8.9.8 DNS Lookup Optimization and the Host Cache

The MySQL server maintains a host cache in memory that contains information about clients: IP address, host name, and error information. The server uses this cache for nonlocal TCP connections. It does not use the cache for TCP connections established using the loopback interface address (127.0.0.1), or for connections established using a Unix socket file, named pipe, or shared memory.

For each new client connection, the server uses the client IP address to check whether the client host name is in the host cache. If not, the server attempts to resolve the host name. First, it resolves the IP address to a host name and resolves that host name back to an IP address. Then it compares the result to the original IP address to ensure that they are the same. The server stores information about the result of this operation in the host cache. If the cache is full, the least recently used entry is discarded.

The server performs host name resolution using the thread-safe gethostbyaddr_r() and gethostbyname_r() calls if the operating system supports them. Otherwise, the thread performing the lookup locks a mutex and calls gethostbyaddr() and gethostbyname() instead. In this case, no other thread can resolve host names that are not in the host cache until the thread holding the mutex lock releases it.

The server uses the host cache for several purposes:

To unblock blocked hosts, flush the host cache by issuing a FLUSH HOSTS statement or executing a mysqladmin flush-hosts command.

It is possible for a blocked host to become unblocked even without FLUSH HOSTS if activity from other hosts has occurred since the last connection attempt from the blocked host. This can occur because the server discards the least recently used cache entry to make room for a new entry if the cache is full when a connection arrives from a client IP not in the cache. If the discarded entry is for a blocked host, that host becomes unblocked.

The host cache is enabled by default. To disable it, start the server with the --skip-host-cache option.

To disable DNS host name lookups, start the server with the --skip-name-resolve option. In this case, the server uses only IP addresses and not host names to match connecting hosts to rows in the MySQL grant tables. Only accounts specified in those tables using IP addresses can be used.

If you have a very slow DNS and many hosts, you might be able to improve performance either by disabling DNS lookups with --skip-name-resolve or by increasing the HOST_CACHE_SIZE define (default value: 128) and recompiling the server

To disallow TCP/IP connections entirely, start the server with the --skip-networking option.

Some connection errors are not associated with TCP connections, occur very early in the connection process (even before an IP address is known), or are not specific to any particular IP address (such as out-of-memory conditions).