17.6.9 MySQL Cluster Backups With MySQL Cluster Replication

17.6.9.1 MySQL Cluster Replication: Automating Synchronization of the Replication Slave to the Master Binary Log
17.6.9.2 Point-In-Time Recovery Using MySQL Cluster Replication

This section discusses making backups and restoring from them using MySQL Cluster replication. We assume that the replication servers have already been configured as covered previously (see Section 17.6.5, “Preparing the MySQL Cluster for Replication”, and the sections immediately following). This having been done, the procedure for making a backup and then restoring from it is as follows:

  1. There are two different methods by which the backup may be started.

    • Method A.  This method requires that the cluster backup process was previously enabled on the master server, prior to starting the replication process. This can be done by including the following line in a [mysql_cluster] section in the my.cnf file, where management_host is the IP address or host name of the NDB management server for the master cluster, and port is the management server's port number:

      ndb-connectstring=management_host[:port]
      
      Note

      The port number needs to be specified only if the default port (1186) is not being used. See Section 17.2.3, “Initial Configuration of MySQL Cluster”, for more information about ports and port allocation in MySQL Cluster.

      In this case, the backup can be started by executing this statement on the replication master:

      shellM> ndb_mgm -e "START BACKUP"
      
    • Method B.  If the my.cnf file does not specify where to find the management host, you can start the backup process by passing this information to the NDB management client as part of the START BACKUP command. This can be done as shown here, where management_host and port are the host name and port number of the management server:

      shellM> ndb_mgm management_host:port -e "START BACKUP"
      

      In our scenario as outlined earlier (see Section 17.6.5, “Preparing the MySQL Cluster for Replication”), this would be executed as follows:

      shellM> ndb_mgm rep-master:1186 -e "START BACKUP"
      
  2. Copy the cluster backup files to the slave that is being brought on line. Each system running an ndbd process for the master cluster will have cluster backup files located on it, and all of these files must be copied to the slave to ensure a successful restore. The backup files can be copied into any directory on the computer where the slave management host resides, so long as the MySQL and NDB binaries have read permissions in that directory. In this case, we will assume that these files have been copied into the directory /var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1.

    It is not necessary that the slave cluster have the same number of ndbd processes (data nodes) as the master; however, it is highly recommended this number be the same. It is necessary that the slave be started with the --skip-slave-start option, to prevent premature startup of the replication process.

  3. Create any databases on the slave cluster that are present on the master cluster that are to be replicated to the slave.

    Important

    A CREATE DATABASE (or CREATE SCHEMA) statement corresponding to each database to be replicated must be executed on each SQL node in the slave cluster.

  4. Reset the slave cluster using this statement in the MySQL Monitor:

    mysqlS> RESET SLAVE;
    

    It is important to make sure that the slave's ndb_apply_status table does not contain any records prior to running the restore process. You can accomplish this by running this SQL statement on the slave:

    mysqlS> DELETE FROM mysql.ndb_apply_status;
    
  5. You can now start the cluster restoration process on the replication slave using the ndb_restore command for each backup file in turn. For the first of these, it is necessary to include the -m option to restore the cluster metadata:

    shellS> ndb_restore -c slave_host:port -n node-id \
            -b backup-id -m -r dir
    

    dir is the path to the directory where the backup files have been placed on the replication slave. For the ndb_restore commands corresponding to the remaining backup files, the -m option should not be used.

    For restoring from a master cluster with four data nodes (as shown in the figure in Section 17.6, “MySQL Cluster Replication”) where the backup files have been copied to the directory /var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1, the proper sequence of commands to be executed on the slave might look like this:

    shellS> ndb_restore -c rep-slave:1186 -n 2 -b 1 -m \
            -r ./var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1
    shellS> ndb_restore -c rep-slave:1186 -n 3 -b 1 \
            -r ./var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1
    shellS> ndb_restore -c rep-slave:1186 -n 4 -b 1 \
            -r ./var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1
    shellS> ndb_restore -c rep-slave:1186 -n 5 -b 1 -e \
            -r ./var/BACKUPS/BACKUP-1
    
    Important

    The -e (or --restore_epoch) option in the final invocation of ndb_restore in this example is required in order that the epoch is written to the slave mysql.ndb_apply_status. Without this information, the slave will not be able to synchronize properly with the master. (See Section 17.4.19, “ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup”.)

  6. Now you need to obtain the most recent epoch from the ndb_apply_status table on the slave (as discussed in Section 17.6.8, “Implementing Failover with MySQL Cluster Replication”):

    mysqlS> SELECT @latest:=MAX(epoch)
            FROM mysql.ndb_apply_status;
    
  7. Using @latest as the epoch value obtained in the previous step, you can obtain the correct starting position @pos in the correct binary log file @file from the master's mysql.ndb_binlog_index table using the query shown here:

    mysqlM> SELECT
         ->     @file:=SUBSTRING_INDEX(File, '/', -1),
         ->     @pos:=Position
         -> FROM mysql.ndb_binlog_index
         -> WHERE epoch > @latest
         -> ORDER BY epoch ASC LIMIT 1;
    

    In the event that there is currently no replication traffic, you can get this information by running SHOW MASTER STATUS on the master and using the value in the Position column for the file whose name has the suffix with the greatest value for all files shown in the File column. However, in this case, you must determine this and supply it in the next step manually or by parsing the output with a script.

  8. Using the values obtained in the previous step, you can now issue the appropriate CHANGE MASTER TO statement in the slave's mysql client:

    mysqlS> CHANGE MASTER TO
         ->     MASTER_LOG_FILE='@file',
         ->     MASTER_LOG_POS=@pos;
    
  9. Now that the slave knows from what point in which binlog file to start reading data from the master, you can cause the slave to begin replicating with this standard MySQL statement:

    mysqlS> START SLAVE;
    

To perform a backup and restore on a second replication channel, it is necessary only to repeat these steps, substituting the host names and IDs of the secondary master and slave for those of the primary master and slave replication servers where appropriate, and running the preceding statements on them.

For additional information on performing Cluster backups and restoring Cluster from backups, see Section 17.5.3, “Online Backup of MySQL Cluster”.