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Oracle® Database Gateway for Teradata User's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E12068-02
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2 Teradata Gateway Features and Restrictions

After the gateway is installed and configured, you can use the gateway to access Teradata data, pass Teradata commands from applications to the Teradata database, perform distributed queries, and copy data.

This chapter contains the following sections:

2.1 Using the Pass-Through Feature

The gateway can pass Teradata commands or statements from the application directly to the Teradata database using the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package.

Use the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package in a PL/SQL block to specify the statement to be passed to the Teradata database, as follows:

DECLARE
    num_rows INTEGER;
BEGIN
    num_rows := DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH.EXECUTE_IMMEDIATE@TERA('command');
END;
/

Where command cannot be one of the following:

The DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package supports passing bind values and executing SELECT statements.

See Also:

Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference and Chapter 3, Features of Oracle Database Gateways, of Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package.

2.2 Executing Stored Procedures and Functions

Using the procedural feature, the gateway can execute stored procedures that are defined in the Teradata database. It is not necessary to relink the gateway or define the procedure to the gateway, but the procedure's access privileges must permit access by the gateway.

See Also:

Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide for more information about executing stored procedures.

Standard PL/SQL statements are used to execute a stored procedure.

The gateway supports stored procedures in three mutually exclusive modes:

2.2.1 Return Values and Stored Procedures

By default, all stored procedures and functions do not return a return value to the user. To enable return values, set the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC parameter in the initialization parameter file.

See Also:

Appendix D, "Initialization Parameters" for information about both editing the initialization parameter file and the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC parameter.

Note:

If you set the HS_FDS_PROC_IS_FUNC gateway initialization parameter, you must change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures.

In the following example, the employee name JOHN SMYTHE is passed to the Teradata stored procedure REVISE_SALARY. The stored procedure retrieves the salary value from the Teradata database to calculate a new yearly salary for JOHN SMYTHE. The revised salary returned in RESULT is used to update EMP in a table of an Oracle database:

DECLARE
  INPUT VARCHAR2(15);
  RESULT NUMBER(8,2);
BEGIN
  INPUT := 'JOHN SMYTHE';
  RESULT := REVISE_SALARY@TERA(INPUT);
  UPDATE EMP SET SAL = RESULT WHERE ENAME =: INPUT;
END;
/

The procedural feature automatically converts non-Oracle data types to and from PL/SQL data types.

2.2.2 Result Sets and Stored Procedures

The Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata provides support for stored procedures which return result sets.

By default, all stored procedures and functions do not return a result set to the user. To enable result sets, set the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT parameter in the initialization parameter file.

See Also:

Appendix D, "Initialization Parameters" for information about both editing the initialization parameter file and the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT parameter. For further information about Oracle support for result sets in non-Oracle databases see Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide.

Note:

If you set the HS_FDS_RESULTSET_SUPPORT gateway initialization parameter, you must change the syntax of the procedure execute statement for all existing stored procedures or errors will occur.

When accessing stored procedures with result sets through the Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata, you will be in the sequential mode of Heterogeneous Services.

The Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata returns the following information to Heterogeneous Services during procedure description:

  • All the input arguments of the remote stored procedure

  • None of the output arguments

  • One out argument of type ref cursor (corresponding to the first result set returned by the stored procedure)

Client programs have to use the virtual package function dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set to get the ref cursor for subsequent result sets. The last result set returned is the out argument from the procedure.

The limitations of accessing result sets are the following:

  • Result sets returned by a remote stored procedure have to be retrieved in the order in which they were placed on the wire

  • On execution of a stored procedure, all result sets returned by a previously executed stored procedure will be closed (regardless of whether the data has been completely

In the following example, the Teradata stored procedure is executed to fetch the contents of the emp and dept tables from Teradata:

CREATE PROCEDURE refcurproc (@arg1 varchar(255), @arg2 varchar(255) output)
AS
SECLECT @arg2 = @arg1
SELECT * FROM EMP
SELECT * FROM DEPT
GO

This stored procedure assigns the input parameter arg1 to the output parameter arg2, opens the query SELECT * FROM EMP in ref cursor rc1, and opens the query SELECT * FROM DEPT in ref cursor rc2.

Note:

Chained mode must be set before creating the stored procedure. Issue the following command in Teradata: set chained on

2.2.2.1 OCI Program Fetching from Result Sets in Sequential Mode

The following example shows OCI program fetching from result sets in sequential mode:

OCIEnv *ENVH;
OCISvcCtx *SVCH;
OCIStmt *STMH;
OCIError *ERRH;
OCIBind *BNDH[3];
OraText arg1[20];
OraText arg2[255];
OCIResult *rset;
OCIStmt *rstmt;
ub2 rcode[3];
ub2 rlens[3];
sb2 inds[3];
OraText *stmt = (OraText *) "begin refcurproc@TERA(:1,:2,:3); end;";
OraText *n_rs_stm = (OraText *)
  "begin :ret := DBMS_HS_RESULT_SET.GET_NEXT_RESULT_SET@TERA; end;";

/* Prepare procedure call statement */

/* Handle Initialization code skipped */
OCIStmtPrepare(STMH, ERRH, stmt, strlen(stmt), OCI_NTV_SYNTAX, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Bind procedure arguments */
inds[0] = 0;
strcpy((char *) arg1, "Hello World");
rlens[0] = strlen(arg1);
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[0], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) arg1, 20, SQLT_CHR,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[0]), &(rlens[0]), &(rcode[0]), 0, (ub4 *) 0, 
             OCI_DEFAULT);
inds[1] = -1;
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[1], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) arg2, 20, SQLT_CHR,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[1]), &(rlens[1]), &(rcode[1]), 0, (ub4 *) 0, 
             OCI_DEFAULT);

inds[2] = 0;
rlens[2] = 0;
OCIDescriptorAlloc(ENVH, (dvoid **) &rset, OCI_DTYPE_RSET, 0, (dvoid **) 0);
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[2], ERRH, 2, (dvoid *) rset, 0, SQLT_RSET,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[2]), &(rlens[2]), &(rcode[2]),
             0, (ub4 *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Execute procedure */
OCIStmtExecute(SVCH, STMH, ERRH, 1, 0, (CONST OCISnapshot *) 0,
               (OCISnapshot *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Convert result set to statement handle */
OCIResultSetToStmt(rset, ERRH);
rstmt = (OCIStmt *) rset;

/* After this the user can fetch from rstmt */
/* Issue get_next_result_set call to get handle to next_result set */
/* Prepare Get next result set procedure call */

OCIStmtPrepare(STMH, ERRH, n_rs_stm, strlen(n_rs_stm), OCI_NTV_SYNTAX,
               OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Bind return value */
OCIBindByPos(STMH, &BNDH[1], ERRH, 1, (dvoid *) rset, 0, SQLT_RSET,
             (dvoid *) &(inds[1]), &(rlens[1]), &(rcode[1]),
             0, (ub4 *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Execute statement to get next result set*/
OCIStmtExecute(SVCH, STMH, ERRH, 1, 0, (CONST OCISnapshot *) 0,
               (OCISnapshot *) 0, OCI_DEFAULT);

/* Convert next result set to statement handle */
OCIResultSetToStmt(rset, ERRH);
rstmt = (OCIStmt *) rset;

/* Now rstmt will point to the second result set returned by the
remote stored procedure */

/* Repeat execution of get_next_result_set to get the output arguments */

2.2.2.2 PL/SQL Program Fetching from Result Sets in Sequential Mode

Assume that the table loc_emp is a local table exactly like the Teradata emp table. The same assumption applies for loc_dept. outargs is a table with columns corresponding to the out arguments of the Teradata stored procedure.

create or replace package rcpackage is
  type RCTYPE is ref cursor;
end rcpackage;
/
declare
  rc1 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec1 loc_emp%rowtype;
  rc2 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec2 loc_dept%rowtype;
  rc3 rcpackage.rctype;
  rec3 outargs%rowtype;
  out_arg varchar2(255);

begin

  -- Execute procedure
  out_arg := null;  refcurproc@TERA('Hello World', out_arg, rc1);

  -- Fetch 20 rows from the remote emp table and insert them into loc_emp
  for i in 1 .. 20 loop
    fetch rc1 into rec1;
    insert into loc_emp (rec1.empno, rec1.ename, rec1.job,
    rec1.mgr, rec1.hiredate, rec1.sal, rec1.comm, rec1.deptno);
  end loop;

  -- Close ref cursor
  close rc1;

  -- Get the next result set returned by the stored procedure
  rc2 := dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set@TERA;

  -- Fetch 5 rows from the remote dept table and insert them into loc_dept
  for i in 1 .. 5 loop
    fetch rc2 into rec2;
    insert into loc_dept values (rec2.deptno, rec2.dname, rec2.loc);
  end loop;

  --Close ref cursor
  close rc2;

  -- Get the output arguments from the remote stored procedure
  -- Since we are in sequential mode, they will be returned in the
  -- form of a result set
  rc3 := dbms_hs_result_set.get_next_result_set@TERA;

  -- Fetch them and insert them into the outarguments table
  fetch rc3 into rec3;
  insert into outargs (rec3.outarg, rec3.retval);

  -- Close ref cursor
  close rc3;

end;
/

2.3 CHAR Semantics

This feature allows the gateway to optionally run in CHAR Semantics mode. Rather than always describing Teradata CHAR columns as CHAR(n BYTE), this feature describes them as CHAR(n CHAR) and VARCHAR(n CHAR). The concept is similar to Oracle database CHAR Semantics. You need to specify HS_NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS=CHAR to activate this option. Refer to Appendix D for more detail.

2.4 Multi-byte Character Sets Ratio Suppression

This feature optionally suppresses the ratio expansion from Teradata database to Oracle databases involving a multi-byte character set (for example, from US7ASCII to AL32UTF8, or from KO16MSWIN949 to KO16KSC5601). By default, Oracle gateways assume the worst ratio to prevent data being truncated or allocation of buffer with insufficient size. However, if you have specific knowledge of your Teradata database and do not want the expansion to occur, you can specify HS_KEEP_REMOTE_COLUMN_SIZE parameter to suppress the expansion. Refer to Appendix D for more detail.

2.5 IPv6 Support

Besides full IPv6 support between Oracle databases and the gateway, IPv6 is also supported between this gateway and Teradata. Refer to HS_FDS_CONNECT_INFO parameter in Appendix D for more detail.

2.6 Gateway Session IDLE Timeout

You can optionally choose to terminate long idle gateway sessions automatically with the gateway parameter HS_IDLE_TIMEOUT. Specifically, when a gateway session is idle for more than the specified time limit, the gateway session is terminated with any pending changes rolled back.

2.7 Database Compatibility Issues for Teradata

Teradata and Oracle databases function differently in some areas, causing compatibility problems. The following compatibility issues are described in this section:

2.7.1 Schema Considerations

The Oracle concept of a schema does not exist in Teradata. A schema name included in a query is recognized by Teradata as a database name. In the Oracle database, the schema of an object is identical to the owner of that object. However, when one retrieves or references an OWNER field in a Data Dictionary view such as ALL_TABLES, the OWNER field really is referencing a Teradata database name.

When querying data dictionary tables, the following results are returned:

  • ALL_* data dictionary tables, data for every Teradata database is returned. The Teradata database name is returned in the OWNER, INDEX_OWNER, or TABLE_OWNER column depending on the data dictionary table being referenced.

  • ALL_USERS data dictionary table, each Teradata database name is returned in the USERNAME column.

  • USER_* data dictionary tables, data for the default Teradata database is returned for the OWNER or TABLE_OWNER column depending on the data dictionary table being referenced. If a default Teradata database is not defined, the DBC Teradata system database is used.

2.7.2 Naming Rules

Naming rule issues include the following:

2.7.2.1 Rules for Naming Objects

Oracle and Teradata use different database object naming rules. For example, the maximum number of characters allowed for each object name can be different. Also, the use of single and double quotation marks, case sensitivity, and the use of alphanumeric characters can all be different.

See Also:

Oracle Database Reference and Teradata documentation.

2.7.2.2 Case Sensitivity

The Oracle database defaults to uppercase unless you surround identifiers with double quote characters. For example, to refer to the Teradata table called emp, enter the name with double quote characters, as follows:

SQL> SELECT * FROM "emp"@TERA;

However, to refer to the Teradata table called emp in the Teradata database named Scott from an Oracle application, enter the following:

SQL> SELECT * FROM "Scott"."emp"@TERA;

If the Teradata table called emp in the Teradata database named SCOTT, a name consisting entirely of uppercase letters, you can enter the owner name without double quote characters, as follows:

SQL> SELECT * FROM SCOTT."emp"@TERA;

or

SQL> SELECT * FROM scott."emp"@TERA;

Oracle recommends that you surround all Teradata object names with double quote characters and use the exact letter case for the object names as they appear in the Teradata data dictionary. This convention is not required when referring to the supported Oracle data dictionary tables or views listed in Appendix C, "Data Dictionary".

If existing applications cannot be changed according to these conventions, create views in Oracle to associate Teradata names to the correct letter case. For example, to refer to the Teradata table emp from an existing Oracle application by using only uppercase names, define the following view:

SQL> CREATE VIEW EMP (EMPNO, ENAME, SAL, HIREDATE)
      AS SELECT "empno", "ename", "sal", "hiredate"
      FROM "emp"@TERA;

With this view, the application can issue statements such as the following:

SQL> SELECT EMPNO, ENAME FROM EMP;

Using views is a workaround solution that duplicates data dictionary information originating in the Teradata data dictionary. You must be prepared to update the Oracle view definitions whenever the data definitions for the corresponding tables are changed in the Teradata database.

2.7.3 Data Types

Data type issues include the following:

2.7.3.1 Binary Literal Notation

Oracle SQL uses hexadecimal digits surrounded by single quotes to express literal values being compared or inserted into columns defined as data type RAW.

This notation is not converted to syntax compatible with the Teradata VARBINARY and BINARY data types (a ff surrounded by single quotes followed by hexadecimal digits).

For example, the following statement is not supported:

SQL> INSERT INTO BINARY_TAB@TERA VALUES ('ff'xb)

where BINARY_TAB contains a column of data type VARBINARY or BINARY. Use bind variables when inserting into or updating VARBINARY and BINARY data types.

2.7.3.2 Data Type Conversion

Teradata does not support implicit date conversions. Such conversions must be explicit.

For example, the gateway issues an error for the following SELECT statement:

SELECT DATE_COL FROM TEST@TERA WHERE DATE_COL = "1-JAN-2001";

To avoid problems with implicit conversions, add explicit conversions, as in the following:

SELECT DATE_COL FROM TEST@TERA WHERE DATE_COL = TO_DATE("1-JAN-2001")

See Also:

Appendix A, "Data Type Conversion" for more information about restrictions on data types.

2.7.4 Queries

Query issues include the following:

2.7.4.1 Row Selection

Teradata evaluates a query condition for all selected rows before returning any of the rows. If there is an error in the evaluation process for one or more rows, no rows are returned even though the remaining rows satisfy the condition.

Oracle evaluates the query condition row-by-row and returns a row when the evaluation is successful. Rows are returned until a row fails the evaluation.

2.7.4.2 Empty Bind Variables

For VARCHAR bind variables, the gateway passes empty bind variables to the Teradata database as a NULL value.

2.7.5 Locking

The locking model for an Teradata database differs significantly from the Oracle model. The gateway depends on the underlying Teradata behavior, so the following possible scenarios can affect Oracle applications that access Teradata through the gateway:

  • Read access might block write access.

  • Write access might block read access.

  • Statement-level read consistency is not guaranteed.

    See Also:

    Teradata documentation for information about the Teradata locking model.

2.8 Known Restrictions

If you encounter incompatibility problems not listed in this section or in "Known Problems", contact Oracle Support Services. The following section describes the known restrictions and includes suggestions for dealing with them when possible:

2.8.1 Transactional Integrity

The gateway cannot guarantee transactional integrity in the following cases:

  • When a statement that is processed by the gateway causes an implicit commit in the target database

  • When the target database is configured to work in autocommit mode

    Note:

    Oracle strongly recommends the following:
    • If you know that executing a particular statement causes an implicit commit in the target database, then ensure that this statement is executed in its own transaction.

    • Do not configure the target database to work in autocommit mode.

2.8.2 Transaction Capability

The gateway does not support savepoints. If a distributed update transaction is under way involving the gateway and a user attempts to create a savepoint, the following error occurs:

ORA-02070: database dblink does not support savepoint in this context

By default, the gateway is configured as COMMIT_CONFIRM and it is always the commit point site when the Teradata database is updated by the transaction.

2.8.3 COMMIT or ROLLBACK in PL/SQL Cursor Loops Closes Open Cursors

Any COMMIT or ROLLBACK issued in a PL/SQL cursor loop closes all open cursors, which can result in the following error:

ORA-1002:  fetch out of sequence 

To prevent this error, move the COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement outside the cursor loop.

2.8.4 Pass-Through Feature

Oracle recommends that you place a DDL statement in its own transaction when executing such a statement with the pass-through feature. An explicit COMMIT must be issued after the DDL statement.

If the SQL statements being passed through the gateway result in an implicit commit at the Teradata database, the Oracle transaction manager is unaware of the commit and an Oracle ROLLBACK command cannot be used to roll back the transaction.

2.8.5 Bind Variables for Date Columns

You cannot compare columns of data type TIME or TIMESTAMP to a bind variable.

The following SQL statement causes an error message:

SQL> select time_column from time_table@TERA where time_column = :a;

The following error is issued:

Invalid operation on an ANSI Datetime or Interval value. 

2.8.6 SQL Syntax

This section lists restrictions on the following SQL syntax:

See Also:

Appendix B, "Supported SQL Syntax and Functions" for more information about restrictions on SQL syntax.

2.8.6.1 WHERE CURRENT OF Clause

UPDATE and DELETE statements with the WHERE CURRENT OF clause are not supported by the gateway because they rely on the Oracle ROWID implementation. To update or delete a specific row through the gateway, a condition style WHERE clause must be used.

2.8.6.2 CONNECT BY Clause

The gateway does not support the CONNECT BY clause in a SELECT statement.

2.8.6.3 ROWID

The Oracle ROWID implementation is not supported.

2.8.6.4 EXPLAIN PLAN Statement

The EXPLAIN PLAN statement is not supported.

2.8.6.5 Callback Support

SQL statements that require the gateway to callback to Oracle database are not supported.

The following categories of SQL statements will result in a callback:

  • Any DML with a sub-select, which refers to a table in Oracle database. For example:

    INSERT INTO emp@TERA SELECT * FROM oracle_emp;
    
  • Any DELETE, INSERT, UPDATE or "SELECT... FOR UPDATE..." SQL statement containing SQL functions or statements that needs to be executed at the originating Oracle database.

    These SQL functions include USER, USERENV, and SYSDATE; and invovle the selection of data from the originating Oracle database. For example:

    DELETE FROM emp@TERA WHERE hiredate > SYSDATE;
    
    SELECT ename FROM tkhoemp@TERA
    WHERE hiredate IN (SELECT hiredate FROM oracle_emp)
    FOR UPDATE OF empno;
    
  • Any SQL statement that involves a table in Oracle database, and a LONG or LOB column in a remote table. For example:

    SELECT a.long1, b.empno FROM scott.table@TERA a, emp b
    WHERE a.id=b.empno; 
    
    SELECT a.long1, b.dummy FROM table_non@TERA a, dual b;
    

where a.long1 is a LONG column.

2.8.7 SQL*Plus

You need to use double quotes to wrap around lowercase table names.

For example:

copy from tkhouser/tkhouser@inst1 insert loc_tkhodept using select * from "tkhodept"@TERA;

2.8.8 Database Links

The gateway is not a shared server process and cannot support shared database links. Each gateway session spawns a separate gateway process and connections cannot be shared.

2.8.9 CALLBACK links

Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata does not support CALLBACK links. Attempting to use a CALLBACK link with the gateway will return the following error message:

ORA-02025: All tables in the SQL statement must be at the remote database

2.9 Known Problems

This section describes known problems and includes suggestions for correcting them when possible. If you have any questions or concerns about the problems, contact Oracle Support Services. A current list of problems is available online. Contact your local Oracle office for information about accessing the list.

The following known problems are described in this section:

2.9.1 Teradata LONG VARCHAR Data Type

The following restrictions apply when using LONG VARCHAR data types:

  • An unsupported SQL function cannot be used in a SQL statement that accesses a column defined as Teradata data type LONG VARCHAR.

  • You cannot use SQL*Plus to select data from a column defined as Teradata data type LONG VARCHAR when the data is greater than 80 characters in length. Oracle recommends using Pro*C or Oracle Call Interface to access such data in a Teradata database.

  • LONG VARCHAR data types must be NULLABLE for INSERT or UPDATE to work.

  • A table including a LONG VARCHAR column must have a unique index defined on the table or the table must have a separate column that serves as a primary key.

  • LONG VARCHAR data cannot be read through pass-through queries.

The gateway does not support the PL/SQL function COLUMN_VALUE_LONG of the DBMS_SQL package.

See Also:

Appendix B, "Supported SQL Syntax and Functions" for more information about restrictions on SQL syntax.

2.9.2 Schema Names and PL/SQL

If you do not prefix a Teradata database object with its schema name in a SQL statement within a PL/SQL block, the following error message occurs:

ORA-6550 PLS-201 Identifier table_name must be declared.

Change the SQL statement to include the schema name of the object.

2.9.3 Data Dictionary Views and PL/SQL

You cannot refer to data dictionary views in SQL statements that are inside a PL/SQL block.