14.16.1 The InnoDB Recovery Process

InnoDB crash recovery consists of several steps:

The steps that follow redo log application do not depend on the redo log (other than for logging the writes) and are performed in parallel with normal processing. Of these, only rollback of incomplete transactions is special to crash recovery. The insert buffer merge and the purge are performed during normal processing.

After redo log application, InnoDB attempts to accept connections as early as possible, to reduce downtime. As part of crash recovery, InnoDB rolls back any transactions that were not committed or in XA PREPARE state when the server crashed. The rollback is performed by a background thread, executed in parallel with transactions from new connections. Until the rollback operation is completed, new connections may encounter locking conflicts with recovered transactions.

In most situations, even if the MySQL server was killed unexpectedly in the middle of heavy activity, the recovery process happens automatically and no action is needed from the DBA. If a hardware failure or severe system error corrupted InnoDB data, MySQL might refuse to start. In that case, see Section 14.19.2, “Forcing InnoDB Recovery” for the steps to troubleshoot such an issue.

For information about the binary log and InnoDB crash recovery, see Section 5.2.4, “The Binary Log”.