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Oracle® Database Backup and Recovery Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E10643-03
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DUPLICATE

Purpose

Use the DUPLICATE command to create a copy of a source database. RMAN can create either of the following types of databases:

RMAN can perform the duplication in any of the following supported modes:

See Also:

Additional Topics

Prerequisites

The prerequisites vary depending on the type of duplication.

Prerequisites Common to All Forms of Duplication

RMAN must be connected as AUXILIARY to the instance of the duplicate database. The instance of the duplicate database is called the auxiliary instance. The auxiliary instance must be started with the NOMOUNT option.

The source host is the database on which the source database resides. The destination host is the host on which you intend to create the duplicate database. If you intend to create the duplicate database on the source host, then set the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter appropriately so that the DUPLICATE command does not generate an error because the source control file is in use. Also, set all *_DEST initialization parameters appropriately so that the source database files are not overwritten by the duplicate database files.

The source and duplicate databases must be on the same platform. In the context of DUPLICATE, 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the same platform are considered the same platform. For example, Linux IA (32-bit) is considered the same platform as Linux IA (64-bit). However, after duplicating a database between 32-bit and 64-bit platforms, you must run the utlirp.sql script to convert the PL/SQL code to the new format. This script is located in ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin on Linux and UNIX platforms.

The DUPLICATE command requires one or more auxiliary channels. These channels perform the work of the duplication on the auxiliary database instance. In the following circumstances, RMAN uses the channel configuration from the source database for auxiliary channels:

If you have configured automatic target channels to use CONNECT strings, then RMAN attempts to replicate the channel allocation on the auxiliary instance. However, if you need to control or vary the channel allocation for duplication, you should manually allocate auxiliary channels.

If the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is set greater than or equal to 11.0.0, then by default RMAN duplicates transportable tablespaces that were not made read/write after being transported. Otherwise, RMAN cannot duplicate transportable tablespaces unless they have been made read/write after being transported.

The following database encryption features both use the wallet: transparent data encryption, which functions at the column level, and tablespace encryption. If you are duplicating an encrypted tablespace, then you must manually copy the wallet to the duplicate database.

See Also:

Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide to learn about transparent data encryption

Prerequisites Specific to Backup-Based Duplication

As shown in Table 2-6, the prerequisites for backup-based duplication depend on whether RMAN is connected as TARGET to the source database.

Table 2-6 Prerequisites for Three Modes of Backup-Based Duplication

Prerequisite No Target and No Recovery Connection No Target Connection Target Connection

RMAN requires a connection to a recovery catalog.

No

Yes

No

All backups and archived redo log files used for creating and recovering the duplicate database must be accessible by the server session on the destination host.

Yes

Yes

Yes

If the destination host is different from the source host, then you must make backups on disk on the source host available to the destination host with the same full path name as in the source database.

No

Yes

Yes

You must provide the name of the source database with the DATABASE clause. If the name of the source database is not unique in the recovery catalog, then you must also provide the database ID (DBID) in the DATABASE clause.

No if BACKUP LOCATION does not have backups from multiple databases.

Yes

No

UNTIL clause must be specified in the current incarnation.

Not applicable

No

Yes

NOREDO must be specified when RMAN must prevent application of archived redo log files to the backups (see description of NOREDO for more information).

Yes

Yes

Yes

If you duplicate a subset of tablespaces, and if the source database is not open, then any duplicated tablespaces with undo segments must be listed in the UNDO TABLESPACE clause.

Yes

No

Yes (if no catalog used and target is not open)

RMAN automatically enforces the rule that the set of tablespaces must be self-contained and must not contain database objects owned by SYS.

No

No

Yes


Prerequisites Specific to Active Database Duplication

When you execute DUPLICATE with FROM ACTIVE DATABASE, at least one normal target channel and at least one AUXILIARY channel are required.

When you connect RMAN to the source database as TARGET, you must specify a password, even if RMAN uses operating system authentication. The source database must be mounted or open. If the source database is open, then archiving must be enabled. If the source database is not open, then it must have been shut down consistently.

When you connect RMAN to the auxiliary instance, you must provide a net service name. This requirement applies even if the auxiliary instance is on the local host.

The source database and auxiliary instances must use the same SYSDBA password, which means that both instances must already have password files. You can create the password file with a single password so you can start the auxiliary instance and enable the source database to connect to it.

The DUPLICATE behavior for password files varies depending on whether your duplicate database will act as a standby database. If you create a duplicate database that is not a standby database, then RMAN does not copy the password file by default. You can specify the PASSWORD FILE option to indicate that RMAN should overwrite the existing password file on the auxiliary instance. If you create a standby database, then RMAN copies the password file to the standby host by default, overwriting the existing password file. In this case, the PASSWORD FILE clause is not necessary.

You cannot use the UNTIL clause when performing active database duplication. RMAN chooses a time based on when the online datafiles have been completely copied, so that the datafiles can be recovered to a consistent point in time.

See Also:

Oracle Database Security Guide to learn about password protection

Usage Notes

Active database duplication uses the auxiliary service name to copy the source database over the network to the auxiliary instance on the destination host, whereas backup-based duplication uses pre-existing RMAN backups and copies. Table 2-7 shows which files from the source database are duplicated.

Table 2-7 Duplicated Files

Source Database Files Active Database Backup-Based

Control files

Copied from source database when FOR STANDBY specified; otherwise re-created

Restored from backups when FOR STANDBY specified or duplication without a connection to the target database; otherwise re-created

Datafiles

Copied from source database (unless excluded with a SKIP option)

Restored from backups (unless excluded with a SKIP option)

Tempfiles

Re-created (see "Tempfile Re-Creation")

Re-created (see "Tempfile Re-Creation")

Online redo log files

Re-created

Re-created

Standby redo log files

Re-created when FOR STANDBY specified and defined on primary database

Re-created when FOR STANDBY specified and defined on primary database

Archived redo log files

Copied from source database, but only if needed for the duplication

Obtained from backups or cataloged copies, but only if needed for the duplication

Server parameter file

Copied from source database (see SPFILE clause in dupOptionList)

Restored from backup if SPFILE clause is specified (see dupOptionList)

Flashback log files

Not re-created

Not re-created

Block change tracking file

Not re-created

Not re-created

Password file

Copied by default for standby databases; for nonstandby databases, copied only if PASSWORD FILE option is specified

Not re-created

Backups and other files in fast recovery area

Not copied

Not copied


All datafiles are included in the duplicate database unless they are offline clean or excluded. You can exclude tablespaces by means of the SKIP clause, or by including only a subset of tablespaces with DUPLICATE ... TABLESPACE.

The fast recovery area is defined on the duplicate or standby database if you explicitly define it. Also, if a flash recovery was defined on the source database, and if the auxiliary instance uses a server parameter file that was copied or restored with the DUPLICATE command, then a flash recovery is defined on the duplicate or standby database.

If you use active database duplication, then see the FROM ACTIVE DATABASE description in dupOptionList for usage notes.

Backup-Based Duplication

In backup-based duplication of databases with a connection to the target database and in NOARCHIVELOG mode, media recovery uses the NOREDO option. Thus, if incremental backups exist, RMAN applies only these incremental backups to the restored files during recovery.

For backup-based duplication of databases in ARCHIVELOG mode, RMAN recovers by default up to the last archived redo log generated at the time the command was executed, or until a time specified with a SET UNTIL clause.

For backup-based duplication of databases without a connection to the target database, RMAN cannot determine whether the source database was in NOARCHIVELOG mode. Therefore, you must use the NOREDO option when the source database was in NOARCHIVELOG mode when the backups were taken. You can also use the NOREDO option when you do not want to apply archived redo log files to a consistent backup.

If you are using backup-based duplication, and if the source database and auxiliary instances reside on different hosts, then you must decide how to make the backups of the source database available to the auxiliary instance. For more information on how to do this with BACKUP LOCATION, review the options described in the section Making Disk Backups Accessible to the Auxiliary Instance in the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide.

If the target database does not use a recovery area in ASM storage, then perform one of the following tasks before executing the DUPLICATE command:

If the source database uses a recovery area in ASM storage, then perform one of the following tasks before executing the DUPLICATE command:

Duplication with Oracle Managed Files

If the source database files are in the Oracle Managed Files (OMF) format, then you cannot use the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT and LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameters or the fileNameConversionSpec clause to generate new OMF filenames for the duplicate database. If you do not follow this rule, the new OMF files generated from these three methods can cause problems. For more information on OMF names, see the "Considerations When Renaming OMF Auxiliary Set Files in TSPITR" in the Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide

The only exception to this rule is when changing only an ASM disk group name. Assume that source datafiles and online redo log files are stored in ASM disk group +SOURCEDSK. You want to store the duplicate database files in ASM disk group +DUPDSK. In this case, you can set the initialization parameters as follows:

DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ("+SOURCEDSK","+DUPDSK")
LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT = ("+SOURCEDSK","+DUPDSK")

RMAN uses DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT or LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT to convert the disk group name, and then generates a new, valid filename based on the converted disk group name.

You have the following other supported options for naming datafiles when the source files are in the Oracle Managed Files format:

Supported options for naming online redo logs duplicated from Oracle-managed files are DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST, DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST, or DB_CREATE_ONLINE_LOG_DEST_n.

Tempfile Re-Creation

The DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT parameter can be used to convert the tempfile names for the new database that are not Oracle-managed files (OMF). The only exception to this restriction are Automatic Storage Management (ASM) OMF names where only the name of the disk group can be changed.

The other method for converting tempfile names for the new database is to use SET NEWNAME FOR TEMPFILE TO'filename' or TO NEW. With this latter method, it does not matter if the datafiles are OMF or non-OMF, the tempfiles are re-created in the DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST directory location when the database is opened.

To specify different filenames for the tempfiles, see the discussion of SWITCH TEMPFILE .

Syntax

duplicate::=

Surrounding text describes duplicate.gif.

(dupOptionList::=)

dupOptionList::=

Surrounding text describes dupoptionlist.gif.

(deviceSpecifier::=, fileNameConversionSpec::=, logSpec::=, setParameter::=, untilClause::=)

setParameter::=

Surrounding text describes setparameter.gif.

logSpec::=

Surrounding text describes logspec.gif.

sizeSpec::=

Surrounding text describes sizespec.gif.

Semantics

duplicate

This clause enables you to duplicate a database or tablespace. Refer to the duplicate::= diagram for the syntax.

Syntax Element Description
TARGET DATABASE Specifies the source database, which is the database you want to duplicate. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 2 the TARGET keyword is optional.
DATABASE Specifies the source database
   'database_name' Specifies the name of the source database, which is the database that you want to duplicate.

This clause can be used instead of TARGET DATABASE when RMAN is connected as TARGET to the source database. When performing duplicate with a target connection, then you must specify the currently connected database and not use the INCARNATION subclause.

For backup-based duplication without a target connection, you must either specify the database name or run the SET DATABASE 'database_name' command.

   DBID integer Specifies the database ID (DBID) of the source database.

The DBID parameter is required when you duplicate without a TARGET connection to the source database and the database name in the recovery catalog is not unique. Another option is to use the SET DBID command.

When RMAN duplicates the database while connected to the source database as TARGET, the DBID parameter is not needed. If DBID is specified, then the parameter value should match the DBID of the source database.

 INCARNATION primaryKey Specifies an orphan incarnation.

By default, the DUPLICATE command with the UNTIL clause refers to a point in time in the current database incarnation or the direct ancestor of the current incarnation. This clause allows you to designate an incarnation not in the current incarnation path, known as an orphan incarnation. It is invalid to specify INCARNATION when connected to a target database or when using BACKUP LOCATION.

Another option is to use the SET INCARNATION command.

FOR STANDBY Specifies that database being duplicated is to be used as a standby database (see Example 2-81).

To create a standby database with the DUPLICATE command you must specify the FOR STANDBY option. The DUPLICATE ... FOR STANDBY command creates the standby database by restoring a standby control file and mounting the standby control file. If you specify FROM ACTIVE DATABASE, then RMAN copies the datafiles from the primary to standby database. Otherwise, RMAN restores backups of the source database datafiles to the standby database. RMAN restores the most recent files, unless SET UNTIL is specified.

If DORECOVER is specified, then RMAN also recovers the database. The standby database is left mounted after duplication is complete.

You cannot use SET NEWNAME or CONFIGURE AUXNAME to transform the filenames for the online redo logs on the standby database.

You cannot CONNECT RMAN to the standby database and then use DUPLICATE ... FOR STANDBY to create an additional standby database. To create additional standby databases, connect RMAN to the original primary database and run DUPLICATE ... FOR STANDBY.

Note: Although you can use the DUPLICATE command to create a standby database, you cannot use this command to activate a standby database.

When you connect RMAN to the standby database and the recovery catalog in which the primary database is already registered, RMAN recognizes the standby database and implicitly registers it. Do not attempt to use the REGISTER command for the standby database.

TO database_name Specifies the name of the duplicate database. This duplicate database will not be a standby database.

If you do not specify the SPFILE clause, then the specified database name should match the name in the initialization parameter file of the duplicate database instance, which is the instance to which RMAN is connected as AUXILIARY. Otherwise, the database signals an error.

You cannot use the same database name for the source database and duplicate database when the duplicate database resides in the same Oracle home as the source database. However, if the duplicate database resides in a different Oracle home from the source database, then its database name just has to differ from other database names in its Oracle home. To simplify administration of duplicate database, Oracle recommends that you use different names for the source and duplicate databases.

   dupOptionList Specifies options for creating a duplicate or standby database. See dupOptionList.

dupOptionList

This subclause includes options that control aspects of duplication such as naming the files and determining an end point for the duplication. Refer to the dupOptionList::= diagram for the syntax.

Specify new filenames or convert source database filenames for the datafiles and online redo logs when the filenames of the duplicate database must be different from the filenames of the source database (as when the destination host and source host are the same). If you do not specify filenames for the online redo logs and datafiles of the duplicate database, then RMAN uses the datafile names from the source database.

Syntax Element Description
BACKUP LOCATION backup_location Specifies the backup location on disk where the backups and copies of the database to be duplicated have been placed. This option is valid for duplication without a target or a recovery catalog connection.
DEVICE TYPE deviceSpecifier Allocates automatic channels for the specified device only (for example, DISK or sbt).

This option is valid only if you have configured automatic channels and have not manually allocated channels. For example, if you CONFIGURE automatic disk and tape channels, and if you run DUPLICATE...DEVICE TYPE DISK, then RMAN allocates only disk channels.

See Also: deviceSpecifier

DORECOVER Specifies that RMAN should recover the standby database after creating it. If you specify an untilClause, then RMAN recovers to the specified SCN or time and leaves the database mounted.

RMAN leaves the standby database mounted after media recovery is complete, but does not place the standby database in manual or managed recovery mode. After RMAN creates the standby database, you must resolve any gap sequence before placing it in manual or managed recovery mode, or opening it in read-only mode.

The checkpoint SCN of the control file must be included in an archived redo log that is either available at the standby site or included in an RMAN backup. For example, assume that you create the standby control file and then immediately afterward archive the current log, which has a sequence of 100. In this case, you must recover the standby database up to at least log sequence 100, or the database signals an ORA-1152 error message because the standby control file backup was taken after the point in time.

fileNameConversionSpec Specifies one or more patterns to map source database filenames to duplicate database filenames (see Example 2-75).

DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT set on the DUPLICATE command overrides the initialization parameter DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT (if set). For example, if the initialization parameter file setting is DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=('disk1','disk2'), but you execute DUPLICATE ... DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT ('disk1','disk3'), then RMAN does not convert the disk1 substring to disk2. Instead, RMAN converts the disk1 substring to disk3.

If a file in the specification list is not affected by the conversion parameter in DUPLICATE, then you must rename it by other means, such as SET NEWNAME.

Note: If you specify the SPFILE clause, then DUPLICATE ... DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT overrides any conversion parameter specified in the SPFILE syntax. For example, if you specify DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT twice in the DUPLICATE command, both in the SPFILE clause and outside of the SPFILE clause, then the setting outside of the SPFILE clause takes precedence.

See Also: fileNameConversionSpec

FROM ACTIVE DATABASE Specifies that the files for the duplicate database should be provided directly from the source database and not from a backup of the source database (see Example 2-72).

See Also: "Prerequisites Specific to Active Database Duplication" for command prerequisites

LOGFILE Specifies options for creating online redo logs when creating a duplicate database that is not a standby database (see Example 2-75).
   INSTANCE 'inst_name' Creates online redo logs for the specified instance in a Real Applications Cluster (Oracle RAC) database. The instance name is a string of up to 80 characters.

RMAN automatically uses the thread mapped to the specified instance. If no INSTANCE name is specified, then the log files are for the default instance.

This clause is relevant when you use DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE to duplicate an Oracle RAC database to a single-instance database. Otherwise, you do not need to use INSTANCE. If you use the LOGFILE clause, then use INSTANCE to specify the name of the RAC instance for each thread that was open during the database backup (for backup-based duplication) or during the UNTIL TIME (for active database duplication).

   logSpec Specifies the filenames and groups for the online redo log files.

See Also: logSpec for the valid options

NOFILENAMECHECK Prevents RMAN from checking whether the datafiles and online redo logs files of the source database are in use when the source database files share the same names as the duplicate database files. You are responsible for determining that the duplicate operation will not overwrite useful data.

This option is necessary when you are creating a duplicate database in a different host that has the same disk configuration, directory structure, and filenames as the host of the source database. For example, assume that you have a small database located in the /dbs directory of srchost:

/oracle/dbs/system_prod1.dbf
/oracle/dbs/users_prod1.dbf
/oracle/dbs/rbs_prod1.dbf

Assume that you want to duplicate this database to desthost, which has the same file system /oracle/dbs/*, and you want to use the same filenames in the duplicate database as in the source database. In this case, specify the NOFILENAMECHECK option to avoid an error message. Because RMAN is not aware of the different hosts, RMAN cannot determine automatically that it should not check the filenames.

If duplicating a database on the same host as the source database, then make sure that NOFILENAMECHECK is not set. Otherwise, RMAN can potentially overwrite and corrupt the target database datafiles, tempfiles, or online logs. It may also signal the following error:

RMAN-10035: exception raised in RPC: ORA-19504: failed to create 
            file "/oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f" 
ORA-27086: skgfglk: unable to lock file - already in use 
SVR4 Error: 11: Resource temporarily unavailable 
Additional information: 8 
RMAN-10031: ORA-19624 occurred during call to 
DBMS_BACKUP_RESTORE.RESTOREBACKUPPIECE
NOREDO Specifies that no archived redo log files should not be applied when recovering a consistent backup in any of the following scenarios:
  • You do not want to apply archived redo log files to the consistent backup even though the archived redo log files are available.

  • The source database was running in NOARCHIVELOG mode at backup time and DUPLICATE is not connected to the target database.

  • The source database is currently running in ARCHIVELOG mode but the backup was taken when the database was in NOARCHIVELOG mode.

NORESUME Disables the ability for RMAN to automatically recover from a failed duplication operation. using NORESUME in the first invocation of duplicate permanently prevents any subsequent duplicate command for the new database from using this automatic optimization.

See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide to learn more about the automated recovery from a failed DUPLICATE operation.

OPEN RESTRICTED Enables a restricted session in the duplicate database by issuing the following SQL statement: ALTER SYSTEM ENABLE RESTRICTED SESSION. RMAN issues this statement immediately before the duplicate database is opened.
PASSWORD FILE Specifies that RMAN should use the password file on the source database to overwrite the password file currently used by the auxiliary instance (see Example 2-72). This option is only valid when FROM ACTIVE DATABASE is specified; otherwise, RMAN signals an error.

If FOR STANDBY is specified, then RMAN copies the password file by default; if not specified, then RMAN does not copy the password file by default. You can use PASSWORD FILE to request that RMAN overwrite the existing password file with the password file from the source database. If you want the duplicate database to contain all the passwords available on your production database, then use the PASSWORD FILE option.

PFILE filename Specifies a text-based initialization parameter file used by the auxiliary instance (see Example 2-75). RMAN automatically shuts down and restarts the auxiliary instance during duplication. If the auxiliary does not use a server parameter file in the default location, then you must specify the text-based initialization parameter file that RMAN should use when starting the auxiliary instance. The initialization parameter file must reside on the same host as the RMAN client used to perform the duplication.

If the auxiliary instance uses a server parameter file in the default location, then you do not need to specify PFILE.

SKIP READONLY Excludes datafiles in current read-only tablespaces from the duplicate database. By default RMAN duplicates current read-only tablespaces.

If a tablespace is currently read/write, but you use untilClause to duplicate the database to an SCN at which the tablespace was read-only, then RMAN does not include the tablespace in the duplicate database. Tablespaces that were read-only in the past are considered offline tablespaces and so are not included in the duplication.

Note: A record for the skipped read-only tablespace still appears in DBA_TABLESPACES. By using this feature, you can activate the read-only tablespace later. For example, you can store the read-only tablespace data on a writable DVD, then mount the DVD later and view the data.

SKIP TABLESPACE tbs_name Excludes the specified tablespace from the duplicate database (see Example 2-75).

Note: You must not exclude SYS-owned objects or tablespaces with rollback segments, nor tablespaces containing materialized views. The set of tablespaces to be duplicated must be self-contained.

If you need to duplicate a database when some backups of the source database do not exist, then SKIP TABLESPACE is required. If you do not specify SKIP TABLESPACE, then RMAN attempts to duplicate the following:

  • All datafiles in online tablespaces, whether or not the datafiles are online.

  • All tablespaces taken offline with an option other than NORMAL. For example, RMAN attempts to duplicate tablespaces taken offline with the IMMEDIATE option. You cannot duplicate OFFLINE NORMAL tablespaces, although you can add these tablespaces manually after duplication.

SPFILE Copies the server parameter file from the source database to the duplicate database.
   setParameter Sets the specified initialization parameters to the specified values. Refer to setParameter.

   PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT
   string_pattern
   [setParameter]
Replaces the first string with the second string in all matching initialization parameter values. Refer to the description of PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT in dupOptionList.
TABLESPACE tablespace_name Specifies which tablespaces should be included in the specified database. Unlike SKIP TABLESPACE, which specifies which tablespaces should be excluded from the duplicate database, this option specifies which tablespaces should be included and then skips the remaining tablespaces.

Note: RMAN automatically includes the SYSTEM, SYSAUX, and undo tablespaces in the duplicate database. These tablespaces cannot be skipped and the set of tablespaces that you want to duplicate must be self-contained.

UNDO TABLESPACE tablespace_name Specifies the names of the tablespaces with undo segments. This option is only required when a subset of tablespaces are being duplicated with the SKIP TABLESPACE and TABLESPACE clauses. You must provide the list of tablespaces with undo segments in the following cases:
  • No connection to the target database or the recovery catalog

  • No connection to a recovery catalog, a connection to the target but the target database is not open.


TO RESTORE POINT
restore_point_name
Specifies a restore point for backup-based duplication, with the SCN at which the restore point was created as the upper, inclusive limit. Because the limit is inclusive, RMAN selects only files that can be used to duplicate a database up to and including the corresponding SCN.

Note: The same restrictions that apply to untilClause also apply to TO RESTORE POINT.

untilClause Sets the end time, SCN, or log sequence number for point-in-time recovery in backup-based duplication (see Example 2-75). The UNTIL clause is not supported in active database duplication.

You can achieve the same result by running SET UNTIL before the DUPLICATE command. If you specify the UNTIL clause for duplication, then the following restrictions apply:

  • RMAN determines whether to use NOREDO based on the current state of the database. If the database was in an archiving mode at the specified UNTIL time or SCN that is different from the current archiving mode, then RMAN does not use NOREDO.

  • The end point for a DUPLICATE command cannot be before the SCN of the most recent ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS. Duplication with a connection to a target does not support previous database incarnations. However, you can specify previous incarnations if you are duplicating without a connection to a target database.

  • You cannot recover the duplicate database to the current point in time, that is, the most recent SCN. RMAN recovers the duplicate database up to or before the most recent available archived log, but cannot recover into the online redo logs.


setParameter

This subclause specifies server parameter file values.

Syntax Element Description
SET identifier string Sets the specified initialization parameters to the specified values (see Example 2-73). You can use SET to adjust for differences in memory, turn off replication options, and set other options for the duplicate database.

This SET functionality is equivalent to pausing the duplication after restoring the server parameter file and issuing ALTER SYSTEM SET statements to change the initialization parameter file.

RMAN processes SET after PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT. If PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT sets the filename specified by a parameter, and if SET sets the filename specified by the same parameter, then the SET value overrides the PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT setting.

Note: If DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT is specified on the DUPLICATE command, then its filename settings override competing settings specified by SPFILE SET.

   COMMENT 'string' Specifies an optional comment for the parameter setting.
RESET identifier string Deletes specified initialization parameters from the parameter file. You can use RESET to remove unneeded initialization parameters.

This RESET functionality is equivalent to pausing the duplication after restoring the server parameter file and issuing ALTER SYSTEM RESET statements to change the initialization parameter file.


logSpec

This subclause specifies the online redo logs when creating a duplicate database that is not a standby database. Refer to the logSpec::= diagram for the syntax diagram.

If you do not specify LOGFILE, then RMAN uses LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT if it is set. If neither LOGFILE nor LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT is set, then RMAN uses the original redo log filenames of the source database for redo log files of the duplicate database. You must specify the NOFILENAMECHECK option in this case.

Syntax Element Description
'filename' SIZE sizeSpec Specifies the filename of the online redo log member and the size of the file in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (M). The default is in bytes.
   REUSE Allows the database to reuse an existing file. If the file already exists, then the database verifies that its size matches the value of the SIZE parameter. If the file does not exist, then it is created.

GROUP integer
('filename', ...)
SIZE sizeSpec
Specifies the group containing the online redo log members, the filename of the online redo log member, and the size of the file in kilobytes (K) or megabytes (M). The default is in bytes.
   REUSE Allows the database to reuse an existing log.

Examples

Example 2-72 Duplicating from an Active Database to a Host with the Same Directory Structure

Assume that you want to create a test database from database prod1 on a new host. The new host has the same directory structure as the source host, so the files in the duplicate database can use the same names as the files in the source database. You want to create the database without using RMAN backups and allow prod1 to remain open during the duplication.

If prod1 uses a server parameter file, then you can create an initialization parameter file on the destination host that contains only the DB_NAME parameter set to an arbitrary value. Before starting the auxiliary instance you should create a password file that has the same SYSDBA password as the source database. Afterward, start the auxiliary instance.

By default, RMAN does not duplicate the password file when creating a duplicate database that is not a standby database. The PASSWORD FILE option specifies that RMAN should copy the password file to the destination host. If you want the duplicate database to contain all the passwords available on your source database, then use the PASSWORD FILE option.

You do not need to configure auxiliary channels because RMAN uses the normal channels configured on the source database to copy the database files. Start the RMAN client, connect to the source and auxiliary database instances, and duplicate the database as follows:

% rman
RMAN> CONNECT TARGET SYS@prod1

target database Password: password
connected to target database: PROD1 (DBID=39525561)

RMAN> CONNECT AUXILIARY SYS@dup1

auxiliary database Password: password
connected to auxiliary database: DUP1 (not mounted)

RMAN> DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dup1
2> FROM ACTIVE DATABASE
3> NOFILENAMECHECK
4> PASSWORD FILE
5> SPFILE;

Example 2-73 Copying the Server Parameter File in Active Database Duplication

Assume that you want to create a standby database from database prod1 on a new host. The destination host has a different directory structure from the source host, so the standby database files will be stored in /disk2 rather than /disk1. You want to create the standby database without using RMAN backups and let prod1 remain open during the duplication.

Your first step is to create a minimal initialization parameter file for the standby database and then start the standby instance. This parameter file is minimal because when you use the SPFILE option, RMAN copies the server parameter file to the new host and sets various parameters to the new values provided.

Start the RMAN client, CONNECT to the source database as TARGET, and connect to the auxiliary instance. You do not need to configure auxiliary channels because RMAN uses the normal channels on the source host to copy the database files. You can then enter the following command:

DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dup1
  FOR STANDBY
  FROM ACTIVE DATABASE
  PASSWORD FILE
  SPFILE 
    PARAMETER_VALUE_CONVERT '/disk1', '/disk2'
    SET DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '/disk1','/disk2'
    SET LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT '/disk1','/disk2'
    SET SGA_MAX_SIZE 200M
    SET SGA_TARGET 125M;

Example 2-74 Duplicating a Database Without a Target Connection to a Host with the Same Directory Structure

Assume that you want to duplicate source database prod using backups and do not want to connect RMAN as TARGET to this database because it is shut down for maintenance. A description of the environment follows:

  • The source and destination hosts have identical directory structures. The datafile and online redo log names in the duplicate database should be identical to the names in the source database.

  • The same number of online redo log files will be used in the duplicate database.

  • A recovery catalog is available. The source database name prod is unique in the recovery catalog.

  • Auxiliary channels have been configured with the CONFIGURE CHANNEL command.

The following commands create a duplicate database named dupdb:

% rman 

RMAN> CONNECT CATALOG rman@catdb;
 
recovery catalog database Password: password
connected to recovery catalog database

RMAN> CONNECT AUXILIARY SYS@dupdb;

auxiliary database Password: password
connected to auxiliary database: DUPDB (not mounted)

RMAN> DUPLICATE DATABASE 'PROD' TO 'DUPDB' NOFILENAMECHECK;

Assume a different scenario in which the database name prod is not unique in the recovery catalog. The following DUPLICATE command uses the DBID parameter to uniquely identify the source database:

RMAN> DUPLICATE DATABASE 'PROD' DBID 39525561 TO 'DUPDB' NOFILENAMECHECK;

Example 2-75 Setting New Filenames in the DUPLICATE Command

Assume that you want to use tape backups to duplicate the source database prod on srchost to newdb on desthost.

In this scenario, the source database does not use a server parameter file. You create a text-based initialization parameter file on desthost and use it to start the database instance. Thus, backup-based duplication must use a target connection (see Table 2-6).

When executing DUPLICATE on desthost, you must use the PFILE parameter to specify the location of the initialization parameter file. You must use the RMAN client on the same host as the initialization parameter file for the duplicate database.

You do not want the tablespaces example and history to be included in the duplicate database, so you specify DUPLICATE ... SKIP TABLESPACE for these tablespaces. Also, you want the duplicate database to be in the state that the production database was in 24 hours ago, so you use DUPLICATE ... UNTIL TIME.

This example assumes that the datafiles of the source database are on srchost in directory /h1/oracle/dbs/trgt. You intend to duplicate the datafiles to the directory /h2/oracle/oradata/newdb, so you specify DUPLICATE ... DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT to generate the names for the duplicate datafiles. You use DUPLICATE ... LOGFILE to specify names for the online redo log files in the duplicate database.

Start the RMAN client on desthost, CONNECT to the source database as TARGET, and connect to the auxiliary instance. You can then enter the following RUN command:

RUN
{  
  ALLOCATE AUXILIARY CHANNEL newdb DEVICE TYPE sbt; 
  DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO newdb
    PFILE ?/dbs/initNEWDB.ora
    UNTIL TIME 'SYSDATE-1'  # specifies incomplete recovery
    SKIP TABLESPACE example, history   # skip desired tablespaces
    DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT ('/h1/oracle/dbs/trgt/','/h2/oracle/oradata/newdb/')
    LOGFILE
      GROUP 1 ('/h2/oradata/newdb/redo01_1.f',
               '/h2/oradata/newdb/redo01_2.f') SIZE 4M,
      GROUP 2 ('/h2/oradata/newdb/redo02_1.f',
               '/h2/oradata/newdb/redo02_2.f') SIZE 4M,
      GROUP 3 ('/h2/oradata/newdb/redo03_1.f',
               '/h2/oradata/newdb/redo03_2.f') SIZE 4M REUSE;
}

Example 2-76 Using SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE to Name Duplicate Files

In this scenario, you intend to use backup-based duplication without a target connection.

The source database prod contains eight datafiles spread out over multiple directories. The datafiles are not Oracle Managed Files. You want to duplicate the source database to dupdb on destination host desthost.

In this scenario, srchost and desthost have different directory structures. You want to store the datafiles in desthost in the /oradata1 subdirectory, so you use SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE to specify the file names stripped of directory paths. For example, if a source datafile has the name '/oradata/prod/financial.dbf', then %b results in 'financial.dbf'.

The source database does not use a server parameter file, so you cannot use the SPFILE technique to specify names for the duplicate datafiles. You decide to use the SET NEWNAME DATABASE command because you want all duplicate datafiles in the same directory on the destination host.

You want to create two online redo log groups, each with two members of size 200 KB, in the directory /duplogs on the destination host. Assume that srchost and desthost cannot mount each other's file systems by any means such as NFS.

You have disk copies or backup sets stored on disk for all the datafiles and archived redo log files in the source database, and you have manually copied them to desthost by means of an operating system utility. These backups and copies exist in the same location on desthost as they do in srchost.

You use an operating system utility to copy the initialization parameter file from srchost to an appropriate location in desthost. You have reset all initialization parameters that end in _DEST and specify a path name. You do not set DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT and LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT because you are specifying names for datafiles and online logs in the RUN command itself. The auxiliary instance uses a server-side initialization parameter file in the default location so the PFILE parameter is not necessary on the DUPLICATE command.

The following sample script creates the duplicate database. A RUN command is necessary because you can only execute SET NEWNAME within RUN.

RUN
{
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE TO '/oradata1/%b'; 
  DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dupdb
    LOGFILE
      GROUP 1 ('/duplogs/redo01a.log', 
               '/duplogs/redo01b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE,
      GROUP 2 ('/duplogs/redo02a.log',
               '/duplogs/redo02b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE;
}

Example 2-77 Using SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE and SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE to Name Duplicate Files

In this scenario, you intend to duplicate database by using backup-based duplication.

Assume that the source database prod is on srchost and contains nine datafiles, which are spread out over multiple directories. You want to duplicate the source database to database dupdb on remote host desthost. The dupdb database should exclude tablespace tools, but keep all of the other tablespaces.

The source database does not use a server parameter file, so you cannot use the SPFILE technique to specify names for the duplicate datafiles. You decide to use SET NEWNAME commands to specify the filenames because the duplicate datafiles will be spread out across several directories.

In this scenario, srchost and desthost have different directory structures. You want to store the datafiles in desthost in the /oradata1 through /oradata7 subdirectories. You want to place each datafile in a different directory, with the exception of the users tablespace, which contains two datafiles that you intend to duplicate to /oradata7.

You want to create two online redo log groups, each with two members of size 200 KB, in the directory /duplogs on the destination host. Assume that srchost and desthost cannot mount each other's file systems by any means such as NFS.

You have disk copies or backup sets stored on disk for all the datafiles and archived redo log files in the source database, and you have manually copied them to desthost by means of an operating system utility. These backups and copies exist in the same location on desthost as they do in srchost.

You use an operating system utility to copy the initialization parameter file from srchost to an appropriate location in desthost. You have reset all initialization parameters that end in _DEST and specify a path name. You do not set DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT and LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT because you are specifying names for datafiles and online logs in the RUN command itself. The auxiliary instance uses a server-side initialization parameter file in the default location so the PFILE parameter is not necessary on the DUPLICATE command.

The following sample scripts creates the duplicate database. A RUN command is necessary because you can only execute SET NEWNAME within RUN.

RUN
{
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO '/oradata1/system01.dbf'; 
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO '/oradata2/undotbs01.dbf';
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 TO '/oradata3/cwmlite01.dbf'; 
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 TO '/oradata4/drsys01'; 
  SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 5 TO '/oradata5/example01.dbf'; 
  # because the users command contains 2 datafiles, the following command
  # generates unique names for both datafiles, placing them in /oradata7
  SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE users TO '/oradata7/users%b.dbf';
  DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dupdb
    SKIP TABLESPACE tools
    LOGFILE
      GROUP 1 ('/duplogs/redo01a.log', 
               '/duplogs/redo01b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE, 
      GROUP 2 ('/duplogs/redo02a.log', 
               '/duplogs/redo02b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE;
}

Example 2-78 Using SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE to Name Oracle-Managed Files

There are two ways to store specific datafiles or tempfiles in an Oracle-managed files destination that is independent of the locations of the rest of the database files.

  1. Set the parameter DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST in the initialization parameter file of the auxiliary instance to the desired location

  2. Set the initialization parameters DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST and DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT. At this point, you can use the SET NEWNAME command for those datafiles that you do not want to be converted by DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT.

The specified datafiles or tempfiles are created with Oracle-managed file names in the location specified by DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST.

As shown in the following sample script, you can also use SET NEWNAME to direct individual datafiles or tempfiles to a specific ASM disk group.

RUN
{
   SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO "+DGROUP1";
   SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO "+DGROUP2";
   .
   .
   .
   DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE 
     TO dupdb
     FROM ACTIVE DATABASE
     SPFILE SET DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST +DGROUP3;
}

Example 2-79 Using CONFIGURE AUXNAME to Name Duplicate Files

This section assumes the same circumstances described in Example 2-77, "Using SET NEWNAME FOR DATAFILE and SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE to Name Duplicate Files". This example is a variation that uses CONFIGURE AUXNAME instead of SET NEWNAME to specify the new datafile names. These new filenames are recorded in the control file and used every time you perform the duplication in the future.

This example also uses automatic channels and a client-side initialization parameter file for the database duplication, and uses the LOGFILE clause to specify names and sizes for the online redo logs. In this case the RUN command is not necessary because you are not using SET NEWNAME.

CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 TO '/oradata1/system01.dbf'; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 TO '/oradata2/undotbs01.dbf';
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 TO '/oradata3/cwmlite01.dbf'; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 TO '/oradata4/drsys01'; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 5 TO '/oradata5/example01.dbf'; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 6 TO '/oradata6/indx01.dbf';
DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE
  TO dupdb
  SKIP TABLESPACE tools
  LOGFILE
    GROUP 1 ('/duplogs/redo01a.log',
             '/duplogs/redo01b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE,
    GROUP 2 ('/duplogs/redo02a.log',
             '/duplogs/redo02b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE;

RMAN uses all incremental backups, archived redo log backups, and archived redo log files to perform incomplete recovery and then opens the database with the RESETLOGS option to create the online redo logs.

After the duplication is complete, you can clear the configured auxiliary names for the datafiles in the duplicate database, so that they are not overwritten by future operations. For example, enter the following commands:

CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 1 CLEAR; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 2 CLEAR; 
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 3 CLEAR;
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 4 CLEAR;
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 5 CLEAR;
CONFIGURE AUXNAME FOR DATAFILE 6 CLEAR;

Alternatively, you may want to periodically synchronize a duplicate database with the original database that was duplicated. In this case, you can run the DUPLICATE command again, essentially re-creating the duplicate database. This technique requires making complete copies of the datafiles of the duplicate database. Run the following script whenever you want to synchronize the duplicate with the source database. For example, you might run the script daily or weekly.

DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE TO dupdb
SKIP TABLESPACE tools
  LOGFILE
    GROUP 1 ('/duplogs/redo01a.log',
             '/duplogs/redo01b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE,
    GROUP 2 ('/duplogs/redo02a.log',
             '/duplogs/redo02b.log') SIZE 4M REUSE;

Example 2-80 Creating a Standby Database with the Same Directory Structure

Assume that you want to use RMAN backups to create a standby database on a remote host with the same directory structure as the source host. The source database is called prod1 and will be the primary database in the Data Guard environment.

First, start the RMAN client, CONNECT to the source database prod1 as TARGET, and connect to the auxiliary instance. You can then CONFIGURE the default device type to sbt for a standby database with the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of standby1:

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE sbt FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1;
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt PARALLELISM 2 FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1;

Assume all backups needed to create the standby database are on tape. In the standby database initialization parameter file, you set DB_UNIQUE_NAME to standby1.

The default initialization parameter file location is in use on the standby database. After starting the standby instance NOMOUNT, you start the RMAN client, CONNECT to the source database as TARGET, and connect to the auxiliary instance and recovery catalog. You run the following DUPLICATE command, specifying the NOFILENAMECHECK option because the standby and primary datafiles and online redo log files have the same names:

DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE FOR STANDBY
  NOFILENAMECHECK;

Example 2-81 Creating a Standby Database in OMF and ASM

Assume that you want to use RMAN backups to create a standby database on a host that uses OMF and ASM. The source database is called prod1 and will be the primary database in the Data Guard environment.

First, start the RMAN client, CONNECT to database prod1 as TARGET, and connect to the recovery catalog. Run the following commands to CONFIGURE the default device type to sbt for a standby database that will have the DB_UNIQUE_NAME of standby1 and the net service name sby1.

CONFIGURE CONNECT IDENTIFIER "sby1" FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1;
CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO sbt FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1;
CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE sbt PARALLELISM 2 FOR DB_UNIQUE_NAME standby1;

Assume all backups needed to create the standby database are stored on tape. You set the following parameters in the initialization parameter file for database standby1:

  • Set DB_UNIQUE_NAME to the value standby1.

  • Set DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST and DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST to the desired ASM disk groups on the standby host. For example, set DB_CREATE_FILE_DEST to +DATAFILE and DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST to +FLASH_REC_AREA.

Ensure that the standby instance is in NOMOUNT mode. Start the RMAN client, CONNECT to database prod1 as TARGET, connect to the standby1 instance as AUXILIARY, and connect to the recovery catalog. Enter the following command to create the standby database:

DUPLICATE TARGET DATABASE FOR STANDBY TO standby1;

RMAN automatically generates new OMF/ASM datafile names for the restored datafiles.

Example 2-82 Duplicating a Database Without Connection to Target Database and Recovery Catalog

In this example, all the necessary backups of datafiles, controlfile and archived logs of database prod can be accessed from the location: /net/prod/backups. This location is where only backups of database prod reside. The only connection is to the new instance as AUXILIARY.

Enter the following command to create a test database when there is no connection to the recovery catalog or target database:

DUPLICATE DATABASE TO 'TEST' BACKUP LOCATION '/net/prod/backups' NOFILENAMECHECK;

Example 2-83 Selecting a Specific Database When Duplicating Without Connection to Target Database and Recovery Catalog

In this example, /backups contains backups from several databases, including more than two databases with the name PROD. In this case, you must specify the DBNAME and the DBID of the database that you want to duplicate. The only connection is to the auxiliary instance.

DUPLICATE DATABASE 'PROD' dbid 8675309 to 'TEST'
  UNTIL TIME "to_date('11/01/2007', 'MM/DD/YYYY')"
  BACKUP LOCATION '/backups' NOFILENAMECHECK
  PFILE='?/dbs/inittest.ora' db_file_name_convert='prod','test';