not exist
    
  3. If schema_name is either app_data, app_code, or app_admin, then create the schema with this SQL statement:

    CREATE USER schema_name IDENTIFIED BY password
    DEFAULT TABLESPACE USERS
    QUOTA UNLIMITED ON USERS
    ENABLE EDITIONS;
    

    Otherwise, create the schema with this SQL statement:

    CREATE USER schema_name IDENTIFIED BY password
    ENABLE EDITIONS;
    

    Caution:

    Choose a secure password. For guidelines for secure passwords, see Oracle Database Security Guide.

    The system responds:

    User created.
    
  4. (Optional) In SQL Developer, create a connection for the schema, using the instructions in "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL Developer".

See Also:

Granting Privileges to the Schemas

To grant privileges to schemas, use the SQL statement GRANT. You can enter the GRANT statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. For security, grant each schema only the privileges that it needs.

This section contains:

See Also:

Granting Privileges to the app_data Schema

Grant to the app_data schema only the privileges to do the following:

  • Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO app_data;
    
  • Create the tables, views, triggers, and sequences for the application:

    GRANT CREATE TABLE, CREATE VIEW, CREATE TRIGGER, CREATE SEQUENCE TO app_data;
    
  • Load data from four tables in the sample schema HR into its own tables:

    GRANT SELECT ON HR.DEPARTMENTS TO app_data;
    GRANT SELECT ON HR.EMPLOYEES TO app_data;
    GRANT SELECT ON HR.JOB_HISTORY TO app_data;
    GRANT SELECT ON HR.JOBS TO app_data;
    

Granting Privileges to the app_code Schema

Grant to the app_code schema only the privileges to do the following:

  • Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO app_code;
    
  • Create the package employees_pkg:

    GRANT CREATE PROCEDURE TO app_code;
    
  • Create synonyms (for convenience):

    GRANT CREATE SYNONYMS TO app_code;
    

Granting Privileges to the app_admin Schema

Grant to the app_admin schema only the privileges to do the following:

  • Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO app_admin;
    
  • Create the package admin_pkg:

    GRANT CREATE PROCEDURE TO app_admin;
    
  • Create synonyms (for convenience):

    GRANT CREATE SYNONYMS TO app_admin;
    

Granting Privileges to the app_user and app_admin_user Schemas

Grant to the app_user and app_admin_user schemas only the privileges to do the following:

  • Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition:

    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO app_user;
    GRANT CREATE SESSION TO app_admin_user;
    
  • Create synonyms (for convenience):

    GRANT CREATE SYNONYMS TO app_user;
    GRANT CREATE SYNONYMS TO app_admin_user;
    

Creating the Schema Objects and Loading the Data

This section shows how to create the tables, editioning views, triggers, and sequences for the application, how to load data into the tables, and how to grant privileges on these schema objects to the users that need them.

To create the schema objects and load the data:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

    For instructions, see either "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL*Plus" or "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL Developer".

  2. Create the tables, with all necessary constraints except the foreign key constraint that you must add after you load the data.

  3. Create the editioning views.

  4. Create the triggers.

  5. Create the sequences.

  6. Load the data into the tables.

  7. Add the foreign key constraint.

This section contains:

Creating the Tables

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

This section shows how to create the tables for the application, with all necessary constraints except one, which you must add after you load the data.

In the following procedure, you can enter the statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the tables with the SQL Developer tool Create Table.

To create the tables:

  1. Create jobs#, which stores information about the jobs in the company (one row for each job):

    CREATE TABLE jobs#
    ( job_id      VARCHAR2(10)
                  CONSTRAINT jobs_pk PRIMARY KEY,
      job_title   VARCHAR2(35)
                  CONSTRAINT jobs_job_title_not_null NOT NULL,
      min_salary  NUMBER(6)
                  CONSTRAINT jobs_min_salary_not_null NOT NULL,
      max_salary  NUMBER(6)
                  CONSTRAINT jobs_max_salary_not_null NOT NULL
    )
    /
    
  2. Create departments#, which stores information about the departments in the company (one row for each department):

    CREATE TABLE departments#
    ( department_id    NUMBER(4)
                       CONSTRAINT departments_pk PRIMARY KEY,
      department_name  VARCHAR2(30)
                       CONSTRAINT department_name_not_null NOT NULL
                       CONSTRAINT department_name_unique UNIQUE,
      manager_id       NUMBER(6)
    )
    /
    
  3. Create employees#, which stores information about the employees in the company (one row for each employee):

    CREATE TABLE employees#
    ( employee_id     NUMBER(6)
                      CONSTRAINT employees_pk PRIMARY KEY,
      first_name      VARCHAR2(20)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_first_name_not_null NOT NULL,
      last_name       VARCHAR2(25)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_last_name_not_null NOT NULL,
      email_addr      VARCHAR2(25) 
                      CONSTRAINT emp_email_addr_not_null NOT NULL,
      hire_date       DATE
                      DEFAULT TRUNC(SYSDATE)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_hire_date_not_null NOT NULL
                      CONSTRAINT emp_hire_date_check
                        CHECK(TRUNC(hire_date) = hire_date),
      country_code    VARCHAR2(5)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_country_code_not_null NOT NULL,
      phone_number    VARCHAR2(20)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_phone_number_not_null NOT NULL,
      job_id          CONSTRAINT emp_job_id_not_null NOT NULL
                      CONSTRAINT emp_jobs_fk REFERENCES jobs#,
      job_start_date  DATE
                      CONSTRAINT emp_job_start_date_not_null NOT NULL,
                      CONSTRAINT emp_job_start_date_check
                        CHECK(TRUNC(JOB_START_DATE) = job_start_date),
      salary          NUMBER(6)
                      CONSTRAINT emp_salary_not_null NOT NULL,
      manager_id      CONSTRAINT emp_mgr_to_empno_fk REFERENCES employees#,
      department_id   CONSTRAINT emp_to_dept_fk REFERENCES departments#
    )
    /
    

    The reasons for the REF constraints are:

    • An employee must have an existing job. That is, values in the column employees#.job_id must also be values in the column jobs#.job_id.

    • An employee must have a manager who is also an employee. That is, values in the column employees#.manager_id must also be values in the column employees#.employee_id.

    • An employee must work in an existing department. That is, values in the column employees#.department_id must also be values in the column departments#.department_id.

    Also, the manager of an employee must be the manager of the department in which the employee works. That is, values in the column employees#.manager_id must also be values in the column departments#.manager_id. However, you could not specify the necessary constraint when you created departments#, because employees# did not exist yet. Therefore, you must add a foreign key constraint to departments# later (see "Adding the Foreign Key Constraint").

  4. Create job_history#, which stores the job history of each employee in the company (one row for each job held by the employee):

    CREATE TABLE job_history#
    ( employee_id  CONSTRAINT job_hist_to_employees_fk REFERENCES employees#,
      job_id       CONSTRAINT job_hist_to_jobs_fk REFERENCES jobs#,
      start_date   DATE
                   CONSTRAINT job_hist_start_date_not_null NOT NULL,
      end_date     DATE
                   CONSTRAINT job_hist_end_date_not_null NOT NULL,
      department_id
                 CONSTRAINT job_hist_to_departments_fk REFERENCES departments#
                 CONSTRAINT job_hist_dept_id_not_null NOT NULL,
                 CONSTRAINT job_history_pk PRIMARY KEY(employee_id,start_date),
                 CONSTRAINT job_history_date_check CHECK( start_date < end_date )
    )
    /
    

    The reasons for the REF constraints are that the employee, job, and department must exist. That is:

    • Values in the column job_history#.employee_id must also be values in the column employees#.employee_id.

    • Values in the column job_history#.job_id must also be values in the column jobs#.job_id.

    • Values in the column job_history#.department_id must also be values in the column departments#.department_id.

Creating the Editioning Views

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

To create the editioning views, use the following statements (in any order). You can enter the statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the tables with the SQL Developer tool Create View.

CREATE EDITIONING VIEW jobs AS SELECT * FROM jobs#
/
CREATE EDITIONING VIEW departments AS SELECT * FROM departments#
/
CREATE EDITIONING VIEW employees AS SELECT * FROM employees#
/
CREATE EDITIONING VIEW job_history AS SELECT * FROM job_history#
/

Note:

The application must always reference the base tables through the editioning views. Otherwise, the editioning views do not cover the tables and you cannot use EBR to upgrade the finished application when it is in use.

See Also:

Creating the Triggers

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

The triggers in the application enforce these business rules:

  • An employee with job j must have a salary between the minimum and maximum salaries for job j.

  • If an employee with job j has salary s, then you cannot change the minimum salary for j to a value greater than s or the maximum salary for j to a value less than s. (To do so would make existing data invalid.)

This section contains:

See Also:

Chapter 6, "Using Triggers," for information about triggers

Creating the Trigger to Enforce the First Business Rule

The first business rule is: An employee with job j must have a salary between the minimum and maximum salaries for job j.

This rule could be violated either when a new row is inserted into the employees table or when the salary or job_id column of the employees table is updated.

To enforce the rule, create the following trigger on the editioning view employees. You can enter the CREATE TRIGGER statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the trigger with the SQL Developer tool Create Trigger.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER employees_aiufer
AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OF salary, job_id ON employees FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  l_cnt NUMBER;
BEGIN
  LOCK TABLE jobs IN SHARE MODE;  -- Ensure that jobs does not change
                                  -- during the following query.
  SELECT COUNT(*) INTO l_cnt
  FROM jobs
  WHERE job_id = :NEW.job_id
  AND :NEW.salary BETWEEN min_salary AND max_salary;
 
  IF (l_cnt<>1) THEN
    RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR( -20002,
      CASE
        WHEN :new.job_id = :old.job_id
        THEN 'Salary modification invalid'
        ELSE 'Job reassignment puts salary out of range'
      END );
  END IF;
END;
/

LOCK TABLE jobs IN SHARE MODE prevents other users from changing the table jobs while the trigger is querying it. Preventing changes to jobs during the query is necessary because nonblocking reads prevent the trigger from "seeing" changes that other users make to jobs while the trigger is changing employees (and prevent those users from "seeing" the changes that the trigger makes to employees).

Another way to prevent changes to jobs during the query is to include the FOR UPDATE clause in the SELECT statement. However, SELECT FOR UPDATE restricts concurrency more than LOCK TABLE IN SHARE MODE does.

LOCK TABLE jobs IN SHARE MODE prevents other users from changing jobs, but not from locking jobs in share mode themselves. Changes to jobs will probably be much rarer than changes to employees. Therefore, locking jobs in share mode provides more concurrency than locking a single row of jobs in exclusive mode.

See Also:

Creating the Trigger to Enforce the Second Business Rule

The second business rule is: If an employee with job j has salary s, then you cannot change the minimum salary for j to a value greater than s or the maximum salary for j to a value less than s. (To do so would make existing data invalid.)

This rule could be violated when the min_salary or max_salary column of the jobs table is updated.

To enforce the rule, create the following trigger on the editioning view jobs. You can enter the CREATE TRIGGER statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the trigger with the SQL Developer tool Create Trigger.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER jobs_aufer
AFTER UPDATE OF min_salary, max_salary ON jobs FOR EACH ROW
WHEN (NEW.min_salary > OLD.min_salary OR NEW.max_salary < OLD.max_salary)
DECLARE
  l_cnt NUMBER;
BEGIN
  LOCK TABLE employees IN SHARE MODE;

  SELECT COUNT(*) INTO l_cnt
  FROM employees
  WHERE job_id = :NEW.job_id
  AND salary NOT BETWEEN :NEW.min_salary and :NEW.max_salary;

  IF (l_cnt>0) THEN
    RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR( -20001,
      'Salary update would violate ' || l_cnt || ' existing employee records' );
  END IF;
END;
/

LOCK TABLE employees IN SHARE MODE prevents other users from changing the table employees while the trigger is querying it. Preventing changes to employees during the query is necessary because nonblocking reads prevent the trigger from "seeing" changes that other users make to employees while the trigger is changing jobs (and prevent those users from "seeing" the changes that the trigger makes to jobs).

For this trigger, SELECT FOR UPDATE is not an alternative to LOCK TABLE IN SHARE MODE. While you are trying to change the salary range for this job, this trigger must prevent other users from changing a salary to be outside the new range. Therefore, the trigger must lock all rows in the employees table that have this job_id and lock all rows that someone could update to have this job_id.

One alternative to LOCK TABLE employees IN SHARE MODE is to use the DBMS_LOCK package to create a named lock with the name of the job_id and then use triggers on both the employees and jobs tables to use this named lock to prevent concurrent updates. However, using DBMS_LOCK and multiple triggers negatively impacts runtime performance.

Another alternative to LOCK TABLE employees IN SHARE MODE is to create a trigger on the employees table which, for each changed row of employees, locks the corresponding job row in jobs. However, this approach causes excessive work on updates to the employees table, which are frequent.

LOCK TABLE employees IN SHARE MODE is simpler than the preceding alternatives, and changes to the jobs table are rare and likely to happen at application maintenance time, when locking the table does not inconvenience users.

Creating the Sequences

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

To create the sequences that generate unique primary keys for new departments and new employees, use the following statements (in either order). You can enter the statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the sequences with the SQL Developer tool Create Sequence.

CREATE SEQUENCE employees_sequence START WITH 210;
CREATE SEQUENCE departments_sequence START WITH 275;

To avoid conflict with the data that you will load from tables in the sample schema HR, the starting numbers for employees_sequence and departments_sequence must exceed the maximum values of employees.employee_id and departments.department_id, respectively. After "Loading the Data", this query displays these maximum values:

SELECT MAX(e.employee_id), MAX(d.department_id)
FROM employees e, departments d;
 

Result:

MAX(E.EMPLOYEE_ID) MAX(D.DEPARTMENT_ID)
------------------ --------------------
               206                  270

Loading the Data

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

Load the tables of the application with data from tables in the sample schema HR.

Note:

The following procedure references the tables of the application through their editioning views.

In the following procedure, you can enter the statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer.

To load data into the tables:

  1. Load jobs with data from the table HR.JOBS:

    INSERT INTO jobs (job_id, job_title, min_salary, max_salary)
    SELECT job_id, job_title, min_salary, max_salary
      FROM HR.JOBS
    /
    

    Result:

    19 rows created.
    
  2. Load departments with data from the table HR.DEPARTMENTS:

    INSERT INTO departments (department_id, department_name, manager_id)
    SELECT department_id, department_name, manager_id
      FROM HR.DEPARTMENTS
    /
    

    Result:

    27 rows created.
    
  3. Load employees with data from the tables HR.EMPLOYEES and HR.JOB_HISTORY, using searched CASE expressions and SQL functions to get employees.country_code and employees.phone_number from HR.phone_number and SQL functions and a scalar subquery to get employees.job_start_date from HR.JOB_HISTORY:

    INSERT INTO employees (employee_id, first_name, last_name, email_addr,
      hire_date, country_code, phone_number, job_id, job_start_date, salary,
      manager_id, department_id)
    SELECT employee_id, first_name, last_name, email, hire_date,
      CASE WHEN phone_number LIKE '011.%'
        THEN '+' || SUBSTR( phone_number, INSTR( phone_number, '.' )+1,
          INSTR( phone_number, '.', 1, 2 ) -  INSTR( phone_number, '.' ) - 1 )
        ELSE '+1'
      END country_code,
      CASE WHEN phone_number LIKE '011.%'
        THEN SUBSTR( phone_number, INSTR(phone_number, '.', 1, 2 )+1 )
        ELSE phone_number
      END phone_number,
      job_id,
      NVL( (SELECT MAX(end_date+1)
            FROM HR.JOB_HISTORY jh
            WHERE jh.employee_id = employees.employee_id), hire_date),
      salary, manager_id, department_id  
      FROM HR.EMPLOYEES
    /
    

    Result:

    107 rows created.
    

    Note:

    The preceding INSERT statement fires the trigger created in "Creating the Trigger to Enforce the First Business Rule".
  4. Load job_history with data from the table HR.JOB_HISTORY:

    INSERT INTO job_history (employee_id, job_id, start_date, end_date,
      department_id)
    SELECT employee_id, job_id, start_date, end_date, department_id
      FROM HR.JOB_HISTORY
    /
    

    Result:

    10 rows created.
    
  5. Commit the changes:

    COMMIT;
    

Adding the Foreign Key Constraint

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

Now that the tables departments and employees contain data, add a foreign key constraint with the following ALTER TABLE statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can add the constraint with the SQL Developer tool Add Foreign Key.

ALTER TABLE departments#
ADD CONSTRAINT dept_to_emp_fk
FOREIGN KEY(manager_id) REFERENCES employees#;

If you add this foreign key constraint before departments# and employees# contain data, then you get this error when you try to load either of them with data:

ORA-02291: integrity constraint (APP_DATA.JOB_HIST_TO_DEPT_FK) violated - parent key not found

Granting Privileges on the Schema Objects to Users

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_data.

To grant privileges to users, use the SQL statement GRANT. You can enter the GRANT statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer.

Grant to app_code only the privileges that it needs to create employees_pkg:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON employees TO app_code;
GRANT SELECT ON departments TO app_code;
GRANT SELECT ON jobs TO app_code;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT on job_history TO app_code;
GRANT SELECT ON employees_sequence TO app_code;

Grant to app_admin only the privileges that it needs to create admin_pkg:

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON jobs TO app_admin;
GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE ON departments TO app_admin;
GRANT SELECT ON employees_sequence TO app_admin;
GRANT SELECT ON departments_sequence TO app_admin;

See Also:

Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information about the GRANT statement

Creating the employees_pkg Package

This section shows how to create the employees_pkg package, how its subprograms work, how to grant the execute privilege on the package to the users who need it, and how those users can invoke one of its subprograms.

To create the employees_pkg package:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_code.

    For instructions, see either "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL*Plus" or "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL Developer".

  2. Create these synonyms:

    CREATE SYNONYM employees FOR app_data.employees;
    CREATE SYNONYM departments FOR app_data.departments;
    CREATE SYNONYM jobs FOR app_data.jobs;
    CREATE SYNONYM job_history FOR app_data.job_history;
    

    You can enter the CREATE SYNONYM statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the tables with the SQL Developer tool Create Synonym.

  3. Create the package specification.

  4. Create the package body.

This section contains:

Creating the Package Specification for employees_pkg

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_code.

To create the package specification for employees_pkg, the API for managers, use the following CREATE PACKAGE statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the package with the SQL Developer tool Create Package.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE employees_pkg
AS
  PROCEDURE get_employees_in_dept
    ( p_deptno     IN     employees.department_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set IN OUT SYS_REFCURSOR );
 
  PROCEDURE get_job_history
    ( p_employee_id  IN     employees.department_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set   IN OUT SYS_REFCURSOR );
 
  PROCEDURE show_employee
    ( p_employee_id  IN     employees.employee_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set   IN OUT SYS_REFCURSOR );
 
  PROCEDURE update_salary
    ( p_employee_id IN employees.employee_id%TYPE,
      p_new_salary  IN employees.salary%TYPE );
 
  PROCEDURE change_job
    ( p_employee_id IN employees.employee_id%TYPE,
      p_new_job     IN employees.job_id%TYPE,
      p_new_salary  IN employees.salary%TYPE := NULL,
      p_new_dept    IN employees.department_id%TYPE := NULL );
 
END employees_pkg;
/

See Also:

Creating the Package Body for employees_pkg

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_code.

To create the package body for employees_pkg, the API for managers, use the following CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the package with the SQL Developer tool Create Body.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY employees_pkg
AS
  PROCEDURE get_employees_in_dept
    ( p_deptno     IN     employees.department_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set IN OUT SYS_REFCURSOR )
  IS
     l_cursor SYS_REFCURSOR;
  BEGIN
    OPEN p_result_set FOR
      SELECT e.employee_id,
        e.first_name || ' ' || e.last_name name,
        TO_CHAR( e.hire_date, 'Dy Mon ddth, yyyy' ) hire_date,
        j.job_title,
        m.first_name || ' ' || m.last_name manager,
        d.department_name
      FROM employees e INNER JOIN jobs j ON (e.job_id = j.job_id)
        LEFT OUTER JOIN employees m ON (e.manager_id = m.employee_id)
        INNER JOIN departments d ON (e.department_id = d.department_id)
      WHERE e.department_id = p_deptno ;
  END get_employees_in_dept;
 
  PROCEDURE get_job_history
    ( p_employee_id  IN     employees.department_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set   IN OUT SYS_REFCURSOR )
  IS 
  BEGIN
    OPEN p_result_set FOR
      SELECT e.First_name || ' ' || e.last_name name, j.job_title,
        e.job_start_date start_date,
        TO_DATE(NULL) end_date
      FROM employees e INNER JOIN jobs j ON (e.job_id = j.job_id)
      WHERE e.employee_id = p_employee_id
      UNION ALL
      SELECT e.First_name || ' ' || e.last_name name,
        j.job_title,
        jh.start_date,
        jh.end_date
      FROM employees e INNER JOIN job_history jh
        ON (e.employee_id = jh.employee_id)
        INNER JOIN jobs j ON (jh.job_id = j.job_id)
      WHERE e.employee_id = p_employee_id
      ORDER BY start_date DESC;
  END get_job_history;
 
  PROCEDURE show_employee
    ( p_employee_id  IN     employees.employee_id%TYPE,
      p_result_set   IN OUT sys_refcursor )
  IS 
  BEGIN
    OPEN p_result_set FOR
      SELECT *
      FROM (SELECT TO_CHAR(e.employee_id) employee_id,
              e.first_name || ' ' || e.last_name name,
              e.email_addr,
              TO_CHAR(e.hire_date,'dd-mon-yyyy') hire_date,
              e.country_code,
              e.phone_number,
              j.job_title,
              TO_CHAR(e.job_start_date,'dd-mon-yyyy') job_start_date,
              to_char(e.salary) salary,
              m.first_name || ' ' || m.last_name manager,
              d.department_name
            FROM employees e INNER JOIN jobs j on (e.job_id = j.job_id)
              RIGHT OUTER JOIN employees m ON (m.employee_id = e.manager_id)
              INNER JOIN departments d ON (e.department_id = d.department_id)
            WHERE e.employee_id = p_employee_id)
      UNPIVOT (VALUE FOR ATTRIBUTE IN (employee_id, name, email_addr, hire_date,
        country_code, phone_number, job_title, job_start_date, salary, manager,
        department_name) );
  END show_employee;
 
  PROCEDURE update_salary
    ( p_employee_id IN employees.employee_id%type,
      p_new_salary  IN employees.salary%type )
  IS 
  BEGIN
    UPDATE employees
    SET salary = p_new_salary
    WHERE employee_id = p_employee_id;
  END update_salary;
 
  PROCEDURE change_job
    ( p_employee_id IN employees.employee_id%TYPE,
      p_new_job     IN employees.job_id%TYPE,
      p_new_salary  IN employees.salary%TYPE := NULL,
      p_new_dept    IN employees.department_id%TYPE := NULL )
  IS
  BEGIN
    INSERT INTO job_history (employee_id, start_date, end_date, job_id,
      department_id)
    SELECT employee_id, job_start_date, TRUNC(SYSDATE), job_id, department_id
      FROM employees
      WHERE employee_id = p_employee_id;
 
    UPDATE employees
    SET job_id = p_new_job,
      department_id = NVL( p_new_dept, department_id ),
      salary = NVL( p_new_salary, salary ),
      job_start_date = TRUNC(SYSDATE)
    WHERE employee_id = p_employee_id;
  END change_job;
END employees_pkg;
/

See Also:

Tutorial: Showing How the employees_pkg Subprograms Work

Using SQL*Plus, this tutorial shows how the subprograms of the employees_pkg package work. The tutorial also shows how the trigger employees_aiufer and the CHECK constraint job_history_date_check work.

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_code from SQL*Plus.

To use SQL*Plus to show how the employees_pkg subprograms work:

  1. Use formatting commands to improve the readability of the output. For example:

    SET LINESIZE 80
    SET RECSEP WRAPPED
    SET RECSEPCHAR "="
    COLUMN NAME FORMAT A15 WORD_WRAPPED
    COLUMN HIRE_DATE FORMAT A20 WORD_WRAPPED
    COLUMN DEPARTMENT_NAME FORMAT A10 WORD_WRAPPED
    COLUMN JOB_TITLE FORMAT A29 WORD_WRAPPED
    COLUMN MANAGER FORMAT A11 WORD_WRAPPED
    
  2. Declare a bind variable for the value of the subprogram parameter p_result_set:

    VARIABLE c REFCURSOR
    
  3. Show the employees in department 90:

    EXEC employees_pkg.get_employees_in_dept( 90, :c );
    PRINT c
    

    Result:

    EMPLOYEE_ID NAME            HIRE_DATE            JOB_TITLE                 
    ----------- --------------- -------------------- --------------------------
    MANAGER     DEPARTMENT                                                          
    ----------- ----------                                                          
            100 Steven King     Tue Jun 17th, 2003   President                      
                Executive                                                         ===========================================================================
            102 Lex De Haan     Sat Jan 13th, 2001   Administration Vice President  
    Steven King Executive                                                      
    ===========================================================================
            101 Neena Kochhar   Wed Sep 21st, 2005   Administration Vice President  
    Steven King Executive                                                      
    ===========================================================================
    
  4. Show the job history of employee 101:

    EXEC employees_pkg.get_job_history( 101, :c );
    PRINT c
    

    Result:

    NAME            JOB_TITLE                     START_DAT END_DATE
    --------------- ----------------------------- --------- ---------
    Neena Kochhar   Administration Vice President 16-MAR-05          
    Neena Kochhar   Accounting Manager            28-OCT-01 15-MAR-05
    Neena Kochhar   Public Accountant             21-SEP-97 27-OCT-01
    
  5. Show general information about employee 101:

    EXEC employees_pkg.show_employee( 101, :c );
    PRINT c
     
    

    Result:

    ATTRIBUTE       VALUE
    --------------- ----------------------------------------------
    EMPLOYEE_ID     101
    NAME            Neena Kochhar
    EMAIL_ADDR      NKOCHHAR
    HIRE_DATE       21-sep-2005
    COUNTRY_CODE    +1
    PHONE_NUMBER    515.123.4568
    JOB_TITLE       Administration Vice President
    JOB_START_DATE  16-mar-05
    SALARY          17000
    MANAGER         Steven King
    DEPARTMENT_NAME Executive
     
    11 rows selected.
    
  6. Show the information about the job Administration Vice President:

    SELECT * FROM jobs WHERE job_title = 'Administration Vice President';
    

    Result:

    JOB_ID     JOB_TITLE                     MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY
    ---------- ----------------------------- ---------- ----------
    AD_VP      Administration Vice President      15000      30000
    
  7. Try to give employee 101 a new salary outside the range for her job:

    EXEC employees_pkg.update_salary( 101, 30001 );
    

    Result:

    SQL> EXEC employees_pkg.update_salary( 101, 30001 );
    BEGIN employees_pkg.update_salary( 101, 30001 ); END;
     
    *
    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-20002: Salary modification invalid
    ORA-06512: at "APP_DATA.EMPLOYEES_AIUFER", line 13
    ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'APP_DATA.EMPLOYEES_AIUFER'
    ORA-06512: at "APP_CODE.EMPLOYEES_PKG", line 77
    ORA-06512: at line 1
    
  8. Give employee 101 a new salary inside the range for her job and show general information about her again:

    EXEC employees_pkg.update_salary( 101, 18000 );
    EXEC employees_pkg.show_employee( 101, :c );
    PRINT c
    

    Result:

    ATTRIBUTE       VALUE
    --------------- ----------------------------------------------
    EMPLOYEE_ID     101
    NAME            Neena Kochhar
    EMAIL_ADDR      NKOCHHAR
    HIRE_DATE       21-sep-2005
    COUNTRY_CODE    +1
    PHONE_NUMBER    515.123.4568
    JOB_TITLE       Administration Vice President
    JOB_START_DATE  16-mar-05
    SALARY          18000
    MANAGER         Steven King
    DEPARTMENT_NAME Executive
     
    11 rows selected.
    
  9. Change the job of employee 101 to her current job with a lower salary:

    EXEC employees_pkg.change_job( 101, 'AD_VP', 17500, 90 );
    

    Result:

    SQL> exec employees_pkg.change_job( 101, 'AD_VP', 17500, 90 );
    BEGIN employees_pkg.change_job( 101, 'AD_VP', 17500, 80 ); END;
     
    *
    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-02290: check constraint (APP_DATA.JOB_HISTORY_DATE_CHECK) violated
    ORA-06512: at "APP_CODE.EMPLOYEES_PKG", line 101 
    ORA-06512: at line 1
    

See Also:

Granting the Execute Privilege to app_user and app_user_admin

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_code.

To grant the execute privilege on the package employees_pkg to app_user (typically a manager) and app_admin_user (an application administrator), use the following GRANT statements (in either order). You can enter the statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer.

GRANT EXECUTE ON employees_pkg TO app_user;
GRANT EXECUTE ON employees_pkg TO app_admin_user;

See Also:

Tutorial: Invoking get_job_history as app_user or app_admin_user

Using SQL*Plus, this tutorial shows how to invoke the subprogram app_code.employees_pkg.get_job_history as the user app_user (typically a manager) or app_admin_user (an application administrator).

To invoke employees_pkg.get_job_history as app_user or app_admin_user:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_user or app_admin_user from SQL*Plus.

    For instructions, see "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL*Plus".

  2. Create this synonym:

    CREATE SYNONYM employees_pkg FOR app_code.employees_pkg;
    
  3. Show the job history of employee 101:

    EXEC employees_pkg.get_job_history( 101, :c );
    PRINT c
    

    Result:

    NAME            JOB_TITLE                     START_DAT END_DATE
    --------------- ----------------------------- --------- ---------
    Neena Kochhar   Administration Vice President 16-MAR-05 15-MAY-12
    Neena Kochhar   Accounting Manager            28-OCT-01 15-MAR-05
    Neena Kochhar   Public Accountant             21-SEP-97 27-OCT-01
    

Creating the admin_pkg Package

This section shows how to create the admin_pkg package, how its subprograms work, how to grant the execute privilege on the package to the user who needs it, and how that user can invoke one of its subprograms.

To create the admin_pkg package:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin.

    For instructions, see either "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL*Plus" or "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL Developer".

  2. Create these synonyms:

    CREATE SYNONYM departments FOR app_data.departments;
    CREATE SYNONYM jobs FOR app_data.jobs;
    CREATE SYNONYM departments_sequence FOR app_data.departments_sequence;
    

    You can enter the CREATE SYNONYM statements either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the tables with the SQL Developer tool Create Synonym.

  3. Create the package specification.

  4. Create the package body.

This section contains:

Creating the Package Specification for admin_pkg

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin.

To create the package specification for admin_pkg, the API for application administrators, use the following CREATE PACKAGE statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the package with the SQL Developer tool Create Package.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE admin_pkg
AS
  PROCEDURE update_job
    ( p_job_id      IN jobs.job_id%TYPE,
      p_job_title   IN jobs.job_title%TYPE := NULL,
      p_min_salary  IN jobs.min_salary%TYPE := NULL,
      p_max_salary  IN jobs.max_salary%TYPE := NULL );

  PROCEDURE add_job
    ( p_job_id      IN jobs.job_id%TYPE,
      p_job_title   IN jobs.job_title%TYPE,
      p_min_salary  IN jobs.min_salary%TYPE,
      p_max_salary  IN jobs.max_salary%TYPE );

  PROCEDURE update_department
    ( p_department_id     IN departments.department_id%TYPE,
      p_department_name   IN departments.department_name%TYPE := NULL,
      p_manager_id        IN departments.manager_id%TYPE := NULL,
      p_update_manager_id IN BOOLEAN := FALSE );

  FUNCTION add_department
    ( p_department_name   IN departments.department_name%TYPE,
      p_manager_id        IN departments.manager_id%TYPE )
    RETURN departments.department_id%TYPE;

END admin_pkg;
/

See Also:

Creating the Package Body for admin_pkg

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin.

To create the package body for admin_pkg, the API for application administrators, use the following CREATE PACKAGE BODY statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer. Alternatively, you can create the package with the SQL Developer tool Create Body.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY admin_pkg
AS
  PROCEDURE update_job
    ( p_job_id      IN jobs.job_id%TYPE,
      p_job_title   IN jobs.job_title%TYPE := NULL,
      p_min_salary  IN jobs.min_salary%TYPE := NULL,
      p_max_salary  IN jobs.max_salary%TYPE := NULL )
  IS
  BEGIN
    UPDATE jobs
    SET job_title  = NVL( p_job_title, job_title ),
        min_salary = NVL( p_min_salary, min_salary ),
        max_salary = NVL( p_max_salary, max_salary )
    WHERE job_id = p_job_id;
  END update_job;

  PROCEDURE add_job
    ( p_job_id      IN jobs.job_id%TYPE,
      p_job_title   IN jobs.job_title%TYPE,
      p_min_salary  IN jobs.min_salary%TYPE,
      p_max_salary  IN jobs.max_salary%TYPE )
  IS
  BEGIN
    INSERT INTO jobs ( job_id, job_title, min_salary, max_salary )
    VALUES ( p_job_id, p_job_title, p_min_salary, p_max_salary );
  END add_job;

  PROCEDURE update_department
    ( p_department_id     IN departments.department_id%TYPE,
      p_department_name   IN departments.department_name%TYPE := NULL,
      p_manager_id        IN departments.manager_id%TYPE := NULL,
      p_update_manager_id IN BOOLEAN := FALSE )
  IS
  BEGIN
    IF ( p_update_manager_id ) THEN
      UPDATE departments
      SET department_name = NVL( p_department_name, department_name ),
          manager_id = p_manager_id
      WHERE department_id = p_department_id;
    ELSE
      UPDATE departments
      SET department_name = NVL( p_department_name, department_name )
      WHERE department_id = p_department_id;
    END IF;
  END update_department;

  FUNCTION add_department
    ( p_department_name   IN departments.department_name%TYPE,
      p_manager_id        IN departments.manager_id%TYPE )
    RETURN departments.department_id%TYPE
  IS
    l_department_id departments.department_id%TYPE;
  BEGIN
    INSERT INTO departments ( department_id, department_name, manager_id )
    VALUES ( departments_sequence.NEXTVAL, p_department_name, p_manager_id );

    RETURN l_department_id;
  END add_department;

END admin_pkg;
/

See Also:

Tutorial: Showing How the admin_pkg Subprograms Work

Using SQL*Plus, this tutorial shows how the subprograms of the admin_pkg package work. The tutorial also shows how the trigger jobs_aufer works.

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin from SQL*Plus.

To show how the admin_pkg subprograms work:

  1. Show the information about the job whose ID is AD_VP:

    SELECT * FROM jobs WHERE job_id = 'AD_VP';
    

    Result:

    JOB_ID     JOB_TITLE                           MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY
    ---------- ----------------------------------- ---------- ----------
    AD_VP      Administration Vice President            15000      30000
    
  2. Increase the maximum salary for this job and show the information about it again:

    EXEC admin_pkg.update_job( 'AD_VP', p_max_salary => 31000 );
    SELECT * FROM jobs WHERE job_id = 'AD_VP';
    

    Result:

    JOB_ID     JOB_TITLE                           MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY
    ---------- ----------------------------------- ---------- ----------
    AD_VP      Administration Vice President            15000      31000
    
  3. Show the information about the job whose ID is IT_PROG:

    SELECT * FROM jobs WHERE job_id = 'IT_PROG';
    

    Result:

    JOB_ID     JOB_TITLE                           MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY
    ---------- ----------------------------------- ---------- ----------
    IT_PROG    Programmer                                4000      10000
    
  4. Try to increase the minimum salary for this job:

    EXEC admin_pkg.update_job( 'IT_PROG', p_max_salary => 4001 );
    

    Result (from SQL*Plus):

    SQL> EXEC admin_pkg.update_job( 'IT_PROG', p_max_salary => 4001 );
    BEGIN admin_pkg.update_job( 'IT_PROG', p_max_salary => 4001 ); END;
     
    *
    ERROR at line 1:
    ORA-20001: Salary update would violate 5 existing employee records
    ORA-06512: at "APP_DATA.JOBS_AUFER", line 12
    ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'APP_DATA.JOBS_AUFER'
    ORA-06512: at "APP_ADMIN.ADMIN_PKG", line 10
    ORA-06512: at line 1
    
  5. Add a new job and show the information about it:

    EXEC admin_pkg.add_job( 'AD_CLERK', 'Administrative Clerk', 3000, 7000 );
    SELECT * FROM jobs WHERE job_id = 'AD_CLERK';
    

    Result:

    JOB_ID     JOB_TITLE                           MIN_SALARY MAX_SALARY
    ---------- ----------------------------------- ---------- ----------
    AD_CLERK   Administrative Clerk                      3000       7000
    
  6. Show the information about department 100:

    SELECT * FROM departments WHERE department_id = 100;
    

    Result:

    DEPARTMENT_ID DEPARTMENT_NAME                MANAGER_ID
    ------------- ------------------------------ ----------
              100 Finance                               108
    
  7. Change the name and manager of department 100 and show the information about it:

    EXEC admin_pkg.update_department( 100, 'Financial Services' );
    EXEC admin_pkg.update_department( 100, p_manager_id => 111,
      p_update_manager_id => true );
    SELECT * FROM departments WHERE department_id = 100;
    

    Result:

    DEPARTMENT_ID DEPARTMENT_NAME                MANAGER_ID
    ------------- ------------------------------ ----------
              100 Financial Services                    111
    

Granting the Execute Privilege to app_user_admin

Note:

You must be connected to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin.

To grant the execute privilege on the package admin_pkg to app_admin_user (an application administrator), use the following GRANT statement. You can enter the statement either in SQL*Plus or in the Worksheet of SQL Developer.

GRANT EXECUTE ON admin_pkg TO app_admin_user;

See Also:

Tutorial: Invoking add_department as app_admin_user

Using SQL*Plus, this tutorial shows how to invoke the function app_admin.admin_pkg.add_department as the user app_admin_user (an application administrator) and then see the information about the new department.

To invoke admin_pkg.add_department as app_admin_user:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin_user from SQL*Plus.

    For instructions, see "Connecting to Oracle Database Express Edition from SQL*Plus".

  2. Create this synonym:

    CREATE SYNONYM admin_pkg FOR app_admin.admin_pkg;
    
  3. Declare a bind variable for the return value of the function:

    VARIABLE n NUMBER
    
  4. Add a new department without a manager:

    EXEC :n := admin_pkg.add_department( 'New department', NULL );
    
  5. Show the ID of the manager of the new department:

    PRINT :n
    

    Result:

             N
    ----------
           275
    

To see the information about the new department:

  1. Connect to Oracle Database Express Edition as user app_admin.

  2. Show the information about the new department:

    SELECT * FROM departments WHERE department_name LIKE 'New department%';
    

    Result:

    DEPARTMENT_ID DEPARTMENT_NAME                MANAGER_ID
    ------------- ------------------------------ ----------
              275 New department