14.2.11.7 How Crash Recovery Works with Online DDL

Although no data is lost if the server crashes while an ALTER TABLE statement is executing, the crash recovery process is different for clustered indexes and secondary indexes.

If the server crashes while creating an InnoDB secondary index, upon recovery, MySQL drops any partially created indexes. You must re-run the ALTER TABLE or CREATE INDEX statement.

When a crash occurs during the creation of an InnoDB clustered index, recovery is more complicated, because the data in the table must be copied to an entirely new clustered index. Remember that all InnoDB tables are stored as clustered indexes. In the following discussion, we use the word table and clustered index interchangeably.

MySQL creates the new clustered index by copying the existing data from the original InnoDB table to a temporary table that has the desired index structure. Once the data is completely copied to this temporary table, the original table is renamed with a different temporary table name. The temporary table comprising the new clustered index is renamed with the name of the original table, and the original table is dropped from the database.

If a system crash occurs while creating a new clustered index, no data is lost, but you must complete the recovery process using the temporary tables that exist during the process. Since it is rare to re-create a clustered index or re-define primary keys on large tables, or to encounter a system crash during this operation, this manual does not provide information on recovering from this scenario.