Chapter 18 MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.4

Table of Contents

18.1 MySQL Cluster Overview
18.1.1 MySQL Cluster Core Concepts
18.1.2 MySQL Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
18.1.3 MySQL Cluster Hardware, Software, and Networking Requirements
18.1.4 MySQL Cluster Development History
18.1.5 MySQL Server Using InnoDB Compared with MySQL Cluster
18.1.6 Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster
18.2 MySQL Cluster Installation
18.2.1 The MySQL Cluster Auto-Installer
18.2.2 Installation of MySQL Cluster on Linux
18.2.3 Installing MySQL Cluster on Windows
18.2.4 Initial Configuration of MySQL Cluster
18.2.5 Initial Startup of MySQL Cluster
18.2.6 MySQL Cluster Example with Tables and Data
18.2.7 Safe Shutdown and Restart of MySQL Cluster
18.2.8 Upgrading and Downgrading MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3
18.3 Configuration of MySQL Cluster
18.3.1 Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster
18.3.2 MySQL Cluster Configuration Files
18.3.3 Overview of MySQL Cluster Configuration Parameters
18.3.4 MySQL Server Options and Variables for MySQL Cluster
18.3.5 Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster
18.4 MySQL Cluster Programs
18.4.1 ndbd — The MySQL Cluster Data Node Daemon
18.4.2 ndbinfo_select_all — Select From ndbinfo Tables
18.4.3 ndbmtd — The MySQL Cluster Data Node Daemon (Multi-Threaded)
18.4.4 ndb_mgmd — The MySQL Cluster Management Server Daemon
18.4.5 ndb_mgm — The MySQL Cluster Management Client
18.4.6 ndb_blob_tool — Check and Repair BLOB and TEXT columns of MySQL Cluster Tables
18.4.7 ndb_config — Extract MySQL Cluster Configuration Information
18.4.8 ndb_cpcd — Automate Testing for NDB Development
18.4.9 ndb_delete_all — Delete All Rows from an NDB Table
18.4.10 ndb_desc — Describe NDB Tables
18.4.11 ndb_drop_index — Drop Index from an NDB Table
18.4.12 ndb_drop_table — Drop an NDB Table
18.4.13 ndb_error_reporter — NDB Error-Reporting Utility
18.4.14 ndb_index_stat — NDB Index Statistics Utility
18.4.15 ndb_print_backup_file — Print NDB Backup File Contents
18.4.16 ndb_print_file — Print NDB Disk Data File Contents
18.4.17 ndb_print_schema_file — Print NDB Schema File Contents
18.4.18 ndb_print_sys_file — Print NDB System File Contents
18.4.19 ndbd_redo_log_reader — Check and Print Content of Cluster Redo Log
18.4.20 ndb_restore — Restore a MySQL Cluster Backup
18.4.21 ndb_select_all — Print Rows from an NDB Table
18.4.22 ndb_select_count — Print Row Counts for NDB Tables
18.4.23 ndb_setup.py — Start browser-based Auto-Installer for MySQL Cluster
18.4.24 ndb_show_tables — Display List of NDB Tables
18.4.25 ndb_size.pl — NDBCLUSTER Size Requirement Estimator
18.4.26 ndb_waiter — Wait for MySQL Cluster to Reach a Given Status
18.4.27 Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs — Options Common to MySQL Cluster Programs
18.5 Management of MySQL Cluster
18.5.1 Summary of MySQL Cluster Start Phases
18.5.2 Commands in the MySQL Cluster Management Client
18.5.3 Online Backup of MySQL Cluster
18.5.4 MySQL Server Usage for MySQL Cluster
18.5.5 Performing a Rolling Restart of a MySQL Cluster
18.5.6 Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster
18.5.7 MySQL Cluster Log Messages
18.5.8 MySQL Cluster Single User Mode
18.5.9 Quick Reference: MySQL Cluster SQL Statements
18.5.10 The ndbinfo MySQL Cluster Information Database
18.5.11 MySQL Cluster Security Issues
18.5.12 MySQL Cluster Disk Data Tables
18.5.13 Adding MySQL Cluster Data Nodes Online
18.5.14 Distributed MySQL Privileges for MySQL Cluster
18.5.15 NDB API Statistics Counters and Variables
18.6 MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.1 MySQL Cluster Replication: Abbreviations and Symbols
18.6.2 General Requirements for MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.3 Known Issues in MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.4 MySQL Cluster Replication Schema and Tables
18.6.5 Preparing the MySQL Cluster for Replication
18.6.6 Starting MySQL Cluster Replication (Single Replication Channel)
18.6.7 Using Two Replication Channels for MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.8 Implementing Failover with MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.9 MySQL Cluster Backups With MySQL Cluster Replication
18.6.10 MySQL Cluster Replication: Multi-Master and Circular Replication
18.6.11 MySQL Cluster Replication Conflict Resolution
18.7 MySQL Cluster Release Notes

This chapter contains information about MySQL Cluster, which is a high-availability, high-redundancy version of MySQL adapted for the distributed computing environment. Recent releases of MySQL Cluster use version 7 of the NDB storage engine (also known as NDBCLUSTER) to enable running several computers with MySQL servers and other software in a cluster; the latest releases available for production, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3, incorporate NDB version 7.3. This chapter also contains information about MySQL Cluster NDB 7.4, which uses version 7.4 of the NDB storage engine, and which is now available in a Developer Milestone release.

Support for the NDB storage engine is not included in standard MySQL Server 5.6 binaries built by Oracle. Instead, users of MySQL Cluster binaries from Oracle should upgrade to the most recent binary release of MySQL Cluster for supported platforms—these include RPMs that should work with most Linux distributions. MySQL Cluster users who build from source should use the sources provided for MySQL Cluster. (Locations where the sources can be obtained are listed later in this section.)

This chapter contains information about MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 releases through 5.6.21-ndb-7.3.8 as well as MySQL Cluster NDB 7.4 releases through 5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3. Currently, the MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 release series is Generally Available (GA), and MySQL Cluster 7.4 available for developer preview. MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.1, and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0 are previous GA release series; although they are still supported, we recommend that new deployments use MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3. For information about MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2, see MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2; for information about MySQL Cluster NDB 7.1, and previous versions of MySQL Cluster, see http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/mysql-cluster.

Supported Platforms.  MySQL Cluster is currently available and supported on a number of platforms. For exact levels of support available for on specific combinations of operating system versions, operating system distributions, and hardware platforms, please refer to http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/cluster.html.

Availability.  MySQL Cluster binary and source packages are available for supported platforms from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/cluster/.

MySQL Cluster release numbers.  MySQL Cluster follows a somewhat different release pattern from the mainline MySQL Server 5.6 series of releases. In this Manual and other MySQL documentation, we identify these and later MySQL Cluster releases employing a version number that begins with NDB. This version number is that of the NDBCLUSTER storage engine used in the release, and not of the MySQL server version on which the MySQL Cluster release is based.

Version strings used in MySQL Cluster software.  The version string displayed by MySQL Cluster programs uses this format:

mysql-mysql_server_version-ndb-ndb_engine_version

mysql_server_version represents the version of the MySQL Server on which the MySQL Cluster release is based. For all MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 and current MySQL Cluster NDB 7.4 releases, this is 5.6. ndb_engine_version is the version of the NDB storage engine used by this release of the MySQL Cluster software. You can see this format used in the mysql client, as shown here:

shell> mysql
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3 Source distribution

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the buffer.

mysql> SELECT VERSION()\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
VERSION(): 5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

This version string is also displayed in the output of the SHOW command in the ndb_mgm client:

ndb_mgm> SHOW
Connected to Management Server at: localhost:1186
Cluster Configuration
---------------------
[ndbd(NDB)]     2 node(s)
id=1    @10.0.10.6  (5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3, Nodegroup: 0, *)
id=2    @10.0.10.8  (5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3, Nodegroup: 0)

[ndb_mgmd(MGM)] 1 node(s)
id=3    @10.0.10.2  (5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3)

[mysqld(API)]   2 node(s)
id=4    @10.0.10.10  (5.6.21-ndb-7.4.3)
id=5 (not connected, accepting connect from any host)

The version string identifies the mainline MySQL version from which the MySQL Cluster release was branched and the version of the NDB storage engine used. For example, the full version string for MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3.2 (the first MySQL Cluster production release based on MySQL Server 5.6) is mysql-5.6.11-ndb-7.3.2. From this we can determine the following:

New MySQL Cluster releases are numbered according to updates in the NDB storage engine, and do not necessarily correspond in a one-to-one fashion with mainline MySQL Server releases. For example, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3.2 (as previously noted) is based on MySQL 5.6.11, while MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3.1 was based on MySQL 5.6.10 (version string: mysql-5.6.10-ndb-7.3.1).

Compatibility with standard MySQL 5.6 releases.  While many standard MySQL schemas and applications can work using MySQL Cluster, it is also true that unmodified applications and database schemas may be slightly incompatible or have suboptimal performance when run using MySQL Cluster (see Section 18.1.6, “Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster”). Most of these issues can be overcome, but this also means that you are very unlikely to be able to switch an existing application datastore—that currently uses, for example, MyISAM or InnoDB—to use the NDB storage engine without allowing for the possibility of changes in schemas, queries, and applications. In addition, the MySQL Server and MySQL Cluster codebases diverge considerably, so that the standard mysqld cannot function as a drop-in replacement for the version of mysqld supplied with MySQL Cluster.

MySQL Cluster development source trees.  MySQL Cluster development trees can also be accessed from https://code.launchpad.net/~mysql/:

The MySQL Cluster development sources maintained at https://code.launchpad.net/~mysql/ are licensed under the GPL. For information about obtaining MySQL sources using Bazaar and building them yourself, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

Note

As with MySQL Server 5.6, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.4 releases are built using CMake.

Currently, MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2 and MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 releases are Generally Available (GA). We recommend that new deployments use MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3. MySQL Cluster NDB 7.1 is a previous GA release that is currently still being maintained. MySQL Cluster NDB 7.0 and earlier versions are no longer in active development. For an overview of major features added in MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3, see Section 18.1.4, “MySQL Cluster Development History”. For an overview of major features added in past MySQL Cluster releases, see http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.1/en/mysql-cluster-development.html, and MySQL Cluster Development History.

This chapter represents a work in progress, and its contents are subject to revision as MySQL Cluster continues to evolve. Additional information regarding MySQL Cluster can be found on the MySQL Web site at http://www.mysql.com/products/cluster/.

Additional Resources.  More information about MySQL Cluster can be found in the following places: