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java.io
Class PrintStream


java.lang.Object
  extended by java.io.OutputStream
      extended by java.io.FilterOutputStream
          extended by java.io.PrintStream
All Implemented Interfaces:
Appendable , Closeable
Direct Known Subclasses:
LogStream

public class PrintStream
extends FilterOutputStream
implements Appendable , Closeable

A PrintStream adds functionality to another output stream, namely the ability to print representations of various data values conveniently. Two other features are provided as well. Unlike other output streams, a PrintStream never throws an IOException; instead, exceptional situations merely set an internal flag that can be tested via the checkError method. Optionally, a PrintStream can be created so as to flush automatically; this means that the flush method is automatically invoked after a byte array is written, one of the println methods is invoked, or a newline character or byte ('\n') is written.

All characters printed by a PrintStream are converted into bytes using the platform's default character encoding. The PrintWriter class should be used in situations that require writing characters rather than bytes.

Since:
JDK1.0

Field Summary
 
Fields inherited from class java.io. FilterOutputStream
out
 
Constructor Summary
PrintStream ( OutputStream  out)
          Create a new print stream.
PrintStream ( OutputStream  out, boolean autoFlush)
          Create a new print stream.
PrintStream ( OutputStream  out, boolean autoFlush, String  encoding)
          Create a new print stream.
PrintStream ( String
          Creates a new print stream, without automatic line flushing, with the specified file name and charset.
PrintStream ( String  fileName, String
          Creates a new print stream, without automatic line flushing, with the specified file name and charset.
 
Method Summary
  PrintStream append (char c)
          Appends the specified character to this output stream.
  PrintStream append ( CharSequence
          Appends the specified character sequence to this output stream.
 boolean checkError ()
          Flush the stream and check its error state.
 void close ()
          Close the stream.
 void flush ()
          Flush the stream.
  PrintStream format ( Locale  l, String  format, Object
          Writes a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.
  PrintStream format ( String  format, Object
          Writes a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.
 void print (boolean b)
          Print a boolean value.
 void print (char c)
          Print a character.
 void print (char[] s)
          Print an array of characters.
 void print (double d)
          Print a double-precision floating-point number.
 void print (float f)
          Print a floating-point number.
 void print (int i)
          Print an integer.
 void print (long l)
          Print a long integer.
 void print ( Object  obj)
          Print an object.
 void print ( String  s)
          Print a string.
  PrintStream printf ( Locale  l, String  format, Object
          A convenience method to write a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.
  PrintStream printf ( String  format, Object
          A convenience method to write a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.
 void println ()
          Terminate the current line by writing the line separator string.
 void println (boolean x)
          Print a boolean and then terminate the line.
 void println (char x)
          Print a character and then terminate the line.
 void println (char[] x)
          Print an array of characters and then terminate the line.
 void println (double x)
          Print a double and then terminate the line.
 void println (float x)
          Print a float and then terminate the line.
 void println (int x)
          Print an integer and then terminate the line.
 void println (long x)
          Print a long and then terminate the line.
 void println ( Object  x)
          Print an Object and then terminate the line.
 void println ( String  x)
          Print a String and then terminate the line.
protected  void setError ()
          Set the error state of the stream to true.
 void write (byte[] buf, int off, int len)
          Write len bytes from the specified byte array starting at offset off to this stream.
 void write (int b)
          Write the specified byte to this stream.
 
Methods inherited from class java.io. FilterOutputStream
write
 
Methods inherited from class java.lang. Object
clone , equals , finalize , getClass , hashCode , notify , notifyAll , toString , wait , wait , wait
 

Constructor Detail

PrintStream


public PrintStream(OutputStream out)
Create a new print stream. This stream will not flush automatically.

Parameters:
out - The output stream to which values and objects will be printed
See Also:
PrintWriter.PrintWriter(java.io.OutputStream)

PrintStream


public PrintStream(OutputStream out,
                   boolean autoFlush)
Create a new print stream.

Parameters:
out - The output stream to which values and objects will be printed
autoFlush - A boolean; if true, the output buffer will be flushed whenever a byte array is written, one of the println methods is invoked, or a newline character or byte ('\n') is written
See Also:
PrintWriter.PrintWriter(java.io.OutputStream, boolean)

PrintStream


public PrintStream(OutputStream out,
                   boolean autoFlush,
                   String encoding)
            throws UnsupportedEncodingException
Create a new print stream.

Parameters:
out - The output stream to which values and objects will be printed
autoFlush - A boolean; if true, the output buffer will be flushed whenever a byte array is written, one of the println methods is invoked, or a newline character or byte ('\n') is written
encoding - The name of a supported character encoding
Throws:
UnsupportedEncodingException - If the named encoding is not supported

PrintStream


 
public PrintStream ( String fileName)
 throws FileNotFoundException
Creates a new print stream, without automatic line flushing, with the specified file name and charset. This convenience constructor creates the necessary intermediate OutputStreamWriter , which will convert characters using the default charset.

If there is a security manager , its checkWrite method is called with fileName as its argument.

The charset used is the default charset for this instance of the Java virtual machine.

Parameters:
fileName - The name of the file to use as the destination of this formatter. The output will be written to the beginning of the file and is not buffered.
Throws:
FileNotFoundException - If the file exists but is a directory rather than a regular file, does not exist and cannot be created, or cannot be opened for any other reason
SecurityException - If a security manager exists and its checkWrite method denies write access to the file.
Since:
1.5

PrintStream


 
public PrintStream ( String fileName,
 String csn)
 throws FileNotFoundException,
 UnsupportedEncodingException
Creates a new print stream, without automatic line flushing, with the specified file name and charset. This convenience constructor creates the necessary intermediate OutputStreamWriter , which will convert characters using the provided charset.

If there is a security manager , its checkWrite method is called with fileName as its argument.

Parameters:
fileName - The name of the file to use as the destination of this formatter. The output will be written to the beginning of the file and is not buffered.
csn - The name of a supported charset
Throws:
FileNotFoundException - If the file exists but is a directory rather than a regular file, does not exist and cannot be created, or cannot be opened for any other reason
SecurityException - If a security manager exists and its checkWrite method denies write access to the file.
UnsupportedEncodingException - If the named charset is not supported
Since:
1.5
Method Detail

flush


public void flush()
Flush the stream. This is done by writing any buffered output bytes to the underlying output stream and then flushing that stream.

Overrides:
flush in class FilterOutputStream
See Also:
OutputStream.flush()

close


public void close()
Close the stream. This is done by flushing the stream and then closing the underlying output stream.

Specified by:
close in interface Closeable
Overrides:
close in class FilterOutputStream
See Also:
OutputStream.close()

checkError


public boolean checkError()
Flush the stream and check its error state. The internal error state is set to true when the underlying output stream throws an IOException other than InterruptedIOException, and when the setError method is invoked. If an operation on the underlying output stream throws an InterruptedIOException, then the PrintStream converts the exception back into an interrupt by doing:
     Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
 
or the equivalent.

Returns:
True if and only if this stream has encountered an IOException other than InterruptedIOException, or the setError method has been invoked

setError


protected void setError()
Set the error state of the stream to true.

Since:
JDK1.1

write


public void write(int b)
Write the specified byte to this stream. If the byte is a newline and automatic flushing is enabled then the flush method will be invoked.

Note that the byte is written as given; to write a character that will be translated according to the platform's default character encoding, use the print(char) or println(char) methods.

Overrides:
write in class FilterOutputStream
Parameters:
b - The byte to be written
See Also:
print(char) , println(char)

write


public void write(byte[] buf,
                  int off,
                  int len)
Write len bytes from the specified byte array starting at offset off to this stream. If automatic flushing is enabled then the flush method will be invoked.

Note that the bytes will be written as given; to write characters that will be translated according to the platform's default character encoding, use the print(char) or println(char) methods.

Overrides:
write in class FilterOutputStream
Parameters:
buf - A byte array
off - Offset from which to start taking bytes
len - Number of bytes to write
See Also:
FilterOutputStream.write(int)

print


public void print(boolean b)
Print a boolean value. The string produced by String.valueOf(boolean) is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
b - The boolean to be printed

print


public void print(char c)
Print a character. The character is translated into one or more bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
c - The char to be printed

print


public void print(int i)
Print an integer. The string produced by String.valueOf(int) is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
i - The int to be printed
See Also:
Integer.toString(int)

print


public void print(long l)
Print a long integer. The string produced by String.valueOf(long) is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
l - The long to be printed
See Also:
Long.toString(long)

print


public void print(float f)
Print a floating-point number. The string produced by String.valueOf(float) is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
f - The float to be printed
See Also:
Float.toString(float)

print


public void print(double d)
Print a double-precision floating-point number. The string produced by String.valueOf(double) is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
d - The double to be printed
See Also:
Double.toString(double)

print


public void print(char[] s)
Print an array of characters. The characters are converted into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
s - The array of chars to be printed
Throws:
NullPointerException - If s is null

print


public void print(String s)
Print a string. If the argument is null then the string "null" is printed. Otherwise, the string's characters are converted into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
s - The String to be printed

print


public void print(Object obj)
Print an object. The string produced by the String.valueOf(Object) method is translated into bytes according to the platform's default character encoding, and these bytes are written in exactly the manner of the write(int) method.

Parameters:
obj - The Object to be printed
See Also:
Object.toString()

println


public void println()
Terminate the current line by writing the line separator string. The line separator string is defined by the system property line.separator, and is not necessarily a single newline character ('\n').


println


public void println(boolean x)
Print a boolean and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(boolean) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The boolean to be printed

println


public void println(char x)
Print a character and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(char) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The char to be printed.

println


public void println(int x)
Print an integer and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(int) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The int to be printed.

println


public void println(long x)
Print a long and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(long) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - a The long to be printed.

println


public void println(float x)
Print a float and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(float) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The float to be printed.

println


public void println(double x)
Print a double and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(double) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The double to be printed.

println


public void println(char[] x)
Print an array of characters and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(char[]) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - an array of chars to print.

println


public void println(String x)
Print a String and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(String) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The String to be printed.

println


public void println(Object x)
Print an Object and then terminate the line. This method behaves as though it invokes print(Object) and then println() .

Parameters:
x - The Object to be printed.

printf


 
public PrintStreamprintf ( String format,
 Object... args) 
A convenience method to write a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.

An invocation of this method of the form out.printf(format, args) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation


 out.format(format, args) 

Parameters:
format - A format string as described in Format string syntax
args - Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format string. If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments are ignored. The number of arguments is variable and may be zero. The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by the Java Virtual Machine Specification . The behaviour on a null argument depends on the conversion .
Returns:
This output stream
Throws:
IllegalFormatException - If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments, insufficient arguments given the format string, or other illegal conditions. For specification of all possible formatting errors, see the Details section of the formatter class specification.
NullPointerException - If the format is null
Since:
1.5

printf


 
public PrintStreamprintf ( Locale l,
 String format,
 Object... args) 
A convenience method to write a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.

An invocation of this method of the form out.printf(l, format, args) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation


 out.format(l, format, args) 

Parameters:
l - The locale to apply durring formatting. If l is null then no localization is applied.
format - A format string as described in Format string syntax
args - Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format string. If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments are ignored. The number of arguments is variable and may be zero. The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by the Java Virtual Machine Specification . The behaviour on a null argument depends on the conversion .
Returns:
This output stream
Throws:
IllegalFormatException - If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments, insufficient arguments given the format string, or other illegal conditions. For specification of all possible formatting errors, see the Details section of the formatter class specification.
NullPointerException - If the format is null
Since:
1.5

format


 
public PrintStreamformat ( String format,
 Object... args) 
Writes a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.

The locale always used is the one returned by Locale.getDefault() , regardless of any previous invocations of other formatting methods on this object.

Parameters:
format - A format string as described in Format string syntax
args - Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format string. If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments are ignored. The number of arguments is variable and may be zero. The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by the Java Virtual Machine Specification . The behaviour on a null argument depends on the conversion .
Returns:
This output stream
Throws:
IllegalFormatException - If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments, insufficient arguments given the format string, or other illegal conditions. For specification of all possible formatting errors, see the Details section of the formatter class specification.
NullPointerException - If the format is null
Since:
1.5

format


 
public PrintStreamformat ( Locale l,
 String format,
 Object... args) 
Writes a formatted string to this output stream using the specified format string and arguments.

Parameters:
l - The locale to apply durring formatting. If l is null then no localization is applied.
format - A format string as described in Format string syntax
args - Arguments referenced by the format specifiers in the format string. If there are more arguments than format specifiers, the extra arguments are ignored. The number of arguments is variable and may be zero. The maximum number of arguments is limited by the maximum dimension of a Java array as defined by the Java Virtual Machine Specification . The behaviour on a null argument depends on the conversion .
Returns:
This output stream
Throws:
IllegalFormatException - If a format string contains an illegal syntax, a format specifier that is incompatible with the given arguments, insufficient arguments given the format string, or other illegal conditions. For specification of all possible formatting errors, see the Details section of the formatter class specification.
NullPointerException - If the format is null
Since:
1.5

append


 
public PrintStreamappend ( CharSequence csq)
 throws IOException
Appends the specified character sequence to this output stream.

An invocation of this method of the form out.append(csq) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation


 out.print(csq.toString()) 

Depending on the specification of toString for the character sequence csq , the entire sequence may not be appended. appended. For instance, invoking then toString method of a character buffer will return a subsequence whose content depends upon the buffer's position and limit.

Specified by:
append in interface Appendable
Parameters:
csq - The character sequence to append. If csq is null , then the four characters "null" are appended to this text-output stream.
Returns:
This character stream
Throws:
IOException - If an I/O error occurs
Since:
1.5

append


 
public PrintStreamappend (char c)
 throws IOException
Appends the specified character to this output stream.

An invocation of this method of the form out.append(c) behaves in exactly the same way as the invocation


 out.print(c) 

Specified by:
append in interface Appendable
Parameters:
c - The 16-bit character to append
Returns:
This output stream
Throws:
IOException - If an I/O error occurs
Since:
1.5