4.4.7 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.

You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.5, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)


On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.


You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --no-defaults --databases
 --fix-db-names --fix-table-names mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --databases
 --auto-repair mysql
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --auto-repair

Notes about the preceding commands:

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
mysql> quit

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Unrecognized options are passed to mysqlcheck. For information about option files, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.5 mysql_upgrade Options

--basedir=dir_nameNot used 
--character-sets-dir=dir_nameDirectory where character sets are installed 
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server 
--datadir=dir_nameNot used 
--debug[=#]Write a debugging log 
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits 
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits 
--default-auth=pluginAuthentication plugin to use5.6.2
--default-character-set=nameSpecify default character set 
--defaults-extra-file=file_nameRead option file in addition to usual option files 
--defaults-file=file_nameRead only named option file 
--defaults-group-suffix=strOption group suffix value 
--forceForce execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current version of MySQL 
--helpDisplay help message and exit 
--host=nameConnect to MySQL server on given host 
--login-path=nameRead login path options from .mylogin.cnf5.6.6
--no-defaultsRead no option files 
--password[=name]Password to use when connecting to server 
--pipeOn Windows, connect to server using named pipe 
--plugin-dir=dir_nameDirectory where plugins are installed5.6.2
--port=#TCP/IP port number to use for connection 
--print-defaultsPrint defaults 
--protocol=nameConnection protocol to use 
--shared-memory-base-name=nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections 
--socket=file_nameFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use 
--sslEnable SSL for connection 
--ssl-ca=file_namePath of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs 
--ssl-capath=dir_namePath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format 
--ssl-cert=file_namePath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format 
--ssl-cipher=cipher_listList of permitted ciphers to use for SSL encryption 
--ssl-crl=file_namePath of file that contains certificate revocation lists5.6.3
--ssl-crlpath=dir_namePath of directory that contains certificate revocation list files5.6.3
--ssl-key=file_namePath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format 
--ssl-verify-server-certVerify server Common Name value in its certificate against host name used when connecting to server 
--tmpdir=dir_nameDirectory for temporary files 
--upgrade-system-tablesUpdate only system tables, not data 
--user=nameMySQL user name to use when connecting to server 
--verboseVerbose mode 
--version-checkCheck for proper server version5.6.12
--write-binlogWrite all statements to binary log