12.7 Date and Time Functions

This section describes the functions that can be used to manipulate temporal values. See Section 11.3, “Date and Time Types”, for a description of the range of values each date and time type has and the valid formats in which values may be specified.

Table 12.13 Date/Time Functions

NameDescription
ADDDATE()Add time values (intervals) to a date value
ADDTIME()Add time
CONVERT_TZ()Convert from one timezone to another
CURDATE()Return the current date
CURRENT_DATE(), CURRENT_DATESynonyms for CURDATE()
CURRENT_TIME(), CURRENT_TIMESynonyms for CURTIME()
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), CURRENT_TIMESTAMPSynonyms for NOW()
CURTIME()Return the current time
DATE_ADD()Add time values (intervals) to a date value
DATE_FORMAT()Format date as specified
DATE_SUB()Subtract a time value (interval) from a date
DATE()Extract the date part of a date or datetime expression
DATEDIFF()Subtract two dates
DAY()Synonym for DAYOFMONTH()
DAYNAME()Return the name of the weekday
DAYOFMONTH()Return the day of the month (0-31)
DAYOFWEEK()Return the weekday index of the argument
DAYOFYEAR()Return the day of the year (1-366)
EXTRACT()Extract part of a date
FROM_DAYS()Convert a day number to a date
FROM_UNIXTIME()Format UNIX timestamp as a date
GET_FORMAT()Return a date format string
HOUR()Extract the hour
LAST_DAYReturn the last day of the month for the argument
LOCALTIME(), LOCALTIMESynonym for NOW()
LOCALTIMESTAMP, LOCALTIMESTAMP()Synonym for NOW()
MAKEDATE()Create a date from the year and day of year
MAKETIME()Create time from hour, minute, second
MICROSECOND()Return the microseconds from argument
MINUTE()Return the minute from the argument
MONTH()Return the month from the date passed
MONTHNAME()Return the name of the month
NOW()Return the current date and time
PERIOD_ADD()Add a period to a year-month
PERIOD_DIFF()Return the number of months between periods
QUARTER()Return the quarter from a date argument
SEC_TO_TIME()Converts seconds to 'HH:MM:SS' format
SECOND()Return the second (0-59)
STR_TO_DATE()Convert a string to a date
SUBDATE()Synonym for DATE_SUB() when invoked with three arguments
SUBTIME()Subtract times
SYSDATE()Return the time at which the function executes
TIME_FORMAT()Format as time
TIME_TO_SEC()Return the argument converted to seconds
TIME()Extract the time portion of the expression passed
TIMEDIFF()Subtract time
TIMESTAMP()With a single argument, this function returns the date or datetime expression; with two arguments, the sum of the arguments
TIMESTAMPADD()Add an interval to a datetime expression
TIMESTAMPDIFF()Subtract an interval from a datetime expression
TO_DAYS()Return the date argument converted to days
TO_SECONDS()Return the date or datetime argument converted to seconds since Year 0
UNIX_TIMESTAMP()Return a UNIX timestamp
UTC_DATE()Return the current UTC date
UTC_TIME()Return the current UTC time
UTC_TIMESTAMP()Return the current UTC date and time
WEEK()Return the week number
WEEKDAY()Return the weekday index
WEEKOFYEAR()Return the calendar week of the date (0-53)
YEAR()Return the year
YEARWEEK()Return the year and week

Here is an example that uses date functions. The following query selects all rows with a date_col value from within the last 30 days:

mysql> SELECT something FROM tbl_name
    -> WHERE DATE_SUB(CURDATE(),INTERVAL 30 DAY) <= date_col;

The query also selects rows with dates that lie in the future.

Functions that expect date values usually accept datetime values and ignore the time part. Functions that expect time values usually accept datetime values and ignore the date part.

Functions that return the current date or time each are evaluated only once per query at the start of query execution. This means that multiple references to a function such as NOW() within a single query always produce the same result. (For our purposes, a single query also includes a call to a stored program (stored routine, trigger, or event) and all subprograms called by that program.) This principle also applies to CURDATE(), CURTIME(), UTC_DATE(), UTC_TIME(), UTC_TIMESTAMP(), and to any of their synonyms.

The CURRENT_TIMESTAMP(), CURRENT_TIME(), CURRENT_DATE(), and FROM_UNIXTIME() functions return values in the connection's current time zone, which is available as the value of the time_zone system variable. In addition, UNIX_TIMESTAMP() assumes that its argument is a datetime value in the current time zone. See Section 10.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

Some date functions can be used with zero dates or incomplete dates such as '2001-11-00', whereas others cannot. Functions that extract parts of dates typically work with incomplete dates and thus can return 0 when you might otherwise expect a nonzero value. For example:

mysql> SELECT DAYOFMONTH('2001-11-00'), MONTH('2005-00-00');
        -> 0, 0

Other functions expect complete dates and return NULL for incomplete dates. These include functions that perform date arithmetic or that map parts of dates to names. For example:

mysql> SELECT DATE_ADD('2006-05-00',INTERVAL 1 DAY);
        -> NULL
mysql> SELECT DAYNAME('2006-05-00');
        -> NULL
Note

From MySQL 5.5.16 to 5.5.20, a change in handling of a date-related assertion caused several functions to become more strict when passed a DATE() function value as their argument and reject incomplete dates with a day part of zero. These functions are affected: CONVERT_TZ(), DATE_ADD(), DATE_SUB(), DAYOFYEAR(), LAST_DAY(), TIMESTAMPDIFF(), TO_DAYS(), TO_SECONDS(), WEEK(), WEEKDAY(), WEEKOFYEAR(), YEARWEEK(). Because this changes date-handling behavior in General Availability-status series MySQL 5.5, the change was reverted in 5.5.21.