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11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E17126-03
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9 PL/SQL Triggers

A trigger is like a stored procedure that Oracle Database invokes automatically whenever a specified event occurs.

Note:

The database can detect only system-defined events. You cannot define your own events.

Topics:

Overview of Triggers

Like a stored procedure, a trigger is a named PL/SQL unit that is stored in the database and can be invoked repeatedly. Unlike a stored procedure, you can enable and disable a trigger, but you cannot explicitly invoke it. While a trigger is enabled, the database automatically invokes it—that is, the trigger fires—whenever its triggering event occurs. While a trigger is disabled, it does not fire.

You create a trigger with the CREATE TRIGGER statement. You specify the triggering event in terms of triggering statements and the item on which they act. The trigger is said to be created on or defined on the item, which is either a table, a view, a schema, or the database. You also specify the timing point, which determines whether the trigger fires before or after the triggering statement runs and whether it fires for each row that the triggering statement affects. By default, a trigger is created in the enabled state. For more information about the CREATE TRIGGER statement, see "CREATE TRIGGER Statement".

If the trigger is created on a table or view, then the triggering event is composed of DML statements, and the trigger is called a DML trigger. For more information, see "DML Triggers".

If the trigger is created on a schema or the database, then the triggering event is composed of either DDL or database operation statements, and the trigger is called a system trigger. For more information, see "System Triggers".

A conditional trigger has a WHEN clause that specifies a SQL condition that the database evaluates for each row that the triggering statement affects. For more information about the WHEN clause, see "WHEN (condition)".

When a trigger fires, tables that the trigger references might be undergoing changes made by SQL statements in other users' transactions. SQL statements running in triggers follow the same rules that standalone SQL statements do. Specifically:

Note:

A trigger is often called by the name of its triggering statement (for example, DELETE trigger or LOGON trigger), the name of the item on which it is defined (for example, DATABASE trigger or SCHEMA trigger), or its timing point (for example, BEFORE statement trigger or AFTER each row trigger).

Reasons to Use Triggers

Triggers let you customize your database management system. For example, you can use triggers to:

Caution:

Triggers are not reliable security mechanisms, because they are programmatic and easy to disable. For high-assurance security, use Oracle Database Vault. For more information, see Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide.

How Triggers and Constraints Differ

Both triggers and constraints can constrain data input, but they differ significantly.

A constraint applies to both existing and new data. For example, if a database column has a NOT NULL constraint, then its existing data is NOT NULL and no DML statement can violate the NOT NULL constraint.

A trigger applies only to new data. For example, a trigger can prevent a DML statement from inserting a NULL value into a database column, but the column might contain NULL values that were inserted into the column before the trigger was defined or while the trigger was disabled.

Constraints are easier to write and less error-prone than triggers that enforce the same rules. However, triggers can enforce some complex business rules that constraints cannot. Oracle strongly recommends that you use triggers to constrain data input only in these situations:

See Also:

DML Triggers

A DML trigger is created on either a table or view, and its triggering event is composed of the DML statements DELETE, INSERT, and UPDATE. To create a trigger that fires in response to a MERGE statement, create triggers on the INSERT and UPDATE statements to which the MERGE operation decomposes.

A DML trigger is either simple or compound.

A simple DML trigger fires at exactly one of these timing points:

A compound DML trigger created on a table or editioning view can fire at one, some, or all of the preceding timing points. Compound DML triggers help program an approach where you want the actions that you implement for the various timing points to share common data. For more information, see "Compound DML Triggers".

A simple or compound DML trigger that fires at row level can access the data in the row that it is processing. For details, see "Correlation Names and Pseudorecords".

An INSTEAD OF trigger is a DML trigger created on a noneditioning view, or on a nested table column of a noneditioning view. The database fires the INSTEAD OF trigger instead of running the triggering DML statement. For more information, see "INSTEAD OF Triggers".

A crossedition trigger is a simple or compound DML trigger for use only in edition-based redefinition. For information about crossedition triggers, see Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.

Except in an INSTEAD OF trigger, a triggering UPDATE statement can include a column list. With a column list, the trigger fires only when a specified column is updated. Without a column list, the trigger fires when any column of the associated table is updated. For more information about the column list, see "dml_event_clause".

Topics:

Conditional Predicates for Detecting Triggering DML Statement

The triggering event of a DML trigger can be composed of multiple triggering statements. When one of them fires the trigger, the trigger can determine which one by using these conditional predicates:

Conditional Predicate TRUE if and only if:
INSERTING An INSERT statement fired the trigger.
UPDATING An UPDATE statement fired the trigger.
UPDATING ('column_name') An UPDATE statement statement that affected the specified column fired the trigger.
DELETING A DELETE statement fired the trigger.

A conditional predicate can appear wherever a BOOLEAN expression can appear.

Example 9-1 creates a DML trigger that uses conditional predicates to determine which of its four possible triggering statements fired it.

Example 9-1 Trigger that Uses Conditional Predicates to Detect Triggering Statement

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER t
  BEFORE
    INSERT OR
    UPDATE OF salary OR
    UPDATE OF department_id OR
    DELETE
  ON employees
BEGIN
  CASE
    WHEN INSERTING THEN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Inserting');
    WHEN UPDATING('salary') THEN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Updating salary');
    WHEN UPDATING('department_id') THEN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Updating department ID');
    WHEN DELETING THEN
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Deleting');
  END CASE;
END;
/

Correlation Names and Pseudorecords

Note:

This topic applies only to triggers that fire at row level—that is, row-level simple DML triggers and compound DML triggers with row-level timing point sections.

A trigger that fires at row level can access the data in the row that it is processing by using correlation names. The default correlation names are OLD, NEW, and PARENT. To change the correlation names, use the REFERENCING clause of the CREATE TRIGGER statement (see "referencing_clause ::=").

If the trigger is created on a nested table in a view (see "dml_event_clause ::="), then OLD and NEW refer to the current row of the nested table, and PARENT refers to the current row of the parent table. If the trigger is created on a table or view, then OLD and NEW refer to the current row of the table or view, and PARENT is undefined.

OLD, NEW, and PARENT are also called pseudorecords, because they have record structure, but are allowed in fewer contexts than records are. The structure of a pseudorecord is table_name%ROWTYPE, where table_name is the name of the table on which the trigger is created (for OLD and NEW) or the name of the parent table (for PARENT).

In the trigger_body of a simple trigger or the tps_body of a compound trigger, a correlation name is a placeholder for a bind argument. Reference the field of a pseudorecord with this syntax:

:pseudorecord_name.field_name

In the WHEN clause of a conditional trigger, a correlation name is not a placeholder for a bind argument. Therefore, omit the colon in the preceding syntax.

Table 9-1 shows the values of OLD and NEW fields for the row that the triggering statement is processing.

Table 9-1 Pseudorecord Field Values for Triggering DML Statements

Triggering Statement OLD.field Value NEW.field Value

INSERT

NULL

Post-insert value

UPDATE

Pre-update value

Post-update value

DELETE

Pre-delete value

NULL


The restrictions on pseudorecords are:

  • A pseudorecord cannot appear in a record-level operation.

    For example, the trigger cannot include this statement:

    :NEW := NULL;
    
  • A pseudorecord cannot be an actual subprogram parameter.

    (A pseudorecord field can be an actual subprogram parameter.)

  • The trigger cannot change OLD field values.

    Trying to do so raises ORA-04085.

  • If the triggering statement is DELETE, then the trigger cannot change NEW field values.

    Trying to do so raises ORA-04084.

  • An AFTER trigger cannot change NEW field values, because the triggering statement runs before the trigger fires.

    Trying to do so raises ORA-04084.

A BEFORE trigger can change NEW field values before a triggering INSERT or UPDATE statement puts them in the table.

If a statement triggers both a BEFORE trigger and an AFTER trigger, and the BEFORE trigger changes a NEW field value, then the AFTER trigger "sees" that change.

Example 9-2 creates a log table and a trigger that inserts a row in the log table after any UPDATE statement affects the SALARY column of the EMPLOYEES table, and then updates EMPLOYEES.SALARY and shows the log table.

Example 9-2 Trigger that Logs Changes to EMPLOYEES.SALARY

Create log table:

DROP TABLE Emp_log;
CREATE TABLE Emp_log (
  Emp_id     NUMBER,
  Log_date   DATE,
  New_salary NUMBER,
  Action     VARCHAR2(20));
 

Create trigger that inserts row in log table after EMPLOYEES.SALARY is updated:

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_salary_increase
  AFTER UPDATE OF salary ON employees
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO Emp_log (Emp_id, Log_date, New_salary, Action)
  VALUES (:NEW.employee_id, SYSDATE, :NEW.salary, 'New Salary');
END;
/

Update EMPLOYEES.SALARY:

UPDATE employees
SET salary = salary + 1000.0
WHERE Department_id = 20;
 

Result:

2 rows updated.
 

Show log table:

SELECT * FROM Emp_log;
 

Result:

EMP_ID LOG_DATE  NEW_SALARY ACTION
---------- --------- ---------- --------------------
       201 28-APR-10   15049.13 New Salary
       202 28-APR-10    6945.75 New Salary
 
2 rows selected.

Example 9-3 creates a conditional trigger that prints salary change information whenever a DELETE, INSERT, or UPDATE statement affects the EMPLOYEES table—unless that information is about the President. The database evaluates the WHEN condition for each affected row. If the WHEN condition is TRUE for an affected row, then the trigger fires for that row before the triggering statement runs. If the WHEN condition is not TRUE for an affected row, then trigger does not fire for that row, but the triggering statement still runs.

Example 9-3 Conditional Trigger that Prints Salary Change Information

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER print_salary_changes
  BEFORE DELETE OR INSERT OR UPDATE ON employees
  FOR EACH ROW
  WHEN (NEW.job_id <> 'AD_PRES')  -- do not print information about President
DECLARE
  sal_diff  NUMBER;
BEGIN
  sal_diff  := :NEW.salary  - :OLD.salary;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT(:NEW.last_name || ': ');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT('Old salary = ' || :OLD.salary || ', ');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT('New salary = ' || :NEW.salary || ', ');
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Difference: ' || sal_diff);
END;
/

Query:

SELECT last_name, department_id, salary, job_id
FROM employees
WHERE department_id IN (10, 20, 90)
ORDER BY department_id, last_name;
 

Result:

LAST_NAME                 DEPARTMENT_ID     SALARY JOB_ID
------------------------- ------------- ---------- ----------
Whalen                               10       2800 AD_ASST
Fay                                  20       6000 MK_REP
Hartstein                            20      13000 MK_MAN
De Haan                              90      17000 AD_VP
King                                 90      24000 AD_PRES
Kochhar                              90      17000 AD_VP
 
6 rows selected.

Triggering statement:

UPDATE employees
SET salary = salary * 1.05
WHERE department_id IN (10, 20, 90);

Result:

Whalen: Old salary = 2800, New salary = 2940, Difference: 140
Hartstein: Old salary = 13000, New salary = 13650, Difference: 650
Fay: Old salary = 6000, New salary = 6300, Difference: 300
Kochhar: Old salary = 17000, New salary = 17850, Difference: 850
De Haan: Old salary = 17000, New salary = 17850, Difference: 850
 
6 rows updated.

Query:

SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE job_id = 'AD_PRES';

Result:

SALARY
----------
     25200
 
1 row selected.

Example 9-4 creates a trigger that modifies CLOB columns. (For information about TO_CLOB and other conversion functions, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.)

Example 9-4 Trigger that Modifies LOB Columns

DROP TABLE tab1;
CREATE TABLE tab1 (c1 CLOB);
INSERT INTO tab1 VALUES ('<h1>HTML Document Fragment</h1><p>Some text.');

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER trg1
  BEFORE UPDATE ON tab1
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Old value of CLOB column: '||:OLD.c1);
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Proposed new value of CLOB column: '||:NEW.c1);

  :NEW.c1 := :NEW.c1 || TO_CLOB('<hr><p>Standard footer paragraph.');

  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Final value of CLOB column: '||:NEW.c1);
END;
/ 

SET SERVEROUTPUT ON;
UPDATE tab1 SET c1 = '<h1>Different Document Fragment</h1><p>Different text.';

SELECT * FROM tab1;

Example 9-5 creates a table with the same name as a correlation name, new, and then creates a trigger on that table. To avoid conflict between the table name and the correlation name, the trigger references the correlation name as Newest.

Example 9-5 REFERENCING Clause of CREATE TRIGGER Statement

CREATE TABLE new (
  field1  NUMBER,
  field2  VARCHAR2(20)
);

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Print_salary_changes
BEFORE UPDATE ON new
REFERENCING new AS Newest
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  :Newest.Field2 := TO_CHAR (:newest.field1);
END;
/

OBJECT_VALUE Pseudocolumn

A trigger on an object table can reference the SQL pseudocolumn OBJECT_VALUE, which returns system-generated names for the columns of the object table. The trigger can also invoke a PL/SQL subprogram that has a formal IN parameter whose data type is OBJECT_VALUE.

See Also:

Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for more information about OBJECT_VALUE

Example 9-6 creates object table tbl, table tbl_history for logging updates to tbl, and trigger Tbl_Trg. The trigger runs for each row of tb1 that is affected by a DML statement, causing the old and new values of the object t in tbl to be written in tbl_history. The old and new values are :OLD.OBJECT_VALUE and :NEW.OBJECT_VALUE.

Example 9-6 Trigger with OBJECT_VALUE Pseudocolumn

Create, populate, and show object table:

CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE t AS OBJECT (n NUMBER, m NUMBER)
/
CREATE TABLE tbl OF t
/
BEGIN
  FOR j IN 1..5 LOOP
    INSERT INTO tbl VALUES (t(j, 0));
  END LOOP;
END;
/
SELECT * FROM tbl ORDER BY n;

Result:

N          M
---------- ----------
         1          0
         2          0
         3          0
         4          0
         5          0

5 rows selected.

Create history table and trigger:

CREATE TABLE tbl_history ( d DATE, old_obj t, new_obj t)
/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Tbl_Trg
  AFTER UPDATE ON tbl
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO tbl_history (d, old_obj, new_obj)
  VALUES (SYSDATE, :OLD.OBJECT_VALUE, :NEW.OBJECT_VALUE);
END Tbl_Trg;
/
 

Update object table:

UPDATE tbl SET tbl.n = tbl.n+1
/
 

Result:

5 rows updated.

Show old and new values:

BEGIN
  FOR j IN (SELECT d, old_obj, new_obj FROM tbl_history) LOOP
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (
      j.d ||
      ' -- old: ' || j.old_obj.n || ' ' || j.old_obj.m ||
      ' -- new: ' || j.new_obj.n || ' ' || j.new_obj.m
    );
  END LOOP;
END;
/

Result:

28-APR-10 -- old: 1 0 -- new: 2 0
28-APR-10 -- old: 2 0 -- new: 3 0
28-APR-10 -- old: 3 0 -- new: 4 0
28-APR-10 -- old: 4 0 -- new: 5 0
28-APR-10 -- old: 5 0 -- new: 6 0

All values of column n were increased by 1. The value of m remains 0.

INSTEAD OF Triggers

An INSTEAD OF trigger is a DML trigger created on a noneditioning view, or on a nested table column of a noneditioning view. The database fires the INSTEAD OF trigger instead of running the triggering DML statement. An INSTEAD OF trigger cannot be conditional.

An INSTEAD OF trigger is the only way to update a view that is not inherently updatable. (For information about inherently updatable views, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.) Design the INSTEAD OF trigger to determine what operation was intended and do the appropriate DML operations on the underlying tables.

An INSTEAD OF trigger is always a row-level trigger. An INSTEAD OF trigger can read OLD and NEW values, but cannot change them.

Example 9-7 creates the view oe.order_info to display information about customers and their orders. The view is not inherently updatable (because the primary key of the orders table, order_id, is not unique in the result set of the join view). The example creates an INSTEAD OF trigger to process INSERT statements directed to the view. The trigger inserts rows into the base tables of the view, customers and orders.

Example 9-7 INSTEAD OF Trigger

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW order_info AS
   SELECT c.customer_id, c.cust_last_name, c.cust_first_name,
          o.order_id, o.order_date, o.order_status
   FROM customers c, orders o
   WHERE c.customer_id = o.customer_id;

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER order_info_insert
   INSTEAD OF INSERT ON order_info
   DECLARE
     duplicate_info EXCEPTION;
     PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (duplicate_info, -00001);
   BEGIN
     INSERT INTO customers
       (customer_id, cust_last_name, cust_first_name)
     VALUES (
     :new.customer_id,
     :new.cust_last_name,
     :new.cust_first_name);
   INSERT INTO orders (order_id, order_date, customer_id)
   VALUES (
     :new.order_id,
     :new.order_date,
     :new.customer_id);
   EXCEPTION
     WHEN duplicate_info THEN
       RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (
         num=> -20107,
         msg=> 'Duplicate customer or order ID');
   END order_info_insert;
/

Query to show that row to be inserted does not exist:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM order_info WHERE customer_id = 999;

Result:

COUNT(*)
----------
         0
 
1 row selected.

Insert row into view:

INSERT INTO order_info VALUES
   (999, 'Smith', 'John', 2500, '13-MAR-2001', 0);

Result:

1 row created.

Query to show that row has been inserted in view:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM order_info WHERE customer_id = 999;

Result:

COUNT(*)
----------
         1
 
1 row selected.

Query to show that row has been inserted in customers table:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM customers WHERE customer_id = 999;

Result:

COUNT(*)
----------
         1
 
1 row selected.

Query to show that row has been inserted in orders table:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM orders WHERE customer_id = 999;

Result:

COUNT(*)
----------
         1
 
1 row selected.

INSTEAD OF Triggers on Nested Table Columns of Views

An INSTEAD OF trigger with the NESTED TABLE clause fires only if the triggering statement operates on the elements of the specified nested table column of the view. The trigger fires for each modified nested table element.

In Example 9-8, the view dept_view contains a nested table of employees, emplist, created by the CAST function (described in Oracle Database SQL Language Reference). To modify the emplist column, the example creates an INSTEAD OF trigger on the column.

Example 9-8 INSTEAD OF Trigger on Nested Table Column of View

-- Create type of nested table element:
 
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE nte
AUTHID DEFINER IS
OBJECT (
  emp_id     NUMBER(6),
  lastname   VARCHAR2(25),
  job        VARCHAR2(10),
  sal        NUMBER(8,2)
);
/
 
-- Created type of nested table:
 
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE emp_list_ IS
  TABLE OF nte;
/
 
-- Create view:

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW dept_view AS
  SELECT d.department_id, 
         d.department_name,
         CAST (MULTISET (SELECT e.employee_id, e.last_name, e.job_id, e.salary
                         FROM employees e
                         WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id
                        )
                        AS emp_list_
              ) emplist
  FROM departments d;
 
-- Create trigger:
 
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_emplist_tr
  INSTEAD OF INSERT ON NESTED TABLE emplist OF dept_view
  REFERENCING NEW AS Employee
              PARENT AS Department
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  -- Insert on nested table translates to insert on base table:
  INSERT INTO employees (
    employee_id,
    last_name,
    email,
    hire_date,
    job_id,
    salary,
    department_id
  )
  VALUES (
    :Employee.emp_id,                      -- employee_id
    :Employee.lastname,                    -- last_name
    :Employee.lastname || '@company.com',  -- email
    SYSDATE,                               -- hire_date
    :Employee.job,                         -- job_id
    :Employee.sal,                         -- salary
    :Department.department_id              -- department_id
  );
END;
/

Query view before inserting row into nested table:

SELECT emplist FROM dept_view WHERE department_id=10;

Result:

EMPLIST(EMP_ID, LASTNAME, JOB, SAL)
----------------------------------------------
 
EMP_LIST_(NTE(200, 'Whalen', 'AD_ASST', 2800))
 
1 row selected.

Query table before inserting row into nested table:

SELECT employee_id, last_name, job_id, salary
FROM employees
WHERE department_id = 10;

Result:

EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME                 JOB_ID         SALARY
----------- ------------------------- ---------- ----------
        200 Whalen                    AD_ASST          2800
 
1 row selected.

Insert a row into nested table:

INSERT INTO TABLE (
  SELECT d.emplist 
  FROM dept_view d
  WHERE department_id = 10
)
VALUES (1001, 'Glenn', 'AC_MGR', 10000);

Query view after inserting row into nested table:

SELECT emplist FROM dept_view WHERE department_id=10;

Result (formatted to fit page):

EMPLIST(EMP_ID, LASTNAME, JOB, SAL)
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
EMP_LIST_(NTE(200, 'Whalen', 'AD_ASST', 2800),
          NTE(1001, 'Glenn', 'AC_MGR', 10000))
 
1 row selected.

Query table after inserting row into nested table:

SELECT employee_id, last_name, job_id, salary
FROM employees
WHERE department_id = 10;

Result:

EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME                 JOB_ID         SALARY
----------- ------------------------- ---------- ----------
        200 Whalen                    AD_ASST          2800
       1001 Glenn                     AC_MGR          10000
 
2 rows selected.

Compound DML Triggers

A compound DML trigger created on a table or editioning view can fire at multiple timing points. Each timing point section has its own executable part and optional exception-handling part, but all of these parts can access a common PL/SQL state. The common state is established when the triggering statement starts and is destroyed when the triggering statement completes, even when the triggering statement causes an error.

A compound DML trigger created on a noneditioning view is not really compound, because it has only one timing point section.

A compound trigger can be conditional, but not autonomous.

Two common uses of compound triggers are:

  • To accumulate rows destined for a second table so that you can periodically bulk-insert them

  • To avoid the mutating-table error (ORA-04091)

Topics:

Compound DML Trigger Structure

The optional declarative part of a compound trigger declares variables and subprograms that all of its timing-point sections can use. When the trigger fires, the declarative part runs before any timing-point sections run. The variables and subprograms exist for the duration of the triggering statement.

A compound DML trigger created on a noneditioning view is not really compound, because it has only one timing point section. The syntax for creating the simplest compound DML trigger on a noneditioning view is:

CREATE trigger FOR dml_event_clause ON view
COMPOUND TRIGGER
INSTEAD OF EACH ROW IS BEGIN
  statement;
END INSTEAD OF EACH ROW;

A compound DML trigger created on a table or editioning view has at least one timing-point section in Table 9-2. If the trigger has multiple timing-point sections, they can be in any order, but no timing-point section can be repeated. If a timing-point section is absent, then nothing happens at its timing point.

Table 9-2 Timing-Point Sections of a Compound Trigger

Timing Point Section

Before the triggering statement runs

BEFORE STATEMENT

After the triggering statement runs

AFTER STATEMENT

Before each row that the triggering statement affects

BEFORE EACH ROW

After each row that the triggering statement affects

AFTER EACH ROW


See Also:

"CREATE TRIGGER Statement" for more information about the syntax of compound triggers

A compound DML trigger does not have an initialization section, but the BEFORE STATEMENT section, which runs before any other timing-point section, can do any necessary initializations.

If a compound DML trigger has neither a BEFORE STATEMENT section nor an AFTER STATEMENT section, and its triggering statement affects no rows, then the trigger never fires.

Compound DML Trigger Restrictions

In addition to the "Trigger Restrictions"), compound DML triggers have these restrictions:

  • OLD, NEW, and PARENT cannot appear in the declarative part, the BEFORE STATEMENT section, or the AFTER STATEMENT section.

  • Only the BEFORE EACH ROW section can change the value of NEW.

  • A timing-point section cannot handle exceptions raised in another timing-point section.

  • If a timing-point section includes a GOTO statement, the target of the GOTO statement must be in the same timing-point section.

Performance Benefit of Compound DML Triggers

A compound DML trigger has a performance benefit when the triggering statement affects many rows.

For example, suppose that this statement triggers a compound DML trigger that has all four timing-point sections in Table 9-2:

INSERT INTO Target
  SELECT c1, c2, c3
  FROM Source
  WHERE Source.c1 > 0

Although the BEFORE EACH ROW and AFTER EACH ROW sections of the trigger run for each row of Source whose column c1 is greater than zero, the BEFORE STATEMENT section runs only before the INSERT statement runs and the AFTER STATEMENT section runs only after the INSERT statement runs.

A compound DML trigger has a greater performance benefit when used with the FORALL statement and BULK COLLECT clause. For details, see "Using Compound DML Triggers with Bulk Insertion".

Using Compound DML Triggers with Bulk Insertion

A compound DML trigger is useful for accumulating rows destined for a second table so that you can periodically bulk-insert them. To get the performance benefit from the compound trigger, you must specify BULK COLLECT INTO in the FORALL statement (otherwise, the FORALL statement does a single-row DML operation multiple times). For more information about using the BULK COLLECT clause with the FORALL statement, see "Using FORALL and BULK COLLECT Together".

Scenario: You want to record every change to hr.employees.salary in a new table, employee_salaries. A single UPDATE statement updates many rows of the table hr.employees; therefore, bulk-inserting rows into employee.salaries is more efficient than inserting them individually.

Solution: Define a compound trigger on updates of the table hr.employees, as in Example 9-9. You do not need a BEFORE STATEMENT section to initialize idx or salaries, because they are state variables, which are initialized each time the trigger fires (even when the triggering statement is interrupted and restarted).

Note:

To run Example 9-9, you must have the EXECUTE privilege on the package DBMS_LOCK.

Example 9-9 Compound Trigger Records Changes to One Table in Another Table

CREATE TABLE employee_salaries (
  employee_id NUMBER NOT NULL,
  change_date DATE   NOT NULL,
  salary NUMBER(8,2) NOT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT pk_employee_salaries PRIMARY KEY (employee_id, change_date),
  CONSTRAINT fk_employee_salaries FOREIGN KEY (employee_id)
    REFERENCES employees (employee_id)
      ON DELETE CASCADE)
/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER maintain_employee_salaries
  FOR UPDATE OF salary ON employees
    COMPOUND TRIGGER

-- Declarative Part:
-- Choose small threshhold value to show how example works:
  threshhold CONSTANT SIMPLE_INTEGER := 7;

  TYPE salaries_t IS TABLE OF employee_salaries%ROWTYPE INDEX BY SIMPLE_INTEGER;
  salaries  salaries_t;
  idx       SIMPLE_INTEGER := 0;

  PROCEDURE flush_array IS
    n CONSTANT SIMPLE_INTEGER := salaries.count();
  BEGIN
    FORALL j IN 1..n
      INSERT INTO employee_salaries VALUES salaries(j);
    salaries.delete();
    idx := 0;
    DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Flushed ' || n || ' rows');
  END flush_array;

  -- AFTER EACH ROW Section:

  AFTER EACH ROW IS
  BEGIN
    idx := idx + 1;
    salaries(idx).employee_id := :NEW.employee_id;
    salaries(idx).change_date := SYSDATE();
    salaries(idx).salary := :NEW.salary;
    IF idx >= threshhold THEN
      flush_array();
    END IF;
  END AFTER EACH ROW;

  -- AFTER STATEMENT Section:

  AFTER STATEMENT IS
  BEGIN
    flush_array();
  END AFTER STATEMENT;
END maintain_employee_salaries;
/
/* Increase salary of every employee in department 50 by 10%: */

UPDATE employees
  SET salary = salary * 1.1
  WHERE department_id = 50
/

/* Wait two seconds: */

BEGIN
  DBMS_LOCK.SLEEP(2);
END;
/

/* Increase salary of every employee in department 50 by 5%: */

UPDATE employees
  SET salary = salary * 1.05
  WHERE department_id = 50
/

Using Compound DML Triggers to Avoid Mutating-Table Error

A compound DML trigger is useful for avoiding the mutating-table error (ORA-04091) explained in "Mutating-Table Restriction".

Scenario: A business rule states that an employee's salary increase must not exceed 10% of the average salary for the employee's department. This rule must be enforced by a trigger.

Solution: Define a compound trigger on updates of the table hr.employees, as in Example 9-10. The state variables are initialized each time the trigger fires (even when the triggering statement is interrupted and restarted).

Example 9-10 Compound Trigger for Avoiding Mutating-Table Error

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Check_Employee_Salary_Raise
  FOR UPDATE OF Salary ON Employees
COMPOUND TRIGGER
  Ten_Percent                 CONSTANT NUMBER := 0.1;
  TYPE Salaries_t             IS TABLE OF Employees.Salary%TYPE;
  Avg_Salaries                Salaries_t;
  TYPE Department_IDs_t       IS TABLE OF Employees.Department_ID%TYPE;
  Department_IDs              Department_IDs_t;

  -- Declare collection type and variable:

  TYPE Department_Salaries_t  IS TABLE OF Employees.Salary%TYPE
                                INDEX BY VARCHAR2(80);
  Department_Avg_Salaries     Department_Salaries_t;

  BEFORE STATEMENT IS
  BEGIN
    SELECT               AVG(e.Salary), NVL(e.Department_ID, -1)
      BULK COLLECT INTO  Avg_Salaries, Department_IDs
      FROM               Employees e
      GROUP BY           e.Department_ID;
    FOR j IN 1..Department_IDs.COUNT() LOOP
      Department_Avg_Salaries(Department_IDs(j)) := Avg_Salaries(j);
    END LOOP;
  END BEFORE STATEMENT;

  AFTER EACH ROW IS
  BEGIN
    IF :NEW.Salary - :Old.Salary >
      Ten_Percent*Department_Avg_Salaries(:NEW.Department_ID)
    THEN
      Raise_Application_Error(-20000, 'Raise too big');
    END IF;
  END AFTER EACH ROW;
END Check_Employee_Salary_Raise;

Triggers for Ensuring Referential Integrity

You can use triggers and constraints to maintain referential integrity between parent and child tables, as Table 9-3 shows. (For more information about constraints, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.)

Table 9-3 Constraints and Triggers for Ensuring Referential Integrity

Table Constraint to Declare on Table Triggers to Create on Table

Parent

PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE

One or more triggers that ensure that when PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE values are updated or deleted, the desired action (RESTRICT, CASCADE, or SET NULL) occurs on corresponding FOREIGN KEY values.

No action is required for inserts into the parent table, because no dependent foreign keys exist.

Child

FOREIGN KEY, if parent and child are in the same database. (The database does not support declarative referential constraints between tables on different nodes of a distributed database.)

Disable this foreign key constraint to prevent the corresponding PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE constraint from being dropped (except explicitly with the CASCADE option).

One trigger that ensures that values inserted or updated in the FOREIGN KEY correspond to PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE values in the parent table.


Topics:

Note:

The examples in the following topics use these tables, which share the column Deptno:
CREATE TABLE emp (
  Empno     NUMBER NOT NULL,
  Ename     VARCHAR2(10),
  Job       VARCHAR2(9),
  Mgr       NUMBER(4),
  Hiredate  DATE,
  Sal       NUMBER(7,2),
  Comm      NUMBER(7,2),
  Deptno    NUMBER(2) NOT NULL);

CREATE TABLE dept (
  Deptno    NUMBER(2) NOT NULL,
  Dname     VARCHAR2(14),
  Loc       VARCHAR2(13),
  Mgr_no    NUMBER,
  Dept_type NUMBER);

Several triggers include statements that lock rows (SELECT FOR UPDATE). This operation is necessary to maintain concurrency while the rows are being processed.

These examples are not meant to be used exactly as written. They are provided to assist you in designing your own triggers.

Foreign Key Trigger for Child Table

The trigger in Example 9-11 ensures that before an INSERT or UPDATE statement affects a foreign key value, the corresponding value exists in the parent key. The exception ORA-04091 (mutating-table error) allows the trigger emp_dept_check to be used with the UPDATE_SET_DEFAULT and UPDATE_CASCADE triggers. This exception is unnecessary if the trigger emp_dept_check is used alone.

Example 9-11 Foreign Key Trigger for Child Table

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER emp_dept_check
  BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF Deptno ON emp
  FOR EACH ROW WHEN (NEW.Deptno IS NOT NULL)

  -- Before row is inserted or DEPTNO is updated in emp table,
  -- fire this trigger to verify that new foreign key value (DEPTNO)
  -- is present in dept table.
DECLARE
  Dummy               INTEGER;  -- Use for cursor fetch
  Invalid_department  EXCEPTION;
  Valid_department    EXCEPTION;
  Mutating_table      EXCEPTION;
  PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT (Mutating_table, -4091);

  -- Cursor used to verify parent key value exists.
  -- If present, lock parent key's row so it cannot be deleted
  -- by another transaction until this transaction is
  -- committed or rolled back.

  CURSOR Dummy_cursor (Dn NUMBER) IS
    SELECT Deptno FROM dept
    WHERE Deptno = Dn
    FOR UPDATE OF Deptno;
BEGIN
  OPEN Dummy_cursor (:NEW.Deptno);
  FETCH Dummy_cursor INTO Dummy;

  -- Verify parent key.
  -- If not found, raise user-specified error code and message.
  -- If found, close cursor before allowing triggering statement to complete:

  IF Dummy_cursor%NOTFOUND THEN
    RAISE Invalid_department;
  ELSE
    RAISE valid_department;
  END IF;
  CLOSE Dummy_cursor;
EXCEPTION
  WHEN Invalid_department THEN
    CLOSE Dummy_cursor;
    Raise_application_error(-20000, 'Invalid Department'
      || ' Number' || TO_CHAR(:NEW.deptno));
  WHEN Valid_department THEN
    CLOSE Dummy_cursor;
  WHEN Mutating_table THEN
    NULL;
END;
/

UPDATE and DELETE RESTRICT Triggers for Parent Table

The trigger in Example 9-12 enforces the UPDATE and DELETE RESTRICT referential action on the primary key of the dept table.

Caution:

The trigger in Example 9-12 does not work with self-referential tables (tables with both the primary/unique key and the foreign key). Also, this trigger does not allow triggers to cycle (such as when A fires B, which fires A).

Example 9-12 UPDATE and DELETE RESTRICT Trigger for Parent Table

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_restrict
  BEFORE DELETE OR UPDATE OF Deptno ON dept
  FOR EACH ROW

  -- Before row is deleted from dept or primary key (DEPTNO) of dept is updated,
  -- check for dependent foreign key values in emp;
  -- if any are found, roll back.

DECLARE
  Dummy                  INTEGER;  -- Use for cursor fetch
  Employees_present      EXCEPTION;
  employees_not_present  EXCEPTION;

  -- Cursor used to check for dependent foreign key values.
  CURSOR Dummy_cursor (Dn NUMBER) IS
    SELECT Deptno FROM emp WHERE Deptno = Dn;

BEGIN
  OPEN Dummy_cursor (:OLD.Deptno);
  FETCH Dummy_cursor INTO Dummy;

  -- If dependent foreign key is found, raise user-specified
  -- error code and message. If not found, close cursor
  -- before allowing triggering statement to complete.

  IF Dummy_cursor%FOUND THEN
    RAISE Employees_present;     -- Dependent rows exist
  ELSE
    RAISE Employees_not_present; -- No dependent rows exist
  END IF;
  CLOSE Dummy_cursor;

EXCEPTION
  WHEN Employees_present THEN
    CLOSE Dummy_cursor;
    Raise_application_error(-20001, 'Employees Present in'
      || ' Department ' || TO_CHAR(:OLD.DEPTNO));
  WHEN Employees_not_present THEN
    CLOSE Dummy_cursor;
END;

UPDATE and DELETE SET NULL Triggers for Parent Table

The trigger in Example 9-13 enforces the UPDATE and DELETE SET NULL referential action on the primary key of the dept table.

Example 9-13 UPDATE and DELETE SET NULL Triggers for Parent Table

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_set_null
  AFTER DELETE OR UPDATE OF Deptno ON dept
  FOR EACH ROW

  -- Before row is deleted from dept or primary key (DEPTNO) of dept is updated,
  -- set all corresponding dependent foreign key values in emp to NULL:

BEGIN
  IF UPDATING AND :OLD.Deptno != :NEW.Deptno OR DELETING THEN
    UPDATE emp SET emp.Deptno = NULL
    WHERE emp.Deptno = :OLD.Deptno;
  END IF;
END;
/

DELETE CASCADE Trigger for Parent Table

The trigger in Example 9-14 enforces the DELETE CASCADE referential action on the primary key of the dept table.

Example 9-14 DELETE CASCADE Trigger for Parent Table

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_del_cascade
  AFTER DELETE ON dept
  FOR EACH ROW

  -- Before row is deleted from dept,
  -- delete all rows from emp table whose DEPTNO is same as
  -- DEPTNO being deleted from dept table:

BEGIN
  DELETE FROM emp
  WHERE emp.Deptno = :OLD.Deptno;
END;
/

Note:

Typically, the code for DELETE CASCADE is combined with the code for UPDATE SET NULL or UPDATE SET DEFAULT, to account for both updates and deletes.

UPDATE CASCADE Trigger for Parent Table

The triggers in Example 9-15 ensure that if a department number is updated in the dept table, then this change is propagated to dependent foreign keys in the emp table.

Example 9-15 UPDATE CASCADE Trigger for Parent Table

-- Generate sequence number to be used as flag
-- for determining if update occurred on column:

CREATE SEQUENCE Update_sequence
  INCREMENT BY 1 MAXVALUE 5000 CYCLE;

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE Integritypackage AS
  Updateseq NUMBER;
END Integritypackage;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY Integritypackage AS
END Integritypackage;
/
-- Create flag col:

ALTER TABLE emp ADD Update_id NUMBER;

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_cascade1
  BEFORE UPDATE OF Deptno ON dept
DECLARE
  -- Before updating dept table (this is a statement trigger),
  -- generate sequence number
  -- & assign it to public variable UPDATESEQ of
  -- user-defined package named INTEGRITYPACKAGE:
BEGIN
  Integritypackage.Updateseq := Update_sequence.NEXTVAL;
END;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_cascade2
  AFTER DELETE OR UPDATE OF Deptno ON dept
  FOR EACH ROW

  -- For each department number in dept that is updated,
  -- cascade update to dependent foreign keys in emp table.
  -- Cascade update only if child row was not updated by this trigger:
BEGIN
  IF UPDATING THEN
    UPDATE emp
    SET Deptno = :NEW.Deptno,
        Update_id = Integritypackage.Updateseq   --from 1st
    WHERE emp.Deptno = :OLD.Deptno
    AND Update_id IS NULL;

    /* Only NULL if not updated by 3rd trigger
       fired by same triggering statement */
  END IF;
  IF DELETING THEN
    -- Before row is deleted from dept,
    -- delete all rows from emp table whose DEPTNO is same as
    -- DEPTNO being deleted from dept table:
    DELETE FROM emp
    WHERE emp.Deptno = :OLD.Deptno;
  END IF;
END;
/
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER dept_cascade3
  AFTER UPDATE OF Deptno ON dept
BEGIN UPDATE emp
  SET Update_id = NULL
  WHERE Update_id = Integritypackage.Updateseq;
END;
/

Note:

Because the trigger dept_cascade2 updates the emp table, the emp_dept_check trigger in Example 9-11, if enabled, also fires. The resulting mutating-table error is trapped by the emp_dept_check trigger. Carefully test any triggers that require error trapping to succeed to ensure that they always work properly in your environment.

Triggers for Complex Check Constraints

Triggers can enforce integrity rules other than referential integrity. The trigger in Example 9-16 does a complex check before allowing the triggering statement to run.

Note:

Example 9-16 needs this data structure:
CREATE TABLE Salgrade (
  Grade               NUMBER,
  Losal               NUMBER,
  Hisal               NUMBER,
  Job_classification  NUMBER);

Example 9-16 Trigger for Complex Check Constraints

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER salary_check
  BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF Sal, Job ON Emp
  FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  Minsal               NUMBER;
  Maxsal               NUMBER;
  Salary_out_of_range  EXCEPTION;

BEGIN
  /* Retrieve minimum & maximum salary for employee's new job classification
     from SALGRADE table into MINSAL and MAXSAL: */

  SELECT Minsal, Maxsal INTO Minsal, Maxsal
  FROM Salgrade
  WHERE Job_classification = :NEW.Job;

  /* If employee's new salary is less than or greater than
     job classification's limits, raise exception.
     Exception message is returned and pending INSERT or UPDATE statement
     that fired the trigger is rolled back: */

  IF (:NEW.Sal < Minsal OR :NEW.Sal > Maxsal) THEN
    RAISE Salary_out_of_range;
  END IF;
EXCEPTION
  WHEN Salary_out_of_range THEN
    Raise_application_error (
      -20300,
      'Salary '|| TO_CHAR(:NEW.Sal) ||' out of range for '
      || 'job classification ' ||:NEW.Job
      ||' for employee ' || :NEW.Ename
    );
  WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
    Raise_application_error(-20322, 'Invalid Job Classification');
END;
/

Triggers for Complex Security Authorizations

Triggers are commonly used to enforce complex security authorizations for table data. Only use triggers to enforce complex security authorizations that cannot be defined using the database security features provided with the database. For example, a trigger can prohibit updates to salary data of the emp table during weekends, holidays, and nonworking hours.

When using a trigger to enforce a complex security authorization, it is best to use a BEFORE statement trigger. Using a BEFORE statement trigger has these benefits:

  • The security check is done before the triggering statement is allowed to run, so that no wasted work is done by an unauthorized statement.

  • The security check is done only for the triggering statement, not for each row affected by the triggering statement.

The trigger in Example 9-17 enforces security.

Note:

Example 9-17 needs this data structure:
CREATE TABLE Company_holidays (Day DATE);

Example 9-17 Trigger for Enforcing Security

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Emp_permit_changes
  BEFORE INSERT OR DELETE OR UPDATE ON Emp
DECLARE
  Dummy              INTEGER;
  Not_on_weekends    EXCEPTION;
  Not_on_holidays    EXCEPTION;
  Non_working_hours  EXCEPTION;
BEGIN
   /* Check for weekends: */
   IF (TO_CHAR(Sysdate, 'DY') = 'SAT' OR
     TO_CHAR(Sysdate, 'DY') = 'SUN') THEN
       RAISE Not_on_weekends;
   END IF;

   /* Check for company holidays: */
   SELECT COUNT(*) INTO Dummy FROM Company_holidays
     WHERE TRUNC(Day) = TRUNC(Sysdate); -- Discard time parts of dates
   IF dummy > 0 THEN
     RAISE Not_on_holidays;
   END IF;

  /* Check for work hours (8am to 6pm): */
  IF (TO_CHAR(Sysdate, 'HH24') < 8 OR
    TO_CHAR(Sysdate, 'HH24') > 18) THEN
      RAISE Non_working_hours;
  END IF;
EXCEPTION
  WHEN Not_on_weekends THEN
    Raise_application_error(-20324,'Might not change '
      ||'employee table during the weekend');
  WHEN Not_on_holidays THEN
    Raise_application_error(-20325,'Might not change '
      ||'employee table during a holiday');
  WHEN Non_working_hours THEN
    Raise_application_error(-20326,'Might not change '
     ||'emp table during nonworking hours');
END;
/

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide for detailed information about database security features

Triggers for Transparent Event Logging

Triggers are very useful when you want to transparently do a related change in the database following certain events.

The REORDER trigger example shows a trigger that reorders parts as necessary when certain conditions are met. (In other words, a triggering statement is entered, and the PARTS_ON_HAND value is less than the REORDER_POINT value.)

Triggers for Deriving Column Values

Triggers can derive column values automatically, based upon a value provided by an INSERT or UPDATE statement. This type of trigger is useful to force values in specific columns that depend on the values of other columns in the same row. BEFORE row triggers are necessary to complete this type of operation for these reasons:

  • The dependent values must be derived before the INSERT or UPDATE occurs, so that the triggering statement can use the derived values.

  • The trigger must fire for each row affected by the triggering INSERT or UPDATE statement.

The trigger in Example 9-18 derives new column values for a table whenever a row is inserted or updated.

Note:

Example 9-18 needs this change to this data structure:
ALTER TABLE Emp ADD(
   Uppername   VARCHAR2(20),
   Soundexname VARCHAR2(20));

Example 9-18 Trigger That Derives New Column Values for Table

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Derived 
BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OF Ename ON Emp

/* Before updating the ENAME field, derive the values for
   the UPPERNAME and SOUNDEXNAME fields. Restrict users
   from updating these fields directly: */
FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  :NEW.Uppername := UPPER(:NEW.Ename);
  :NEW.Soundexname := SOUNDEX(:NEW.Ename);
END;
/

Triggers for Building Complex Updatable Views

Views are an excellent mechanism to provide logical windows over table data. However, when the view query gets complex, the system implicitly cannot translate the DML on the view into those on the underlying tables. INSTEAD OF triggers help solve this problem. These triggers can be defined over views, and they fire instead of the actual DML.

Consider a library system where books are arranged by title. The library consists of a collection of book type objects:

CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE Book_t AS OBJECT (
  Booknum    NUMBER,
  Title      VARCHAR2(20),
  Author     VARCHAR2(20),
  Available  CHAR(1)
);
/
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE Book_list_t AS TABLE OF Book_t;
/

The table Book_table is created and populated like this:

DROP TABLE Book_table;
CREATE TABLE Book_table (
  Booknum    NUMBER,
  Section    VARCHAR2(20),
  Title      VARCHAR2(20),
  Author     VARCHAR2(20),
  Available  CHAR(1)
);
 
INSERT INTO Book_table (
  Booknum, Section, Title, Author, Available
) 
VALUES (
  121001, 'Classic', 'Iliad', 'Homer', 'Y'
);
 
INSERT INTO Book_table (
  Booknum, Section, Title, Author, Available
) 
VALUES ( 
  121002, 'Novel', 'Gone with the Wind', 'Mitchell M', 'N'
);
 
SELECT * FROM Book_table ORDER BY Booknum;

Result:

BOOKNUM SECTION              TITLE                AUTHOR               A
---------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -
    121001 Classic              Iliad                Homer                Y
    121002 Novel                Gone with the Wind   Mitchell M           N
 
2 rows selected.

The table Library_table is created and populated like this:

DROP TABLE Library_table;
CREATE TABLE Library_table (Section VARCHAR2(20));
 
INSERT INTO Library_table (Section)
VALUES ('Novel');
 
INSERT INTO Library_table (Section)
VALUES ('Classic');
 
SELECT * FROM Library_table ORDER BY Section;

Result:

SECTION
--------------------
Classic
Novel
 
2 rows selected.

You can define a complex view over the tables Book_table and Library_table to create a logical view of the library with sections and a collection of books in each section:

CREATE OR REPLACE VIEW Library_view AS
  SELECT i.Section, CAST (
    MULTISET (
      SELECT b.Booknum, b.Title, b.Author, b.Available
      FROM Book_table b
      WHERE b.Section = i.Section
    ) AS Book_list_t
  ) BOOKLIST
  FROM Library_table i;

(For information about the CAST function, see Oracle Database SQL Language Reference.)

Make Library_view updatable by defining an INSTEAD OF trigger on it:

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Library_trigger
  INSTEAD OF
  INSERT ON Library_view
  FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  Bookvar  Book_t;
  i        INTEGER;
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO Library_table
  VALUES (:NEW.Section);
 
  FOR i IN 1..:NEW.Booklist.COUNT LOOP
    Bookvar := :NEW.Booklist(i);
 
    INSERT INTO Book_table (
      Booknum, Section, Title, Author, Available      
    )
    VALUES (
      Bookvar.booknum, :NEW.Section, Bookvar.Title,
      Bookvar.Author, bookvar.Available
    );
  END LOOP;
END;
/

Insert a new row into Library_view:

INSERT INTO Library_view (Section, Booklist)
VALUES (
  'History', 
  book_list_t (book_t (121330, 'Alexander', 'Mirth', 'Y'))
);

See the effect on Library_view:

SELECT * FROM Library_view ORDER BY Section;

Result:

SECTION
--------------------
BOOKLIST(BOOKNUM, TITLE, AUTHOR, AVAILABLE)
--------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Classic
BOOK_LIST_T(BOOK_T(121001, 'Iliad', 'Homer', 'Y'))
 
History
BOOK_LIST_T(BOOK_T(121330, 'Alexander', 'Mirth', 'Y'))
 
Novel
BOOK_LIST_T(BOOK_T(121002, 'Gone with the Wind', 'Mitchell M', 'N'))
 
 
3 rows selected.

See the effect on Book_table:

SELECT * FROM Book_table ORDER BY Booknum;

Result:

BOOKNUM SECTION              TITLE                AUTHOR               A
---------- -------------------- -------------------- -------------------- -
    121001 Classic              Iliad                Homer                Y
    121002 Novel                Gone with the Wind   Mitchell M           N
    121330 History              Alexander            Mirth                Y
 
3 rows selected.

See the effect on Library_table:

SELECT * FROM Library_table ORDER BY Section;

Result:

SECTION
--------------------
Classic
History
Novel
 
3 rows selected.

Similarly, you can also define triggers on the nested table booklist to handle modification of the nested table element.

Triggers for Fine-Grained Access Control

You can use LOGON triggers to run the package associated with an application context. An application context captures session-related information about the user who is logging in to the database. From there, your application can control how much access this user has, based on his or her session information.

Note:

If you have very specific logon requirements, such as preventing users from logging in from outside the firewall or after work hours, consider using Oracle Database Vault instead of LOGON triggers. With Oracle Database Vault, you can create custom rules to strictly control user access.

See Also:

System Triggers

A system trigger is created on either a schema or the database. Its triggering event is composed of either DDL statements (listed in "ddl_event") or database operation statements (listed in "database_event").

A system trigger fires at exactly one of these timing points:

Topics:

SCHEMA Triggers

A SCHEMA trigger is created on a schema and fires whenever any user connected as that schema owner initiates the triggering event.

Example 9-19 creates a BEFORE statement trigger on the sample schema HR. When a user connected as HR tries to drop a database object, the database fires the trigger before dropping the object.

Example 9-19 BEFORE Statement Trigger on Sample Schema HR

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER drop_trigger
  BEFORE DROP ON hr.SCHEMA
  BEGIN
    RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (
      num => -20000,
      msg => 'Cannot drop object');
  END;
/

DATABASE Triggers

A DATABASE trigger is created on the database and fires whenever any database user initiates the triggering event.

Example 9-20 shows the basic syntax for a trigger to log all errors. This trigger fires after an unsuccessful statement execution, such as unsuccessful logon.

Example 9-20 AFTER Statement Trigger on Database

CREATE TRIGGER log_errors
  AFTER SERVERERROR ON DATABASE
  BEGIN
    IF (IS_SERVERERROR (1017)) THEN
      NULL;  -- (substitute code that processes logon error)
    ELSE
      NULL;  -- (substitute code that logs error code)
    END IF;
  END;
/

The trigger in Example 9-21 runs the procedure check_user after a user logs onto the database.

Example 9-21 Trigger for Monitoring Logons

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER check_user
  AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE
  BEGIN
    check_user;
  EXCEPTION
    WHEN OTHERS THEN
      RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR
        (-20000, 'Unexpected error: '|| DBMS_Utility.Format_Error_Stack);
 END;
/

Subprograms Invoked by Triggers

Triggers can invoke subprograms written in PL/SQL, C, and Java. The trigger in Example 9-9 invokes a PL/SQL subprogram. The trigger in Example 9-22 invokes a Java subprogram.

Example 9-22 Trigger That Invokes Java Subprogram

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Before_delete (Id IN NUMBER, Ename VARCHAR2)
IS LANGUAGE Java
name 'thjvTriggers.beforeDelete (oracle.sql.NUMBER, oracle.sql.CHAR)';

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Pre_del_trigger BEFORE DELETE ON Tab 
FOR EACH ROW
CALL Before_delete (:OLD.Id, :OLD.Ename)
/

The corresponding Java file is thjvTriggers.java:

import java.sql.*
import java.io.*
import oracle.sql.*
import oracle.oracore.*
public class thjvTriggers
{
public state void
beforeDelete (NUMBER old_id, CHAR old_name)
Throws SQLException, CoreException
   {
   Connection conn = JDBCConnection.defaultConnection();
   Statement stmt = conn.CreateStatement();
   String sql = "insert into logtab values
   ("+ old_id.intValue() +", '"+ old_ename.toString() + ", BEFORE DELETE');
   stmt.executeUpdate (sql);
   stmt.close();
   return;
   }
}

A subprogram invoked by a trigger cannot run transaction control statements, because the subprogram runs in the context of the trigger body.

If a trigger invokes an invoker rights (IR) subprogram, then the user who created the trigger, not the user who ran the triggering statement, is considered to be the current user. For information about IR subprograms, see "Invoker's Rights and Definer's Rights (AUTHID Property)".

If a trigger invokes a remote subprogram, and a timestamp or signature mismatch is found during execution of the trigger, then the remote subprogram does not run and the trigger is invalidated.

Trigger Compilation, Invalidation, and Recompilation

The CREATE TRIGGER statement compiles the trigger and stores its code in the database. If a compilation error occurs, the trigger is still created, but its triggering statement fails, except in these cases:

To see trigger compilation errors, either use the SHOW ERRORS command in SQL*Plus or Enterprise Manager, or query the static data dictionary view *_ERRORS (described in Oracle Database Reference).

If a trigger does not compile successfully, then its exception handler cannot run. For an example, see "Remote Exception Handling".

If a trigger references another object, such as a subprogram or package, and that object is modified or dropped, then the trigger becomes invalid. The next time the triggering event occurs, the compiler tries to revalidate the trigger (for details, see Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide).

Note:

Because the DBMS_AQ package is used to enqueue a message, dependency between triggers and queues cannot be maintained.

To recompile a trigger manually, use the ALTER TRIGGER statement, described in "ALTER TRIGGER Statement".

Exception Handling in Triggers

In most cases, if a trigger runs a statement that raises an exception, and the exception is not handled by an exception handler, then the database rolls back the effects of both the trigger and its triggering statement.

In the following cases, the database rolls back only the effects of the trigger, not the effects of the triggering statement (and logs the error in trace files and the alert log):

In the case of a compound DML trigger, the database rolls back only the effects of the triggering statement, not the effects of the trigger. However, variables declared in the trigger are re-initialized, and any values computed before the triggering statement was rolled back are lost.

Note:

Triggers that enforce complex security authorizations or constraints typically raise user-defined exceptions, which are explained in "User-Defined Exceptions".

See Also:

Chapter 11, "PL/SQL Error Handling," for general information about exception handling

Remote Exception Handling

A trigger that accesses a remote database can do remote exception handling only if the remote database is available. If the remote database is unavailable when the local database must compile the trigger, then the local database cannot validate the statement that accesses the remote database, and the compilation fails. If the trigger cannot be compiled, then its exception handler cannot run.

The trigger in Example 9-23 has an INSERT statement that accesses a remote database. The trigger also has an exception handler. However, if the remote database is unavailable when the local database tries to compile the trigger, then the compilation fails and the exception handler cannot run.

Example 9-23 Trigger that Cannot Handle Exception if Remote Database is Unavailable

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER employees_tr
  AFTER INSERT ON employees
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  -- When remote database is unavailable, compilation fails here:
  INSERT INTO employees@remote (
    employee_id, first_name, last_name, email, hire_date, job_id
  ) 
  VALUES (
    99, 'Jane', 'Doe', 'jane.doe@example.com', SYSDATE, 'ST_MAN'
  );
EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    INSERT INTO emp_log (Emp_id, Log_date, New_salary, Action)
    VALUES (99, SYSDATE, NULL, 'Could not insert');
END;
/

Example 9-24 shows the workaround for the problem in Example 9-23: Put the remote INSERT statement and exception handler in a stored subprogram and have the trigger invoke the stored subprogram. The subprogram is stored in the local database in compiled form, with a validated statement for accessing the remote database. Therefore, when the remote INSERT statement fails because the remote database is unavailable, the exception handler in the subprogram can handle it.

Example 9-24 Workaround for Example 9-23

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE insert_row_proc AS
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO employees@remote (
    employee_id, first_name, last_name, email, hire_date, job_id
  ) 
  VALUES (
    99, 'Jane', 'Doe', 'jane.doe@example.com', SYSDATE, 'ST_MAN'
  );
EXCEPTION
  WHEN OTHERS THEN
    INSERT INTO emp_log (Emp_id, Log_date, New_salary, Action)
    VALUES (99, SYSDATE, NULL, 'Could not insert');
END;
/
 
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER employees_tr
  AFTER INSERT ON employees
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  insert_row_proc;
END;
/

Trigger Design Guidelines

Trigger Restrictions

In addition to the restrictions that apply to all PL/SQL units (see Table C-1), triggers have these restrictions:

Trigger Size Restriction

The size of the trigger cannot exceed 32K.

If the logic for your trigger requires much more than 60 lines of PL/SQL source code, then put most of the source code in a stored subprogram and invoke the subprogram from the trigger. For information about subprograms invoked by triggers, see "Subprograms Invoked by Triggers".

Trigger LONG and LONG RAW Data Type Restrictions

Note:

Oracle supports the LONG and LONG RAW data types only for backward compatibility with existing applications.

In addition to the restrictions that apply to all PL/SQL units (see "LONG and LONG RAW Variables"), triggers have these restrictions:

  • A trigger cannot declare a variable of the LONG or LONG RAW data type.

  • A SQL statement in a trigger can reference a LONG or LONG RAW column only if the column data can be converted to the data type CHAR or VARCHAR2.

  • A trigger cannot use the correlation name NEW or PARENT with a LONG or LONG RAW column.

Mutating-Table Restriction

Note:

This topic applies only to row-level simple DML triggers.

A mutating table is a table that is being modified by a DML statement (possibly by the effects of a DELETE CASCADE constraint). (A view being modified by an INSTEAD OF trigger is not considered to be mutating.)

The mutating-table restriction prevents the trigger from querying or modifying the table that the triggering statement is modifying. When a row-level trigger encounters a mutating table, ORA-04091 occurs, the effects of the trigger and triggering statement are rolled back, and control returns to the user or application that issued the triggering statement, as Example 9-25 shows.

Caution:

Oracle Database does not enforce the mutating-table restriction for a trigger that accesses remote nodes, because the database does not support declarative referential constraints between tables on different nodes of a distributed database.

Similarly, the database does not enforce the mutating-table restriction for tables in the same database that are connected by loop-back database links. A loop-back database link makes a local table appear remote by defining an Oracle Net path back to the database that contains the link.

Example 9-25 Trigger that Causes Mutating-Table Error

-- Create log table
 
DROP TABLE log;
CREATE TABLE log (
  emp_id  NUMBER(6),
  l_name  VARCHAR2(25),
  f_name  VARCHAR2(20)
);
 
-- Create trigger that updates log and then reads employees
 
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER log_deletions
  AFTER DELETE ON employees
  FOR EACH ROW
DECLARE
  n INTEGER;
BEGIN
  INSERT INTO log VALUES (
    :OLD.employee_id,
    :OLD.last_name,
    :OLD.first_name
  );
 
  SELECT COUNT(*) INTO n FROM employees;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('There are now ' || n || ' employees.');
END;
/
 
-- Issue triggering statement:
 
DELETE FROM employees WHERE employee_id = 197;

Result:

DELETE FROM employees WHERE employee_id = 197
            *
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-04091: table HR.EMPLOYEES is mutating, trigger/function might not see it
ORA-06512: at "HR.LOG_DELETIONS", line 10
ORA-04088: error during execution of trigger 'HR.LOG_DELETIONS'

Show that effect of trigger was rolled back:

SELECT count(*) FROM log;

Result:

COUNT(*)
----------
         0
 
1 row selected.

Show that effect of triggering statement was rolled back:

SELECT employee_id, last_name FROM employees WHERE employee_id = 197;

Result:

EMPLOYEE_ID LAST_NAME
----------- -------------------------
        197 Feeney
 
1 row selected.

If you must use a trigger to update a mutating table, you can avoid the mutating-table error in either of these ways:

  • Use a compound DML trigger (see "Using Compound DML Triggers to Avoid Mutating-Table Error").

  • Use a temporary table.

    For example, instead of using one AFTER each row trigger that updates the mutating table, use two triggers—an AFTER each row trigger that updates the temporary table and an AFTER statement trigger that updates the mutating table with the values from the temporary table.

Mutating-Table Restriction Relaxed

As of Oracle Database 8g Release 1 (8.1), a deletion from the parent table causes BEFORE and AFTER triggers to fire once. Therefore, you can create row-level and statement-level triggers that query and modify the parent and child tables. This allows most foreign key constraint actions to be implemented through their after-row triggers (unless the constraint is self-referential). Update cascade, update set null, update set default, delete set default, inserting a missing parent, and maintaining a count of children can all be implemented easily—see "Triggers for Ensuring Referential Integrity".

However, cascades require care for multiple-row foreign key updates. The trigger cannot miss rows that were changed but not committed by another transaction, because the foreign key constraint guarantees that no matching foreign key rows are locked before the after-row trigger is invoked.

In Example 9-26, the triggering statement updates p correctly but causes problems when the trigger updates f. First, the triggering statement changes (1) to (2) in p, and the trigger updates (1) to (2) in f, leaving two rows of value (2) in f. Next, the triggering statement updates (2) to (3) in p, and the trigger updates both rows of value (2) to (3) in f. Finally, the statement updates (3) to (4) in p, and the trigger updates all three rows in f from (3) to (4). The relationship between the data items in p and f is lost.

Example 9-26 Update Cascade

DROP TABLE p;
CREATE TABLE p (p1 NUMBER CONSTRAINT pk_p_p1 PRIMARY KEY);
INSERT INTO p VALUES (1);
INSERT INTO p VALUES (2);
INSERT INTO p VALUES (3);
 
DROP TABLE f;
CREATE TABLE f (f1 NUMBER CONSTRAINT fk_f_f1 REFERENCES p);
INSERT INTO f VALUES (1);
INSERT INTO f VALUES (2);
INSERT INTO f VALUES (3);
 
CREATE TRIGGER pt
  AFTER UPDATE ON p
  FOR EACH ROW
BEGIN
  UPDATE f SET f1 = :NEW.p1 WHERE f1 = :OLD.p1;
END;
/
 

Query:

SELECT * FROM p;
 

Result:

P1
----------
         1
         2
         3

Query:

SELECT * FROM f;
 

Result:

F1
----------
         1
         2
         3

Issue triggering statement:

UPDATE p SET p1 = p1+1;
 

Query:

SELECT * FROM p;
 

Result:

P1
----------
         2
         3
         4

Query:

SELECT * FROM f;
 

Result:

F1
----------
         4
         4
         4

To avoid this problem, either forbid multiple-row updates to p that change the primary key and reuse existing primary key values, or track updates to foreign key values and modify the trigger to ensure that no row is updated twice.

Order in Which Triggers Fire

If two or more triggers with different timing points are defined for the same statement on the same table, then they fire in this order:

  1. All BEFORE STATEMENT triggers

  2. All BEFORE EACH ROW triggers

  3. All AFTER EACH ROW triggers

  4. All AFTER STATEMENT triggers

If it is practical, replace the set of individual triggers with different timing points with a single compound trigger that explicitly codes the actions in the order you intend. For information about compound triggers, see "Compound DML Triggers".

If you are creating two or more triggers with the same timing point, and the order in which they fire is important, then you can control their firing order using the FOLLOWS and PRECEDES clauses (see "FOLLOWS | PRECEDES").

If multiple compound triggers are created on a table, then:

The firing of compound triggers can be interleaved with the firing of simple triggers.

When one trigger causes another trigger to fire, the triggers are said to be cascading. The database allows up to 32 triggers to cascade simultaneously. To limit the number of trigger cascades, use the initialization parameter OPEN_CURSORS (described in Oracle Database Reference), because a cursor opens every time a trigger fires.

Trigger Enabling and Disabling

By default, the CREATE TRIGGER statement creates a trigger in the enabled state. To create a trigger in the disabled state, specify DISABLE. Creating a trigger in the disabled state lets you ensure that it compiles without errors before you enable it.

Some reasons to temporarily disable a trigger are:

To enable or disable a single trigger, use this statement:

ALTER TRIGGER [schema.]trigger_name { ENABLE | DISABLE };

To enable or disable all triggers created on a specific table, use this statement:

ALTER TABLE table_name { ENABLE | DISABLE } ALL TRIGGERS;

In both of the preceding statements, schema is the name of the schema containing the trigger, and the default is your own schema.

See Also:

Trigger Changing and Debugging

To change a trigger, you must either replace or re-create it. (The ALTER TRIGGER statement only enables, disables, compiles, or renames a trigger.)

To replace a trigger, use the CREATE TRIGGER statement with the OR REPLACE clause.

To re-create a trigger, first drop it with the DROP TRIGGER statement and then create it again with the CREATE TRIGGER statement.

To debug a trigger, you can use the facilities available for stored subprograms. For information about these facilities, see Oracle Database Advanced Application Developer's Guide.

See Also:

Triggers and Oracle Database Data Transfer Utilities

The Oracle database utilities that transfer data to your database, possibly firing triggers, are:

Triggers for Publishing Events

To use a trigger to publish an event, create a trigger that:

By enabling and disabling such triggers, you can turn event notification on and off. For information about enabling and disabling triggers, see "Trigger Enabling and Disabling".

How Triggers Publish Events

When the database detects an event, it fires all enabled triggers that are defined on that event, except:

When a trigger fires and invokes AQ, AQ publishes the event and passes to the trigger the publication context and specified attributes. The trigger can access the attributes by invoking event attribute functions.

The attributes that a trigger can specify to AQ (by passing them to AQ as IN parameters) and then access with event attribute functions depends on the triggering event, which is either a database event or a client event.

Note:

  • A trigger always behaves like a definer rights (DR) unit. The trigger action of an event runs as the definer of the action (as the definer of the package or function in callouts, or as owner of the trigger in queues). Because the owner of the trigger must have EXECUTE privileges on the underlying queues, packages, or subprograms, this action is consistent. For information about DR units, see "Invoker's Rights and Definer's Rights (AUTHID Property)".

  • The database ignores the return status from callback functions for all events. For example, the database does nothing with the return status from a SHUTDOWN event.

Topics:

Event Attribute Functions

By invoking system-defined event attribute functions in Table 9-4, a trigger can retrieve certain attributes of the triggering event. Not all triggers can invoke all event attribute functions—for details, see "Event Attribute Functions for Database Event Triggers" and "Event Attribute Functions for Client Event Triggers".

Note:

  • In earlier releases, you had to access these functions through the SYS package. Now Oracle recommends accessing them with their public synonyms (the names starting with ora_ in the first column of Table 9-4).

  • The function parameter ora_name_list_t is defined in package DBMS_STANDARD as:

    TYPE ora_name_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(64);
    

Table 9-4 System-Defined Event Attributes

Attribute Return Type and Value Example
ora_client_ip_address

VARCHAR2: IP address of client in LOGON event when underlying protocol is TCP/IP

DECLARE
  v_addr VARCHAR2(11);
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent = 'LOGON') THEN
    v_addr := ora_client_ip_address;
  END IF;
END;
/
ora_database_name

VARCHAR2(50): Database name

DECLARE
  v_db_name VARCHAR2(50);
BEGIN
  v_db_name := ora_database_name;
END;
/
ora_des_encrypted_password

VARCHAR2: DES-encrypted password of user being created or altered

IF (ora_dict_obj_type = 'USER') THEN
  INSERT INTO event_table
  VALUES (ora_des_encrypted_password);
END IF;
ora_dict_obj_name

VARCHAR2(30): Name of dictionary object on which DDL operation occurred

INSERT INTO event_table 
VALUES ('Changed object is ' ||
        ora_dict_obj_name);
ora_dict_obj_name_list (
name_list OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of object names modified in event

OUT parameter: List of object names modified in event

DECLARE
  name_list DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  number_modified PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent='ASSOCIATE STATISTICS') THEN
    number_modified :=
     ora_dict_obj_name_list(name_list);
  END IF;
END;
ora_dict_obj_owner

VARCHAR2(30): Owner of dictionary object on which DDL operation occurred

INSERT INTO event_table
VALUES ('object owner is' || 
        ora_dict_obj_owner);
ora_dict_obj_owner_list (
owner_list OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of owners of objects modified in event

OUT parameter: List of owners of objects modified in event

DECLARE
  owner_list DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  number_modified PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent='ASSOCIATE STATISTICS') THEN
    number_modified :=
      ora_dict_obj_name_list(owner_list);
  END IF;
END;
ora_dict_obj_type

VARCHAR2(20): Type of dictionary object on which DDL operation occurred

INSERT INTO event_table
VALUES ('This object is a ' || 
        ora_dict_obj_type);
ora_grantee (
user_list OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of grantees in grant event

OUT parameter: List of grantees in grant event

DECLARE
  user_list DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  number_of_grantees PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent = 'GRANT') THEN
    number_of_grantees := 
     ora_grantee(user_list);
  END IF;
END;
ora_instance_num

NUMBER: Instance number

IF (ora_instance_num = 1) THEN
  INSERT INTO event_table VALUES ('1');
END IF;
ora_is_alter_column (
column_name IN VARCHAR2
)

BOOLEAN: TRUE if specified column is altered, FALSE otherwise

IF (ora_sysevent = 'ALTER' AND
  ora_dict_obj_type = 'TABLE') THEN 
    alter_column := ora_is_alter_column('C');
END IF;
ora_is_creating_nested_table

BOOLEAN: TRUE if current event is creating nested table, FALSE otherwise

IF (ora_sysevent = 'CREATE' AND
  ora_dict_obj_type = 'TABLE' AND
  ora_is_creating_nested_table) THEN
    INSERT INTO event_table
    VALUES ('A nested table is created');
END IF;
ora_is_drop_column (
column_name IN VARCHAR2
)

BOOLEAN: TRUE if specified column is dropped, FALSE otherwise

IF (ora_sysevent = 'ALTER' AND
  ora_dict_obj_type = 'TABLE') THEN
    drop_column := ora_is_drop_column('C');
END IF;
ora_is_servererror (
error_number IN VARCHAR2
)

BOOLEAN: TRUE if given error is on error stack, FALSE otherwise

IF ora_is_servererror(error_number) THEN
  INSERT INTO event_table
  VALUES ('Server error!!');
END IF;
ora_login_user

VARCHAR2(30): Login user name

SELECT ora_login_user FROM DUAL;
ora_partition_pos

PLS_INTEGER: In INSTEAD OF trigger for CREATE TABLE, position in SQL text where you can insert PARTITION clause

-- Retrieve ora_sql_txt into  sql_text variable
v_n := ora_partition_pos;
v_new_stmt := SUBSTR(sql_text,1,v_n - 1)
              || ' ' || my_partition_clause
              || ' ' || SUBSTR(sql_text, v_n));
ora_privilege_list (
privilege_list OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of privileges in grant or revoke event

OUT parameter: List of privileges granted or revoked in event

DECLARE
  privilege_list DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  number_of_privileges PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent = 'GRANT' OR
      ora_sysevent = 'REVOKE') THEN
    number_of_privileges :=
      ora_privilege_list(privilege_list);
  END IF;
END;
ora_revokee (
user_list OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of revokees in revoke event

OUT parameter: List of revokees in event

DECLARE
  user_list DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  number_of_users PLS_INTEGER;
BEGIN
  IF (ora_sysevent = 'REVOKE') THEN
    number_of_users := ora_revokee(user_list);
  END IF;
END;
ora_server_error (
position IN PLS_INTEGER
)

NUMBER: Error code at given position on error stackFoot 1 

INSERT INTO event_table
VALUES ('top stack error ' || 
        ora_server_error(1));
ora_server_error_depth

PLS_INTEGER: Number of error messages on error stack

n := ora_server_error_depth;
-- Use n with functions such as ora_server_error
ora_server_error_msg (
position IN PLS_INTEGER
)

VARCHAR2: Error message at given position on error stackFootref 1

INSERT INTO event_table
VALUES ('top stack error message' ||
        ora_server_error_msg(1));
ora_server_error_num_params (
position IN PLS_INTEGER
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of strings substituted into error message (using format like %s) at given position on error stackFootref 1

n := ora_server_error_num_params(1);
ora_server_error_param (
position IN PLS_INTEGER,
param IN PLS_INTEGER
)

VARCHAR2: Matching substitution value (%s, %d, and so on) in error message at given position and parameter numberFootref 1

-- Second %s in "Expected %s, found %s":
param := ora_server_error_param(1,2);
ora_sql_txt (
sql_text OUT ora_name_list_t
)

PLS_INTEGER: Number of elements in PL/SQL table

OUT parameter: SQL text of triggering statement (broken into multiple collection elements if statement is long)

CREATE TABLE event_table (col VARCHAR2(2030));

DECLARE
  sql_text DBMS_STANDARD.ora_name_list_t;
  n PLS_INTEGER;
  v_stmt VARCHAR2(2000);
BEGIN
  n := ora_sql_txt(sql_text);

  FOR i IN 1..n LOOP
    v_stmt := v_stmt || sql_text(i);
  END LOOP;

  INSERT INTO event_table VALUES ('text of
    triggering statement: ' || v_stmt);
END;
ora_sysevent

VARCHAR2(20): Name of triggering event, as given in syntax

INSERT INTO event_table
VALUES (ora_sysevent);
ora_with_grant_option

BOOLEAN: TRUE if privileges are granted with GRANT option, FALSE otherwise

IF (ora_sysevent = 'GRANT' AND
  ora_with_grant_option = TRUE) THEN
    INSERT INTO event_table 
    VALUES ('with grant option');
END IF;
space_error_info (
error_number OUT NUMBER,
error_type OUT VARCHAR2,
object_owner OUT VARCHAR2,
table_space_name OUT VARCHAR2,
object_name OUT VARCHAR2,
sub_object_name OUT VARCHAR2
)

BOOLEAN: TRUE if error is related to out-of-space condition, FALSE otherwise

OUT parameters: Information about object that caused error

IF (space_error_info (
     eno,typ,owner,ts,obj,subobj) = TRUE) THEN
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('The object '|| obj
     || ' owned by ' || owner ||
     ' has run out of space.');
END IF;

Footnote 1 Position 1 is the top of the stack.

Event Attribute Functions for Database Event Triggers

Table 9-5 summarizes the characteristics of the database event triggers that can invoke event attribute functions. For more information about the triggering events in Table 9-5, see "database_event".

Table 9-5 Database Event Trigger Characteristics

Triggering Event When Trigger Fires WHEN Conditions Restrictions Transaction Attribute Functions
AFTER STARTUP

When database is opened.

None allowed

Trigger cannot do database operations.

Starts a separate transaction and commits it after firing the triggers.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
BEFORE SHUTDOWN

Just before server starts shutdown of an instance.

This lets the cartridge shutdown completely. For abnormal instance shutdown, this trigger might not fire.

None allowed

Trigger cannot do database operations.

Starts separate transaction and commits it after firing triggers.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
AFTER DB_ROLE_CHANGE

When database is opened for first time after role change.

None allowed

None

Starts separate transaction and commits it after firing triggers.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
AFTER SERVERERROR

With condition, whenever specified error occurs. Without condition, whenever any error occurs.

Trigger does not fire for errors listed in "database_event".

ERRNO = eno

Depends on error.

Starts separate transaction and commits it after firing triggers.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_server_error
ora_is_servererror
space_error_info

Event Attribute Functions for Client Event Triggers

Table 9-6 summarizes the characteristics of client event triggers that can invoke event attribute functions. For more information about the triggering events in Table 9-6, see "ddl_event" and "database_event".

Note:

If a client event trigger becomes the target of a DDL operation (such as CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER), then it cannot fire later during the same transaction.

Table 9-6 Client Event Trigger Characteristics

Triggering Event When Trigger Fires WHEN Conditions Restrictions Transaction Attribute Functions
BEFORE ALTER

AFTER ALTER

When catalog object is altered

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent 
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_type 
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_des_encrypted_password
 (for ALTER USER events)
ora_is_alter_column
 (for ALTER TABLE events)
ora_is_drop_column
 (for ALTER TABLE events)
BEFORE DROP

AFTER DROP

When catalog object is dropped

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_owner
BEFORE ANALYZE

AFTER ANALYZE

When ANALYZE statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
BEFORE ASSOCIATE STATISTICS

AFTER ASSOCIATE STATISTICS

When ASSOCIATE STATISTICS statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_dict_obj_name_list
ora_dict_obj_owner_list
BEFORE AUDIT

AFTER AUDIT

BEFORE NOAUDIT

AFTER NOAUDIT

When AUDIT or NOAUDIT statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
BEFORE COMMENT

AFTER COMMENT

When object is commented

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
BEFORE CREATE

AFTER CREATE

When catalog object is created

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent 
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_type 
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_is_creating_nested_table
 (for CREATE TABLE events)
BEFORE DDL

AFTER DDL

When most SQL DDL statements are issued. Not fired for ALTER DATABASE, CREATE CONTROLFILE, CREATE DATABASE, and DDL issued through the PL/SQL subprogram interface, such as creating an advanced queue.

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
BEFORE DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS

AFTER DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS

When DISASSOCIATE STATISTICS statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_dict_obj_name_list
ora_dict_obj_owner_list
BEFORE GRANT

AFTER GRANT

When GRANT statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_grantee
ora_with_grant_option
ora_privileges
BEFORE LOGOFF

At start of user logoff

Simple conditions on UID and USER

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
AFTER LOGON

After successful user logon

Simple conditions on UID and USER

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Starts separate transaction and commits it after firing triggers.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_client_ip_address
BEFORE RENAME

AFTER RENAME

When RENAME statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_dict_obj_type
BEFORE REVOKE

AFTER REVOKE

When REVOKE statement is issued

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner
ora_revokee
ora_privileges
AFTER SUSPEND

After SQL statement is suspended because of out-of-space condition.

(Trigger must correct condition so statement can be resumed.)

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_server_error
ora_is_servererror
space_error_info
BEFORE TRUNCATE

AFTER TRUNCATE

When object is truncated

Simple conditions on type and name of object, UID, and USER

Trigger cannot do DDL operations on object that caused event to be generated.

DDL on other objects is limited to compiling an object, creating a trigger, and creating, altering, and dropping a table.

Fires triggers in current transaction.

ora_sysevent
ora_login_user
ora_instance_num
ora_database_name
ora_dict_obj_name
ora_dict_obj_type
ora_dict_obj_owner

Views for Information About Triggers

The *_TRIGGERS static data dictionary views reveal information about triggers. For information about these views, see Oracle Database Reference.

Example 9-27 creates a trigger and queries the static data dictionary view USER_TRIGGERS twice—first to show its type, triggering event, and the name of the table on which it is created, and then to show its body.

Note:

The query results in Example 9-27 were formatted by these SQL*Plus commands :
COLUMN Trigger_type FORMAT A15
COLUMN Triggering_event FORMAT A16
COLUMN Table_name FORMAT A11
COLUMN Trigger_body FORMAT A50

Example 9-27 Viewing Information About Triggers

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Emp_count
  AFTER DELETE ON employees
DECLARE
  n  INTEGER;
BEGIN
  SELECT COUNT(*) INTO n FROM employees;
  DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('There are now ' || n || ' employees.');
END;
/

COLUMN Trigger_type FORMAT A15
COLUMN Triggering_event FORMAT A16
COLUMN Table_name FORMAT A11
COLUMN Trigger_body FORMAT A50

Query:

SELECT Trigger_type, Triggering_event, Table_name
FROM USER_TRIGGERS
WHERE Trigger_name = 'EMP_COUNT';

Result:

TRIGGER_TYPE    TRIGGERING_EVENT TABLE_NAME
--------------- ---------------- -----------
AFTER STATEMENT DELETE           EMPLOYEES

Query:

SELECT Trigger_body
FROM USER_TRIGGERS
WHERE Trigger_name = 'EMP_COUNT';

Result:

TRIGGER_BODY
--------------------------------------------------
DECLARE
  n  INTEGER;
BEGIN
  SELECT COUNT(*) INTO n FROM employees;
  DBMS_OUTP
 
 
1 row selected.