4.4.7 mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.10.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.


On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.


You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.10.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather the Unix socket file.

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --no-defaults --databases
 --fix-db-names --fix-table-names mysql
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --databases
 --auto-repair mysql
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases
 --skip-database=mysql --auto-repair

Notes about the preceding commands:

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.4, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: ****  <- enter root password here
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
mysql> quit

shell> mysql_upgrade

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option. For information about option files, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.4 mysql_upgrade Options

FormatOption FileDescriptionIntroduced
--basedirbasedirNot used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications 
--character-sets-dir=pathcharacter-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are 
--compresscompressCompress all information sent between client and server 
--datadir=pathdatadirNot used; exists only for compatibility with some very old applications 
--debug[=#]debugWrite a debugging log 
--debug-checkdebug-checkPrint debugging information when the program exits 
--default-auth=plugindefault-auth=pluginThe authentication plugin to use5.6.2
--default-character-set=namedefault-character-setSet the default character set 
--defaults-extra-file=file_name Read option file in addition to the usual option files 
--defaults-file=file_name Read only the given option file 
--defaults-group-suffix=str Option group suffix value 
--forceforceForce execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL 
--helphelpDisplay help message and exit 
--host=namehostConnect to the MySQL server on the given host 
--no-defaults Do not read any option files 
--password[=name]passwordThe password to use when connecting to the server 
--plugin-dir=pathplugin-dir=pathThe directory where plugins are located5.6.2
--port=#portThe TCP/IP port number to use for the connection 
--print-defaults Print defaults 
--protocol=nameprotocolThe connection protocol to use 
--socket=namesocketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use 
--tmpdir=pathtmpdirDirectory for temporary files 
--user=nameuserMySQL user name to use when connecting to server 
--verboseverboseVerbose mode 
--version-checkversion-checkCheck for proper server version5.6.12
--write-binlogwrite-binlogEnable binary logging of all statements