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Oracle® Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E16760-04
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65 DBMS_FGA

The DBMS_FGA package provides fine-grained security functions.

This chapter contains the following topics:


Using DBMS_FGA


Security Model

Execute privilege on DBMS_FGA is needed for administering audit policies. Because the audit function can potentially capture all user environment and application context values, policy administration should be executable by privileged users only. The policy event handler module will be executed with the module owner's privilege.


Operational Notes

This package is available for only cost-based optimization. The rule-based optimizer may generate unnecessary audit records since audit monitoring can occur before row filtering. For both the rule-based optimizer and the cost-based optimizer, you can refer to DBA_FGA_AUDIT_TRAIL to analyze the SQL text and corresponding bind variables that are issued.


Summary of DBMS_FGA Subprograms

Table 65-1 DBMS_FGA Package Subprograms

Subprogram Description

ADD_POLICY Procedure

Creates an audit policy using the supplied predicate as the audit condition

DISABLE_POLICY Procedure

Disables an audit policy

DROP_POLICY Procedure

Drops an audit policy

ENABLE_POLICY Procedure

Enables an audit policy



ADD_POLICY Procedure

This procedure creates an audit policy using the supplied predicate as the audit condition. The maximum number of FGA policies on any table or view object is 256.

Syntax

DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY(
   object_schema      VARCHAR2, 
   object_name        VARCHAR2, 
   policy_name        VARCHAR2, 
   audit_condition    VARCHAR2, 
   audit_column       VARCHAR2, 
   handler_schema     VARCHAR2, 
   handler_module     VARCHAR2, 
   enable             BOOLEAN, 
   statement_types    VARCHAR2,
   audit_trail        BINARY_INTEGER IN DEFAULT,
   audit_column_opts  BINARY_INTEGER IN DEFAULT);

Parameters

Table 65-2 ADD_POLICY Procedure Parameters

Parameter Description Default Value

object_schema

The schema of the object to be audited. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

NULL

object_name

The name of the object to be audited.

-

policy_name

The unique name of the policy.

-

audit_condition

A condition in a row that indicates a monitoring condition. NULL is allowed and acts as TRUE.

NULL

audit_column

The columns to be checked for access. These can include OLS hidden columns or object type columns. The default, NULL, causes audit if any column is accessed or affected.

NULL

handler_schema

The schema that contains the event handler. The default, NULL, causes the current schema to be used.

NULL

handler_module

The function name of the event handler; includes the package name if necessary. This function is invoked only after the first row that matches the audit condition in the query is processed. If the procedure fails with an exception, the user SQL statement will fail as well.

NULL

enable

Enables the policy if TRUE, which is the default.

TRUE

statement_types

The SQL statement types to which this policy is applicable: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or SELECT only.

SELECT

audit_trail

Destination (DB or XML) of fine grained audit records. Also specifies whether to populate LSQLTEXT and LSQLBIND in fga_log$.

DB+EXTENDED

audit_column_opts

Establishes whether a statement is audited when the query references any column specified in the audit_column parameter or only when all such columns are referenced.

ANY_COLUMNS


Usage Notes

V$XML_AUDIT_TRAIL View

The new values for the audit_trail parameter (XML and XML+EXTENDED) cause fine-grained auditing records to be written to operating system files in XML format.

Audit records stored in operating system files can be more secure than database-stored audit records because access can require file permissions that DBAs do not have. Operating system storage for audit records also offers higher availability, since such records remain available even if the database is temporarily inaccessible.

A new dynamic view, V$XML_AUDIT_TRAIL, makes such audit records from XML files available to DBAs through SQL query, providing enhanced usability. Querying this view causes all XML files (all files with an.xml extension) in the AUDIT_FILE_DEST directory to be parsed and presented in relational table format.

The DBA_COMMON_AUDIT_TRAIL view includes the contents of the V$XML_AUDIT_TRAIL dynamic view for standard and fine-grained audit records.

Since the audit XML files are stored in files with extension.xml on all platforms, the dynamic view presents audit information similarly on all platforms, using the following schema:

Table 65-3 Elements in the V$XML_AUDIT_TRAIL Dynamic View

Element Type

AUDIT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(18)

SESSION_ID

NUMBER

PROXY_SESSIONID

NUMBER

STATEMENTID

NUMBER

ENTRYID

NUMBER

EXTENDED_TIMESTAMP

TIMESTAMP(6) WITH TIME ZONE

GLOBAL_UID

VARCHAR2(32)

DB_USER

VARCHAR2(30)

CLIENT_ID

VARCHAR2(64)

EXT_NAME

VARCHAR2(4000)

OS_USER

VARCHAR2(255)

USERHOST

VARCHAR2(128)

OS_PROCESS

VARCHAR2(16)

TERMINAL

VARCHAR2(255)

INSTANCE_NUMBER

NUMBER

OBJECT_SCHEMA

VARCHAR2(30)

OBJECT_NAME

VARCHAR2(128)

POLICY_NAME

VARCHAR2(30)

STATEMENT_TYPE

VARCHAR2(28)

TRANSACTIONID

RAW(8)

SCN

NUMBER

COMMENT_TEXT

VARCHAR2(4000)

SQL_BIND

VARCHAR2(4000)

SQL_TEXT

VARCHAR2(4000)


Usage Notes

Examples

DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY (
   object_schema      =>  'scott', 
   object_name        =>  'emp', 
   policy_name        =>  'mypolicy1', 
   audit_condition    =>  'sal < 100', 
   audit_column       =>  'comm,sal', 
   handler_schema     =>   NULL, 
   handler_module     =>   NULL, 
   enable             =>   TRUE, 
   statement_types    =>  'INSERT, UPDATE', 
   audit_trail        =>   DBMS_FGA.XML + DBMS_FGA.EXTENDED, 
   audit_column_opts  =>   DBMS_FGA.ANY_COLUMNS); 

DISABLE_POLICY Procedure

This procedure disables an audit policy.

Syntax

DBMS_FGA.DISABLE_POLICY(
   object_schema  VARCHAR2, 
   object_name    VARCHAR2, 
   policy_name    VARCHAR2 ); 

Parameters

Table 65-4 DISABLE_POLICY Procedure Parameters

Parameter Description

object_schema

The schema of the object to be audited. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

object_name

The name of the object to be audited.

policy_name

The unique name of the policy.


The default value for object_schema is NULL. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

Examples

DBMS_FGA.DISABLE_POLICY (
object_schema   =>  'scott',
object_name     =>  'emp',
policy_name     =>  'mypolicy1');

DROP_POLICY Procedure

This procedure drops an audit policy.

Syntax

DBMS_FGA.DROP_POLICY(
   object_schema  VARCHAR2, 
   object_name    VARCHAR2, 
   policy_name    VARCHAR2 );

Parameters

Table 65-5 DROP_POLICY Procedure Parameters

Parameter Description

object_schema

The schema of the object to be audited. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

object_name

The name of the object to be audited.

policy_name

The unique name of the policy.


Usage Notes

The DBMS_FGA procedures cause current DML transactions, if any, to commit before the operation unless they are inside a DDL event trigger. With DDL transactions, the DBMS_FGA procedures are part of the DDL transaction. The default value for object_schema is NULL. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

Note:

Oracle Database automatically drops the audit policy if you remove the object specified in the object_name parameter of the DBMS_FGA.ADD_POLICY procedure, or if you drop the user who created the audit policy.

Examples

DBMS_FGA.DROP_POLICY (
object_schema   =>  'scott',
object_name     =>  'emp',
policy_name     =>  'mypolicy1');

ENABLE_POLICY Procedure

This procedure enables an audit policy.

Syntax

DBMS_FGA.ENABLE_POLICY(
   object_schema  VARCHAR2,
   object_name    VARCHAR2,
   policy_name    VARCHAR2,
   enable         BOOLEAN);

Parameters

Table 65-6 ENABLE_POLICY Procedure Parameters

Parameter Description

object_schema

The schema of the object to be audited. (If NULL, the current log-on user schema is assumed.)

object_name

The name of the object to be audited.

policy_name

The unique name of the policy.

enable

Defaults to TRUE to enable the policy.


Examples

DBMS_FGA.ENABLE_POLICY (
object_schema    =>  'scott',
object_name      =>  'emp',
policy_name      =>  'mypolicy1',
enable           =>   TRUE);