13.1.1 ALTER DATABASE Syntax

ALTER {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [db_name]
    alter_specification ...
ALTER {DATABASE | SCHEMA} db_name
    UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME

alter_specification:
    [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name

ALTER DATABASE enables you to change the overall characteristics of a database. These characteristics are stored in the db.opt file in the database directory. To use ALTER DATABASE, you need the ALTER privilege on the database. ALTER SCHEMA is a synonym for ALTER DATABASE.

The database name can be omitted from the first syntax, in which case the statement applies to the default database.

National Language Characteristics

The CHARACTER SET clause changes the default database character set. The COLLATE clause changes the default database collation. Section 10.1, “Character Set Support”, discusses character set and collation names.

You can see what character sets and collations are available using, respectively, the SHOW CHARACTER SET and SHOW COLLATION statements. See Section 13.7.5.4, “SHOW CHARACTER SET Syntax”, and Section 13.7.5.5, “SHOW COLLATION Syntax”, for more information.

If you change the default character set or collation for a database, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults. (In a stored routine, variables with character data types use the database defaults if the character set or collation are not specified explicitly. See Section 13.1.15, “CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax”.)

Upgrading from Versions Older than MySQL 5.1

The syntax that includes the UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME clause was added in MySQL 5.1.23. It updates the name of the directory associated with the database to use the encoding implemented in MySQL 5.1 for mapping database names to database directory names (see Section 9.2.3, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”). This clause is for use under these conditions:

For example, if a database in MySQL 5.0 has the name a-b-c, the name contains instances of the - (dash) character. In MySQL 5.0, the database directory is also named a-b-c, which is not necessarily safe for all file systems. In MySQL 5.1 and later, the same database name is encoded as a@002db@002dc to produce a file system-neutral directory name.

When a MySQL installation is upgraded to MySQL 5.1 or later from an older version,the server displays a name such as a-b-c (which is in the old format) as #mysql50#a-b-c, and you must refer to the name using the #mysql50# prefix. Use UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME in this case to explicitly tell the server to re-encode the database directory name to the current encoding format:

ALTER DATABASE `#mysql50#a-b-c` UPGRADE DATA DIRECTORY NAME;

After executing this statement, you can refer to the database as a-b-c without the special #mysql50# prefix.