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Oracle® Database Semantic Technologies Developer's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E11828-08
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4 Semantic Indexing for Documents

Information extractors locate and extract meaningful information from unstructured documents. The ability to search for documents based on this extracted information is a significant improvement over the keyword-based searches supported by the full-text search engines.

Semantic indexing for documents introduces an index type that can make use of information extractors and annotators to semantically index documents stored in relational tables. Documents indexed semantically can be searched using SEM_CONTAINS operator within a standard SQL query. The search criteria for these documents are expressed using SPARQL query patterns that operate on the information extracted from the documents, as in the following example.

SELECT docId
FROM   Newsfeed
WHERE  SEM_CONTAINS (article, 
     ' { ?org    rdf:type            typ:Organization  . 
         ?org    pred:hasCategory    cat:BusinessFinance } ', ..) = 1

The key components that facilitate Semantic Indexing for documents in an Oracle Database include:

Creating a first semantic index for documents in a database re-creates an index on the underlying triple store that holds data for all RDF models. Thus, the time needed to create a first semantic index depends on the amount of existing data in these models.

The application program interface (API) for managing extractor policies and semantic indexes created for documents is provided in the SEM_RDFCTX PL/SQL package. Chapter 11 provides the reference information about the programs in SEM_RDFCTX package.

This chapter contains the following major sections:

4.1 Information Extractors for Semantically Indexing Documents

Information extractors process unstructured documents and extract meaningful information from them, often using natural-language processing engines with the aid of ontologies. The quality and the completeness of information extracted from a document vary from one extractor to the other. Some extractors simply identify the entities (such as names of persons, organizations, and geographic locations from a document), while the others attempt to identify the relationships among the identified entities and additional description for those entities. You can search for a specific document from a large set when the information extracted from the documents is maintained as a semantic index.

You can use an information extractor to create a semantic index on the documents stored in a column of a relational table. An extensible framework allows any third-party information extractor that is accessible from the database to be plugged into the database. An object type created for an extractor encapsulates the extraction logic, and has methods to configure the extractor and receive information extracted from a given document in RDF/XML format.

An abstract type MDSYS.RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR defines the common interfaces to all information extractors. An implementation of this abstract type interacts with a specific information extractor to produce RDF/XML for a given document. An implementation for this type can access a third-party information extractor that either is available as a database application or is installed on the network (accessed using Web service callouts). Example 4-1 shows the definition of the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR abstract type.

Example 4-1 RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR Abstract Type Definition

create or replace type rdfctx_extractor authid current_user as object (
  extr_type        VARCHAR2(32),
  member function  getDescription return VARCHAR2,
  member function  rdfReturnType return VARCHAR2,
  member procedure startDriver,
  member function  extractRDF(document CLOB,
                              docId    VARCHAR2) return CLOB,
  member procedure closeDriver
) not instantiable not final
/

A specific implementation of the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR type sets an identifier for the extractor type in the extr_type attribute, and it returns a short description for the extractor type using getDescription method. All implementations of this abstract type return the extracted information as RDF triples. In the current release, the RDF triples are expected to be serialized using RDF/XML format, and therefore the rdfReturnType method should return 'RDF/XML'.

An extractor type implementation uses the extractRDF method to encapsulate the extraction logic, possibly by invoking external information extractor using proprietary interfaces, and returns the extracted information in RDF/XML format. When a third-party extractor uses some proprietary XML Schema to capture the extracted information, an XML style sheet can be used to generate an equivalent RDF/XML. The startDriver and closeDriver methods can perform any housekeeping operations pertaining to the information extractor.

An extractor type for the General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) engine is defined as a subtype of the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR type. The implementation of this extractor type sends the documents to a GATE engine over a TCP connection, receives annotations extracted by the engine in XML format, and converts this proprietary XML document to an RDF/XML document. For more information on configuring a GATE engine to work with Oracle Database, see Section 4.10. For an example of creating a new information extractor, see Section 4.11.

Information extractors that are deployed as Web services can be invoked from the database by extending the RDFCTX_WS_EXTRACTOR type, which is a subtype of the the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR type. The RDFCTX_WS_EXTRACTOR type encapsulates the Web service callouts in the extractRDF method; specific implementations for network-based extractors can reuse this implementation by setting relevant attribute values in the type constructor.

Thomson Reuters Calais is an example of a network-based information extractor that can be accessed using web-service callouts. The CALAIS_EXTRACTOR type, which is a subtype of the RDFCTX_WS_EXTRACTOR type, encapsulates the Calais extraction logic, and it can be used to semantically index the documents. The CALAIS_EXTRACTOR type must be configured for the database instance before it can be used to create semantic indexes, as explained in Section 4.9.

4.2 Extractor Policies

An extractor policy is a named dictionary entity that determines the characteristics of a semantic index that is created using the policy. Each extractor policy refers, directly or indirectly, to an instance of an extractor type. An extractor policy with a direct reference to an extractor type instance can be used to compose other extractor policies that include additional RDF models for ontologies.

The following example creates a basic extractor policy created using the GATE extractor type:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.create_policy (policy_name => 'SEM_EXTR',
                            extractor   => mdsys.gatenlp_extractor());
end;
/

The following example creates a dependent extractor policy that combines the metadata extracted by the policy in the preceding example with a user-defined RDF model named geo_ontology:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.create_policy (policy_name => 'SEM_EXTR_PLUS_GEOONT',
                            base_policy => 'SEM_EXTR',
                            user_models => SEM_MODELS ('geo_ontology'));
end;
/

You can use an extractor policy to create one or more semantic indexes on columns that store unstructured documents, as explained in Section 4.3.

4.3 Semantically Indexing Documents

Textual documents stored in a CLOB or VARCHAR2 column of a relational table can be indexed using the MDSYS.SEMCONTEXT index type, to facilitate semantically meaningful searches. The extractor policy specified at index creation determines the information extractor used to semantically index the documents. The extracted information, captured as a set of RDF triples for each document, is managed in the semantic data store. Each instance of the semantic index is associated with a system-generated RDF model, which maintains the RDF triples extracted from the corresponding documents.

The following example creates a semantic index named ArticleIndex on the textual documents in the ARTICLE column of the NEWSFEED table, using the extractor policy named SEM_EXTR:

CREATE INDEX ArticleIndex on Newsfeed (article)
   INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.SemContext PARAMETERS ('SEM_EXTR');

The RDF model created for an index is managed internally and it is not associated with an application table. The triples stored in such model are automatically maintained for any modifications (such as update, insert, or delete) made to the documents stored in the table column. Although a single RDF model is used to index all documents stored in a table column, the triples stored in the model maintain references to the documents from which they are extracted; therefore, all the triples extracted from a specific document form an individual graph within the RDF model. The documents that are semantically indexed can then be searched using a SPARQL query pattern that operates on the triples extracted from the documents.

When creating a semantic index for documents, you can use a basic extractor policy or a dependent policy, which may include one or more user-defined RDF models. When you create an index with a dependent extractor policy, the document search pattern specified using SPARQL could span the triples extracted from the documents as well as those defined in user-defined models.

You can create an index using multiple extractor policies, in which case the triples extracted by the corresponding extractors are maintained separately in distinct RDF models. A document search query using one such index can select the specific policy to be used for answering the query. For example, an extractor policy named CITY_EXTR can be created to extract the names of the cities from a given document, and this extractor policy can be used in combination with the SEM_EXTR policy to create a semantic index, as in the following example:

CREATE INDEX ArticleIndex on Newsfeed (article)
   INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.SemContext PARAMETERS ('SEM_EXTR CITY_EXTR');

The first extractor policy in the PARAMETERS list is considered to be the default policy if a query does not refer to a specific policy; however, you can change the default extractor policy for a semantic index by using the SEM_RDFCTX.SET_DEFAULT_POLICY procedure, as in the following example:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.set_default_policy (index_name => 'ArticleIndex',
                                 policy_name => 'CITY_EXTR');
end;
/

4.4 SEM_CONTAINS and SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT Syntax

You can use the SEM_CONTAINS operator in a standard SQL statement to search for documents or document references that are stored in relational tables. This operator has the following syntax:

SEM_CONTAINS(
  column   VARCHAR2 / CLOB,
  sparql   VARCHAR2,
  policy   VARCHAR2,
  aliases  SEM_ALIASES,
  ancoper  NUMBER
 ) RETURN NUMBER;

The column and sparql attributes attribute are required. The other attributes are optional (that is, each can be a null value).

The column attribute identifies a VARCHAR2 or CLOB column in a relational table that stores the documents or references to documents that are semantically indexed. An index of type MDSYS.SEMCONTEXT must be defined in this column for the SEM_CONTAINS operator to use.

The sparql attribute is a string literal that defines the document search criteria, expressed in SPARQL format.

The optional policy attribute specifies the name of an extractor policy, usually to override the default policy. A semantic document index can have one or more extractor policies specified at index creation, and one of these policies is the default, which is used if the policy attribute is null in the call to SEM_CONTAINS.

The optional aliases attribute identifies one or more namespaces, including a default namespace, to be used for expansion of qualified names in the query pattern. Its data type is SEM_ALIASES, which has the following definition: TABLE OF SEM_ALIAS, where each SEM_ALIAS element identifies a namespace ID and namespace value. The SEM_ALIAS data type has the following definition: (namespace_id VARCHAR2(30), namespace_val VARCHAR2(4000))

The optional ancoper attribute specifies a number as the binding to be used when the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator is used with this operator in a query. The number specified for the ancoper attribute should be the same as number specified for the operbind attribute in the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator.

The SEM_CONTAINS operator returns 1 for each document instance matching the specified search criteria, and returns 0 for all other cases.

For more information about using the SEM_CONTAINS operator, including an example, see Section 4.5.

You can use the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator to return additional information about each document that matches some search criteria. This ancillary operator has a single numerical attribute (operbind) that associates an instance of the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator with a SEM_CONTAINS operator by using the same value for the binding. This ancillary operator returns an object of type CLOB that contains the additional information from the matching document, formatted in SPARQL Query Results XML format.

The SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator has the following syntax:

SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT(
  operbind  NUMBER
 ) RETURN CLOB;

For more information about using the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator, including examples, see Section 4.6.

4.5 Searching for Documents Using SPARQL Query Patterns

Documents that are semantically indexed (that is, indexed using the mdsys.SemContext index type) can be searched using SEM_CONTAINS operator within a standard SQL query. In the query, the SEM_CONTAINS operator must have at least two parameters, the first specifying the column in which the documents are stored and the second specifying the document search criteria expressed as a SPARQL query pattern, as in the following example:

SELECT docId FROM Newsfeed
WHERE  SEM_CONTAINS (article, 
  '{ ?org  rdf:type  <http://www.example.com/classes/Organization>  . 
     ?org  <http://example.com/pred/hasCategory>  
             <http://www.example.com/category/BusinessFinance> }'
           )= 1;

The SPARQL query pattern specified with the SEM_CONTAINS operator is matched against the individual graphs corresponding to each document, and a document is considered to match a search criterion if the triples from the corresponding graph satisfy the query pattern. In the preceding example, the SPARQL query pattern identifies the individual graphs (thus, the documents) that refer to an Organization that belong to BusinessFinance category. The SQL query returns the rows corresponding to the matching documents in its result set. The preceding example assumes that the URIs used in the query are generated by the underlying extractor, and that you (the user searching for documents) are aware of the properties and terms that are generated by the extractor in use.

When you create an index using a dependent extractor policy that includes one or more user-defined RDF models, the triples asserted in the user models are considered to be common to all the documents. Document searches involving such policies test the search criteria against the triples in individual graphs corresponding to the documents, combined with the triples in the user models. For example, the following query identifies all articles referring to organizations in the state of New Hampshire, using the geographical ontology (geo_ontology RDF Model from a preceding example) that maps cities to states:

SELECT docId FROM   Newsfeed
WHERE  SEM_CONTAINS (article, 
        '{ ?org     rdf:type          class:Organization  . 
           ?org     pred:hasLocation  ?city . 
           ?city    geo:hasState      state:NewHampshire }', 
        'SEM_EXTR_PLUS_GEOONT', 
               sem_aliases(                              
                  sem_alias('class', 'http://www.myorg.com/classes/'),
                  sem_alias('pred', 'http://www.myorg.com/pred/'),
                  sem_alias('geo', 'http://geoont.org/rel/'),
                  sem_alias('state', 'http://geoont.org/state/'))) = 1;

The preceding query, with a reference to the extractor policy SEM_EXTR_PLUS_GEOONT (created in an example in Section 4.2), combines the triples extracted from the indexed documents and the triples in the user model to find matching documents. In this example, the name of the extractor policy is optional if the corresponding index is created with just this policy or if this is the default extractor policy for the index. When the query pattern uses some qualified names, an optional parameter to the SEM_CONTAINS operator can specify the namespaces to be used for expanding the qualified names.

SPARQL-based document searches can make use of the SPARQL syntax that is supported through SEM_MATCH queries.

4.6 Bindings from Matched Documents (SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT Ancillary Operator)

You can use the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator to return additional information about each document matched using the SEM_CONTAINS operator. Specifically, the bindings for the variables used in SPARQL-based document search criteria can be returned using this operator. This operator is ancillary to the SEM_CONTAINS operator, and a literal number is used as an argument to this operator to associate it with a specific instance of SEM_CONTAINS operator, as in the following example:

SELECT docId, SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT(1) as result
FROM   Newsfeed
WHERE  SEM_CONTAINS (article, 
  '{ ?org   rdf:type          class:Organization  . 
     ?org   pred:hasCategory  cat:BusinessFinance }', .., 
   1)= 1;

The SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator returns the bindings for the variables in SPARQL Query Results XML format, as CLOB data. The variables may be bound to multiple data instances from a single document, in which case all bindings for the variables are returned. The following example is an excerpt from the output of the preceding query: a value returned by the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator for a document matching the specified search criteria.

<results>
  <result> 
     <binding name=“ORG">
        <uri>http://newscorp.com/Org/AcmeCorp</uri>
     </binding>
  </result> 
  <result>
     <binding name=“ORG">
       <uri>http://newscorp.com/Org/ABCCorp</uri>
     </binding>
  </result>
</results>

You can rank the search results by creating an instance of XMLType for the CLOB value returned by the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator and applying an XPath expression to sort the results on some attribute values.

By default, the SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT ancillary operator returns bindings for all variables used in the SPARQL-based document search criteria. However, when the values for only a subset of the variables are relevant for a search, the SPARQL pattern can include a SELECT clause with space-separated list of variables for which the values should be returned, as in the following example:

SELECT docId, SEM_CONTAINS_SELECT(1) as result
FROM   Newsfeed
WHERE  SEM_CONTAINS (article, 
        'SELECT ?org  ?city 
         WHERE { ?org     rdf:type          class:Organization  . 
                 ?org     pred:hasLocation  ?city . 
                 ?city    geo:hasState      state:NewHampshire }', .., 
         1) = 1;

4.7 Improving the Quality of Document Search Operations

The quality of a document search operation depends on the quality of the information produced by the extractor used to index the documents. If the information extracted is incomplete, you may want to add some annotations to a document. You can use the SEM_RDFCTX.MAINTAIN_TRIPLES procedure to add annotations, in the form of RDF triples, to specific documents in order to improve the quality of search, as shown in the following example:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.maintain_triples(
     index_name      => 'ArticleIndex',
     where_clause    => 'docid in (1,15,20)',  
     rdfxml_content => sys.xmltype(
      '<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" 
                xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
                xmlns:pred="http://example.com/pred/">
       <rdf:Description rdf:about=" http://newscorp.com/Org/ExampleCorp">
         <pred:hasShortName 
               rdf:datatype="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string">
             Example
         </pred:hasShortName>
     </rdf:Description> 
    </rdf:RDF>'));
end;
/

The index name and the WHERE clause specified in the preceding example identify specific instances of the document to be annotated, and the RDF/XML content passed in is used to add additional triples to the individual graphs corresponding to those documents. This allows domain experts and user communities to improve the quality of search by adding relevant triples to annotate some documents.

4.8 Indexing External Documents

You can use semantic indexing on documents that are stored in a file system or on the network. In such cases, you store the references to external documents in a table column, and you create a semantic index on the column using an appropriate extractor policy.

To index external documents, define an extractor policy with appropriate preferences, using an XML document that is assigned to the preferences parameter of the SEM_RDFCTX.CREATE_POLICY procedure, as in the following example:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.create_policy (
       policy_name => 'SEM_EXTR_FROM_FILE',
       extractor   => mdsys.gatenlp_extractor()),
       preferences => sys.xmltype('<RDFCTXPreferences>
                                     <Datastore type="FILE"> 
                                        <Path>EXTFILES_DIR</Path>
                                     </Datastore>
                                   </RDFCTXPreferences>')); 
end;
/

The <Datastore> element in the preferences document specifies the type of repository used for the documents to be indexed. When the value for the type attribute is set to FILE, the <Path> element identifies a directory object in the database (created using the SQL statement CREATE DIRECTORY). A table column indexed using the specified extractor policy is expected to contain relative paths to individual files within the directory object, as shown in the following example:

CREATE TABLE newsfeed (docid       number, 
                       articleLoc  VARCHAR2(100)); 
INSERT INTO into newsfeed (docid, articleLoc) values
                     (1, 'article1.txt'); 
INSERT INTO newsfeed (docid, articleLoc) values
                     (2, 'folder/article2.txt'); 
 
CREATE INDEX ArticleIndex on newsfeed (articleLoc)
   INDEXTYPE IS mdsys.SemContext PARAMETERS ('SEM_EXTR_FROM_FILE');

To index documents that are accessed using HTTP protocol, create a extractor policy with preferences that set the type attribute of the <Datastore> element to URL and that list one or more hosts in the <Path> elements, as shown in the following excerpt:

<RDFCTXPreferences>
   <Datastore type="URL"> 
       <Path>http://cnn.com</Path>
       <Path>http://abc.com</Path>
   </Datastore>
</RDFCTXPreferences>

The schema in which a semantic index for external documents is created must have the necessary privileges to access the external objects, including access to any proxy server used to access documents outside the firewall, as shown in the following example:

-- Grant read access to the directory object for FILE data store -- 
grant read on directory EXTFILES_DIR to SEMUSR;
 
-- Grant connect access to set of hosts for URL data store -- 
begin
  dbms_network_acl_admin.create_acl (
                acl          => 'network_docs.xml',
                description  => 'Normal Access',
                principal    => 'SEMUSR',
                is_grant     => TRUE,
                privilege    => 'connect');
end;
/
 
begin
  dbms_network_acl_admin.assign_acl (
               acl        => 'network_docs.xml',
               host       =>  'cnn.com',
               lower_port => 1,
               upper_port => 10000);
end;
/

External documents that are semantically indexed in the database may be in one of the well-known formats such as Microsoft Word, RTF, and PDF. This takes advantage of the Oracle Text capability to extract plain text version from formatted documents using filters (see the CTX_DOC.POLICY_FILTER procedure, described in Oracle Text Reference). To semantically index formatted documents, you must specify the name of a CTX policy in the extractor preferences, as shown in the following excerpt:

<RDFCTXPreferences>
   <Datastore type="FILE" filter=”CTX_FILTER_POLICY”> 
       <Path>EXTFILES_DIR</Path>
   </Datastore>
</RDFCTXPreferences>

In the preceding example, the CTX_FILTER_POLICY policy, created using the CTX_DDL.CREATE_POLICY procedure, must exist in your schema. The table columns that are semantically indexed using this preferences document can store paths to formatted documents, from which plain text is extracted using the specified CTX policy. The information extractor associated with the extractor policy then processes the plain text further, to extract the semantics in RDF/XML format.

4.9 Configuring the Calais Extractor type

The CALAIS_EXTRACTOR type, which is a subtype of the RDFCTX_WS_EXTRACTOR type, enables you to access a Web service end point anywhere on the network, including the one that is publicly accessible (OpenCalais.com). To do so, you must connect with SYSDBA privileges and configure the Calais extractor type with Web service end point, the SOAP action, and the license key by setting corresponding parameters, as shown in the following example:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
     param_key   => 'CALAIS_WS_ENDPOINT',
     param_value => 'http://api1.opencalais.com/enlighten/calais.asmx',
     param_desc  => 'Calais web service end-point');
       
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
     param_key   => 'CALAIS_KEY',
     param_value => '<Calais license key goes here>',
     param_desc  => 'Calais extractor license key');
 
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
     param_key   => 'CALAIS_WS_SOAPACTION',
     param_value => 'http://clearforest.com/Enlighten',
     param_desc  => 'Calais web service SOAP Action');
end;

To enable access to a Web service outside the firewall, you must also set the parameter for the proxy host, as in the following example:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
      param_key   => 'HTTP_PROXY',
      param_value => 'www-proxy.acme.com',
      param_desc  => 'Proxy server');
end;

4.10 Working with General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE)

General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) is an open source natural language processor and information extractor (see http://gate.ac.uk). You can use GATE to perform semantic indexing of documents stored in the database. The extractor type mdsys.gatenlp_extractor is defined as a subtype of the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR type. The implementation of this extractor type sends an unstructured document to a GATE engine over a TCP connection, receives corresponding annotations, and converts them into RDF following a user-specified XML style sheet.

The requests for information extraction are handled by a server socket implementation, which instantiates the GATE components and listens to extraction requests at a pre-determined port. The host and the post for the GATE listener are recorded in the database, as shown in the following example, for all instances of the mdsys.gatenlp_extractor type to use.

begin 
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
     param_key   => 'GATE_NLP_HOST',
     param_value => 'gateserver.acme.com',
     param_desc  => 'Host for GATE NLP Listener ');
       
  sem_rdfctx.set_extractor_param (
     param_key   => 'GATE_NLP_PORT',
     param_value => '7687',
     param_desc  => 'Port for Gate NLP Listener');
end;

The server socket application receives an unstructured document and constructs an annotation set with the desired types of annotations. Each annotation in the set may be customized to include additional features, such as the relevant phrase from the input document and some domain specific features. The resulting annotation set is serialized into XML (using the annotationSetToXml method in the gate.corpora.DocumentXmlUtils Java package) and returned back to the socket client.

A sample Java implementation for the GATE listener is available for download from the code samples and examples page on OTN (see Section 1.10, "Semantic Data Examples (PL/SQL and Java)" for information about this page).

The mdsys.gatenlp_extractor implementation in the database receives the annotation set encoded in XML, and converts it to RDF/XML using an XML style sheet. You can replace the default style sheet (listed in Section 4.13) used by the mdsys.gatenlp_extractor implementation with a custom style sheet when you instantiate the type.

The following example creates an extractor policy that uses a custom style sheet to generate RDF from the annotation set produced by the GATE extractor:

begin
  sem_rdfctx.create_policy (policy_name => 'GATE_EXTR',
                            extractor   => mdsys.gatenlp_extractor(
      sys.XMLType('<?xml version="1.0"?> 
                 <xsl:stylesheet version="2.0" 
                    xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" >
                   ..
                 </xsl:stylesheet>')));
end;
/

4.11 Creating a New Extractor Type

You can create a new extractor type by extending the RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR or RDFCTX_WS_EXTRACTOR extractor type. The extractor type to be extended must be accessible using Web service calls. The schema in which the new extractor type is created must be granted additional privileges to allow creation of the subtype. For example, if a new extractor type is created in the schema RDFCTXU, you must enter the following commands to grant the UNDER and RDFCTX_ADMIN privileges to that schema:

GRANT under ON mdsys.rdfctx_extractor TO rdfctxu;
GRANT rdfctx_admin TO rdfctxu;

As an example, assume that an information extractor can process an incoming document and return an XML document that contains extracted information. To enable the information extractor to be invoked using a PL/SQL wrapper, you can create the corresponding extractor type implementation, as in the following example:

create or replace type rdfctxu.info_extractor under rdfctx_extractor (
  xsl_trans   sys.XMLtype,
  constructor function info_extractor (
                 xsl_trans  sys.XMLType ) return self as result,
  overriding member function getDescription return VARCHAR2,
  overriding member function rdfReturnType return VARCHAR2,
  overriding member function extractRDF(document CLOB,
                                        docId    VARCHAR2) return CLOB
)
/
 
create or replace type body rdfctxu.info_extractor as 
  constructor function info_extractor (
                 xsl_trans  sys.XMLType ) return self as result is
  begin
    self.extr_type := 'Info Extractor Inc.'; 
    -- XML style sheet to generate RDF/XML from proprietary XML documents
    self.xsl_trans := xsl_trans; 
    return;
  end info_extractor; 
 
  overriding member function getDescription return VARCHAR2 is
  begin
    return 'Extactor by Info Extractor Inc.';
  end getDescription;
 
  overriding member function rdfReturnType return VARCHAR2 is
  begin
    return 'RDF/XML';
  end rdfReturnType;
 
  overriding member function extractRDF(document CLOB,
                                        docId    VARCHAR2) return CLOB is
    ce_xmlt  sys.xmltype;
  begin
    EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 
      'begin :1 = info_extract_xml(doc => :2); end;'
       USING IN OUT ce_xmlt, IN document;
 
    -- Now pass the ce_xmlt through RDF/XML transformation -- 
    return ce_xmlt.transform(self.xsl_trans).getClobVal();
  end extractRdf;
 
end;

In the preceding example:

4.12 Metadata Views for Semantic Indexing

This section describes views that contain metadata about semantic indexing.

4.12.1 MDSYS.RDFCTX_POLICIES View

Information about extractor policies defined in the current schema is maintained in the MDSYS.RDFCTX_POLICIES view, which has the columns shown in Table 4-1 and one row for each extractor policy.

Table 4-1 MDSYS.RDFCTX_POLICIES View Columns

Column Name Data Type Description

POLICY_OWNER

VARCHAR2(32)

Owner of the extractor policy

POLICY_NAME

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the extractor policy

EXTRACTOR

MDSYS.RDFCTX_EXTRACTOR

Instance of extractor type

IS_DEPENDENT

VARCHAR2(3)

Contains YES if the extractor policy is dependent on a base policy; contains NO if the extractor policy is not dependent on a base policy.

BASE_POLICY

VARCHAR2(32)

For a dependent policy, the name of the base policy

USER_MODELS

MDSYS.RDF_MODELS

For a dependent policy, a list of the RDF models included in the policy


4.12.2 RDFCTX_INDEX_POLICIES View

Information about semantic indexes defined in the current schema and the extractor policies used to create the index is maintained in the MDSYS.RDFCTX_POLICIES view, which has the columns shown in Table 4-2 and one row for each combination of semantic index and extractor policy.

Table 4-2 MDSYS.RDFCTX_INDEX_POLICIES View Columns

Column Name Data Type Description

INDEX_OWNER

VARCHAR2(32)

Owner of the semantic index

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the semantic index

POLICY_NAME

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the extractor policy

IS_DEFAULT

VARCHAR2(3)

Contains YES if POLICY_NAME is the default extractor policy for the index; contains NO if POLICY_NAME is not the default extractor policy for the index.

STATUS

VARCHAR2(10)

Contains VALID if the index is valid, INPROGRESS if the index is being created, or FAILED if a system failure occurred during the creation of the index.

RDF_MODEL

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the RDF model maintaining the index data


4.12.3 RDFCTX_INDEX_EXCEPTIONS View

Information about exceptions encountered while creating or maintaining semantic indexes in the current schema is maintained in the MDSYS.RDFCTX_INDEX_EXCEPTIONS view, which has the columns shown in Table 4-3 and one row for each exception.

Table 4-3 MDSYS.RDFCTX_INDEX_EXCEPTIONS View Columns

Column Name Data Type Description

INDEX_OWNER

VARCHAR2(32)

Owner of the semantic index associated with the exception

INDEX_NAME

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the semantic index associated with the exception

POLICY_NAME

VARCHAR2(32)

Name of the extractor policy associated with the exception

DOC_IDENTIFIER

VARCHAR2(38)

Row identifier (rowid) of the document associated with the exception

EXCEPTION_TYPE

VARCHAR2(13)

Type of exception

EXCEPTION_CODE

NUMBER

Error code associated with the exception

EXCEPTION_TEXT

CLOB

Text associated with the exception

EXTRACTED_AT

TIMESTAMP

Time at which the exception occurred


4.13 Default Style Sheet for GATE Extractor Output

This section lists the default XML style sheet that the mdsys.gatenlp_extractor implementation uses to convert the annotation set (encoded in XML) into RDF/XML. (This extractor is explained in Section 4.10.)

<?xml version="1.0"?> 
  <xsl:stylesheet version="2.0" 
                   xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" > 
     <xsl:output encoding="utf-8" indent="yes"/> 
     <xsl:param name="docbase">http://xmlns.oracle.com/rdfctx/</xsl:param>
     <xsl:param name="docident">0</xsl:param>
     <xsl:param name="classpfx">
       <xsl:value-of select="$docbase"/>
       <xsl:text>class/</xsl:text> 
     </xsl:param>
     <xsl:template match="/">
        <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" 
                 xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
                 xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#" 
                 xmlns:prop="http://xmlns.oracle.com/rdfctx/property/">  
        <xsl:for-each select="AnnotationSet/Annotation"> 
          <rdf:Description> 
            <xsl:attribute name="rdf:about"> 
              <xsl:value-of select="$docbase"/>
              <xsl:text>docref/</xsl:text>
              <xsl:value-of select="$docident"/>
              <xsl:text>/</xsl:text>
              <xsl:value-of select="@Id"/>
            </xsl:attribute>
            <xsl:for-each select="./Feature"> 
              <xsl:choose>
                <xsl:when test="./Name[text()='majorType']"> 
                  <rdf:type> 
                    <xsl:attribute name="rdf:resource"> 
                       <xsl:value-of select="$classpfx"/>
                       <xsl:text>major/</xsl:text>
                       <xsl:value-of select="translate(./Value/text(),
                                                       ' ', '#')"/>
                    </xsl:attribute>  
                  </rdf:type>
                </xsl:when>
                <xsl:when test="./Name[text()='minorType']"> 
                  <xsl:element name="prop:hasMinorType"> 
                    <xsl:attribute name="rdf:resource"> 
                       <xsl:value-of select="$docbase"/>
                       <xsl:text>minorType/</xsl:text>
                       <xsl:value-of select="translate(./Value/text(),
                                                       ' ', '#')"/>
                    </xsl:attribute>  
                  </xsl:element> 
                </xsl:when>
                <xsl:when test="./Name[text()='kind']"> 
                  <xsl:element name="prop:hasKind"> 
                    <xsl:attribute name="rdf:resource"> 
                       <xsl:value-of select="$docbase"/>
                       <xsl:text>kind/</xsl:text>
                       <xsl:value-of select="translate(./Value/text(),
                                                       ' ', '#')"/>
                    </xsl:attribute>  
                  </xsl:element> 
                </xsl:when>
                <xsl:when test="./Name[text()='locType']"> 
                  <xsl:element name="prop:hasLocType"> 
                    <xsl:attribute name="rdf:resource"> 
                       <xsl:value-of select="$docbase"/>
                       <xsl:text>locType/</xsl:text>
                       <xsl:value-of select="translate(./Value/text(),
                                                       ' ', '#')"/>
                    </xsl:attribute>  
                  </xsl:element> 
                </xsl:when>
                <xsl:when test="./Name[text()='entityValue']"> 
                  <xsl:element name="prop:hasEntityValue"> 
                    <xsl:attribute name="rdf:datatype"> 
                      <xsl:text>
                         http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string
                      </xsl:text>
                    </xsl:attribute> 
                    <xsl:value-of select="./Value/text()"/>
                  </xsl:element> 
                </xsl:when>
                <xsl:otherwise> 
                  <xsl:element name="prop:has{translate(
                                        substring(./Name/text(),1,1),
                                        'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz',
                                        'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ')}{
                                      substring(./Name/text(),2)}"> 
                     <xsl:attribute name="rdf:datatype"> 
                        <xsl:text>
                          http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#string
                        </xsl:text> 
                     </xsl:attribute> 
                    <xsl:value-of select="./Value/text()"/>
                  </xsl:element> 
                </xsl:otherwise> 
              </xsl:choose>
            </xsl:for-each> 
          </rdf:Description> 
        </xsl:for-each>
        </rdf:RDF> 
      </xsl:template>
   </xsl:stylesheet>