This section provides some examples that show how precision math improves query results in MySQL 5.0 compared to older versions. These examples demonstrate the principles described in Section 12.17.3, “Expression Handling”, and Section 12.17.4, “Rounding Behavior”.

**Example 1**. Numbers are used with
their exact value as given when possible.

Before MySQL 5.0.3, numbers that are treated as floating-point values produce inexact results:

mysql>+----------------+ | (.1 + .2) = .3 | +----------------+ | 1 | +----------------+`SELECT (.1 + .2) = .3;`

As of MySQL 5.0.3, numbers are used as given when possible:

mysql>+----------------+ | (.1 + .2) = .3 | +----------------+ | 1 | +----------------+`SELECT (.1 + .2) = .3;`

For floating-point values, results are inexact:

mysql>+----------------------+ | (.1E0 + .2E0) = .3E0 | +----------------------+ | 0 | +----------------------+`SELECT (.1E0 + .2E0) = .3E0;`

Another way to see the difference in exact and approximate value
handling is to add a small number to a sum many times. Consider
the following stored procedure, which adds
`.0001`

to a variable 1,000 times.

CREATE PROCEDURE p () BEGIN DECLARE i INT DEFAULT 0; DECLARE d DECIMAL(10,4) DEFAULT 0; DECLARE f FLOAT DEFAULT 0; WHILE i < 10000 DO SET d = d + .0001; SET f = f + .0001E0; SET i = i + 1; END WHILE; SELECT d, f; END;

The sum for both `d`

and `f`

logically should be 1, but that is true only for the decimal
calculation. The floating-point calculation introduces small
errors:

+--------+------------------+ | d | f | +--------+------------------+ | 1.0000 | 0.99999999999991 | +--------+------------------+

**Example 2**. Multiplication is
performed with the scale required by standard SQL. That is, for
two numbers * X1* and

`X2`

`S1`

`S2`

`S1`

+ `S2`

:
Before MySQL 5.0.3, this is what happens:

mysql>+-----------+ | .01 * .01 | +-----------+ | 0.00 | +-----------+`SELECT .01 * .01;`

The displayed value is incorrect. The value was calculated correctly in this case, but not displayed to the required scale. To see that the calculated value actually was .0001, try this:

mysql>+-------------------+ | .01 * .01 + .0000 | +-------------------+ | 0.0001 | +-------------------+`SELECT .01 * .01 + .0000;`

As of MySQL 5.0.3, the displayed scale is correct:

mysql>+-----------+ | .01 * .01 | +-----------+ | 0.0001 | +-----------+`SELECT .01 * .01;`

**Example 3**. Rounding behavior for
exact-value numbers is well-defined.

Before MySQL 5.0.3, rounding behavior (for example, with the
`ROUND()`

function) is dependent on
the implementation of the underlying C library. This results in
inconsistencies from platform to platform. For example, you might
get a different value on Windows than on Linux, or a different
value on x86 machines than on PowerPC machines.

As of MySQL 5.0.3, rounding happens like this:

Rounding for exact-value columns (

`DECIMAL`

and integer) and exact-valued numbers uses the “round half away from zero” rule. Values with a fractional part of .5 or greater are rounded away from zero to the nearest integer, as shown here:mysql>

+------------+-------------+ | ROUND(2.5) | ROUND(-2.5) | +------------+-------------+ | 3 | -3 | +------------+-------------+`SELECT ROUND(2.5), ROUND(-2.5);`

Rounding for floating-point values uses the C library, which on many systems uses the “round to nearest even” rule. Values with any fractional part on such systems are rounded to the nearest even integer:

mysql>

+--------------+---------------+ | ROUND(2.5E0) | ROUND(-2.5E0) | +--------------+---------------+ | 2 | -2 | +--------------+---------------+`SELECT ROUND(2.5E0), ROUND(-2.5E0);`

**Example 4**. In strict mode,
inserting a value that is out of range for a column causes an
error, rather than truncation to a legal value.

Before MySQL 5.0.2 (or in 5.0.2 and later, without strict mode), truncation to a legal value occurs:

mysql>Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql>`CREATE TABLE t (i TINYINT);`

Query OK, 1 row affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec) mysql>`INSERT INTO t SET i = 128;`

+------+ | i | +------+ | 127 | +------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)`SELECT i FROM t;`

As of MySQL 5.0.2, an error occurs if strict mode is in effect:

mysql>Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>`SET sql_mode='STRICT_ALL_TABLES';`

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>`CREATE TABLE t (i TINYINT);`

ERROR 1264 (22003): Out of range value adjusted for column 'i' at row 1 mysql>`INSERT INTO t SET i = 128;`

Empty set (0.00 sec)`SELECT i FROM t;`

**Example 5**: In strict mode and
with `ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO`

set, division by zero causes an error, not a result of
`NULL`

.

Before MySQL 5.0.2 (or when not using strict mode in 5.0.2 or a
later version), division by zero has a result of
`NULL`

:

mysql>Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec) mysql>`CREATE TABLE t (i TINYINT);`

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec) mysql>`INSERT INTO t SET i = 1 / 0;`

+------+ | i | +------+ | NULL | +------+ 1 row in set (0.00 sec)`SELECT i FROM t;`

As of MySQL 5.0.2, division by zero is an error if the proper SQL modes are in effect:

mysql>Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>`SET sql_mode='STRICT_ALL_TABLES,ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO';`

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec) mysql>`CREATE TABLE t (i TINYINT);`

ERROR 1365 (22012): Division by 0 mysql>`INSERT INTO t SET i = 1 / 0;`

Empty set (0.01 sec)`SELECT i FROM t;`

**Example 6**. Exact-value literals
are evaluated as exact values.

Prior to MySQL 5.0.3, exact-value and approximate-value literals both are evaluated as double-precision floating-point values:

mysql>+------------+ | VERSION() | +------------+ | 4.1.18-log | +------------+ 1 row in set (0.01 sec) mysql>`SELECT VERSION();`

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.07 sec) Records: 1 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0 mysql>`CREATE TABLE t SELECT 2.5 AS a, 25E-1 AS b;`

+-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | a | double(3,1) | | | 0.0 | | | b | double | | | 0 | | +-------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ 2 rows in set (0.04 sec)`DESCRIBE t;`

As of MySQL 5.0.3, the approximate-value literal is evaluated
using floating point, but the exact-value literal is handled as
`DECIMAL`

:

mysql>+------------+ | VERSION() | +------------+ | 5.0.19-log | +------------+ 1 row in set (0.17 sec) mysql>`SELECT VERSION();`

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.19 sec) Records: 1 Duplicates: 0 Warnings: 0 mysql>`CREATE TABLE t SELECT 2.5 AS a, 25E-1 AS b;`

+-------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +-------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | a | decimal(2,1) unsigned | NO | | 0.0 | | | b | double | NO | | 0 | | +-------+-----------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ 2 rows in set (0.02 sec)`DESCRIBE t;`

**Example 7**. If the argument to an
aggregate function is an exact numeric type, the result is also an
exact numeric type, with a scale at least that of the argument.

Consider these statements:

mysql>mysql>`CREATE TABLE t (i INT, d DECIMAL, f FLOAT);`

mysql>`INSERT INTO t VALUES(1,1,1);`

`CREATE TABLE y SELECT AVG(i), AVG(d), AVG(f) FROM t;`

Before MySQL 5.0.3, the result is a double no matter the argument type:

mysql>+--------+--------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +--------+--------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | AVG(i) | double(17,4) | YES | | NULL | | | AVG(d) | double(17,4) | YES | | NULL | | | AVG(f) | double | YES | | NULL | | +--------+--------------+------+-----+---------+-------+`DESCRIBE y;`

As of MySQL 5.0.3, the result is a double only for the floating-point argument. For exact type arguments, the result is also an exact type:

mysql>+--------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | Field | Type | Null | Key | Default | Extra | +--------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+ | AVG(i) | decimal(14,4) | YES | | NULL | | | AVG(d) | decimal(14,4) | YES | | NULL | | | AVG(f) | double | YES | | NULL | | +--------+---------------+------+-----+---------+-------+`DESCRIBE y;`

From MySQL 5.0.3 to 5.0.6, the first two columns are
`DECIMAL(64,0)`

.