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Oracle® Database Java Developer's Guide,
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E10588-03
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10 Security for Oracle Database Java Applications

Security is a large arena that includes network security for the connection, access, and execution control of operating system resources or of Java virtual machine (JVM)-defined and user-defined classes. Security also includes bytecode verification of Java Archive (JAR) files imported from an external source. The following sections describe the various security support available for Java applications within Oracle Database:

Network Connection Security

The two major aspects to network security are authentication and data confidentiality. The type of authentication and data confidentiality is dependent on how you connect to the database, either through Oracle Net or Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) connection. The following table provides the security description for Oracle Net and JDBC connections:

Connection Security Description
Oracle Net The database can require both authentication and authorization before allowing a user to connect to it. Oracle Net database connection security can require one or more of the following:
  • A user name and password for client verification. For each connection request, a user name and password configured within Oracle Net has to be provided.

  • Advanced Networking Option for encryption, kerberos, or secureId.

  • SSL for certificate authentication.

JDBC The JDBC connection security that is required is similar to the constraints required on an Oracle Net database connection.

Database Contents and Oracle JVM Security

Once you are connected to the database, you must have the appropriate Java2 security permissions and database privileges to access the resources stored within the database. These resources include:

These resources can be protected by the following methods:

Resource Security Description
Database Resource Security Authorization for database resources requires that database privileges, which are not the same as the Java2 security permissions, are granted to resources. For example, database resources include tables, classes, and PL/SQL packages.

All user-defined classes are secured against users from other schemas. You can grant execution permission to other users or schemas through an option on the loadjava tool.

JVM Security Oracle JVM uses Java2 security, which uses Permission objects to protect operating system resources. Java2 security is automatically installed upon startup and protects all operating system resources and Oracle JVM classes from all users, except JAVA_ADMIN. The JAVA_ADMIN user can grant permission to other users to access these classes.

Note:

The Oracle JVM is shipped with strong but limited encryption as included in JDK1.5 and JDK 6. If you want to have unlimited encryption strength in your application, then you must download and install the appropriate version-specific files from the following Sun Microsystems Web site

http://developers.sun.com/downloads/

This section covers the following topics:

Java2 Security

Each user or schema must be assigned the proper permissions to access operating system resources, such as sockets, files, and system properties.

Java2 security provides a flexible and configurable security for Java applications. With Java2 security, you can define exactly what permissions on each loaded object that a schema or role will have. In Oracle8i Database release 8.1.5, the following secure roles are available:

  • JAVAUSERPRIV

    Few permissions, including examining properties

  • JAVASYSPRIV

    Major permissions, including updating Oracle JVM-protected packages

Note:

Both roles still exist within this release for backward compatibility. However, Oracle recommends that you specify each permission explicitly, rather than utilize these roles.

Because Oracle JVM security is based on Java2 security, you assign permissions on a class-by-class basis. These permissions are assigned through database management tools. Each permission is encapsulated in a Permission object and is stored within a Permission table. Permission contains the target and action attributes, which take String values.

Java2 security was created for the non-database world. When you apply the Java2 security model within the database, certain differences manifest themselves. For example, Java2 security defines that all applets are implicitly untrusted and all classes within the CLASSPATH are trusted. In Oracle Database, all classes are loaded within a secure database. As a result, no classes are trusted.

The following table describes the differences between the Sun Microsystems Java2 security and Oracle Database security implementation:

Java2 Security Standard Oracle Database Security Implementation
Java classes located within the CLASSPATH are trusted. All Java classes are loaded within the database. Classes are trusted on a class-by-class basis according to the permission granted.
You can specify the policy using the -usepolicy flag on the java command. You must specify the policy within PolicyTable.
You can write your own SecurityManager or use the Launcher. You can write your own SecurityManager. However, Oracle recommends that you use only Oracle Database SecurityManager or that you extend it. If you want to modify the behavior, then you should not define a SecurityManager. Instead, you should extend oracle.aurora.rdbms. SecurityManagerImpl and override specific methods.
SecurityManager is not initialized by default. You must initialize SecurityManager. Oracle JVM always initializes SecurityManager at startup.
Permissions are determined by the location or the URL, where the application or applet is loaded, or keycode, that is, signed code. Permissions are determined by the schema in which the class is loaded. Oracle Database does not support signed code.
The security policy is defined in a file. The PolicyTable definition is contained in a secure database table.
You can update the security policy file using a text editor or a tool, if you have the appropriate permissions. You can update PolicyTable through DBMS_JAVA procedures. After initialization, only JAVA_ADMIN has permission to modify PolicyTable. JAVA_ADMIN must grant you the right to modify PolicyTable so that you can grant permissions to others.
Permissions are assigned to a protection domain, which classes can belong to. All classes within the same schema are in the same protection domain.
You can use the CodeSource class for identifying code.
  • The equals() method returns true if the URL and certificates are equal.

  • The implies() method returns true if the first CodeSource is a generic representation that includes the specific CodeSource object.

You can use the CodeSource class for identifying schema.
  • The equals() method returns true if the schemas are the same.

  • The implies() method returns true if the schemas are the same.

Supports positive permissions only, that is, grant. Supports both positive and limitation permissions, that is, grant and restrict.

Setting Permissions

As with Java2 security, Oracle Database supports the security classes. Typically, you set the permissions for the code base either using a tool or by editing the security policy file. In Oracle Database, you set the permissions dynamically using DBMS_JAVA procedures, which modify a policy table in the database.

Two views have been created for you to view the policy table, USER_JAVA_POLICY and DBA_JAVA_POLICY. Both views contain information about granted and limitation permissions. The DBA_JAVA_POLICY view can see all rows within the policy table. The USER_JAVA_POLICY view can see only permissions relevant to the current user. The following is a description of the rows within each view:

Table Column Description
Kind GRANT or RESTRICT. Shows whether this permission is a positive or a limitation permission.
Grantee The name of the user, schema, or role to which the Permission object is assigned.
Permission_schema The schema in which the Permission object is loaded.
Permission_type The Permission class type, which is designated by a string containing the full class name, such as, java.io.FilePermission.
Permission_name The target attribute of the Permission object. You use this when defining the permission. When defining the target for a Permission object of type PolicyTablePermission, the name can become quite complicated.

See Also: "Acquiring Administrative Permission to Update Policy Table"

Permission_action The action attribute of the Permission object. Many permissions expect a null value if no action is appropriate for the permission.
Status ENABLED and DISABLED. After creating a row for a Permission object, you can disable or reenable it. This column shows whether the permission is enabled or disabled.
Key Sequence number you use to identify this row. This number should be supplied when disabling, enabling, or deleting a permission.

There are two ways to set permissions:

Note:

For absolute certainty about the security settings, implement the fine-grain definition. The general definition is easy to implement, but you may not get the exact security settings you require.

Fine-Grain Definition for Each Permission

Using fine-grain definition, you can grant each permission individually to specific users or roles. If you do not grant a permission for access, then the schema will be denied access. To set individual permissions within the policy table, you must provide the following information:

Parameter Description
Grantee The name of the user, schema, or role to which you want the grant to apply. PUBLIC specifies that the row applies to all users.
Permission type The Permission class on which you are granting permission. For example, if you were defining access to a file, the permission type would be FilePermission. This parameter requires a fully-qualified name of a class that extends java.lang.security.Permission. If the class is not within SYS, then the name should be prefixed by schema:. For example, mySchema:myPackage.MyPermission is a valid name for a user-generated permission.
Permission name The meaning of the target attribute as defined by the Permission class. Examine the appropriate Permission class for the relevant name.
Permission action The type of action that you can specify. This can vary according to the permission type. For example, FilePermission can have the action, read or write.
Key Number returned from grant or limit to use on enable, disable, or delete methods.

You can grant permissions using either SQL or Java. Each version returns a row key identifier that identifies the row within the permission table. In the Java version of DBMS_JAVA, each method returns the row key identifier, either as a returned parameter or as an OUT variable in the parameter list. In the PL/SQL DBMS_JAVA package, the row key is returned only in the procedure that defines the key OUT parameter. This key is used to enable and disable specific permissions.

After running the grant, if a row already exists for the exact permission, then no update occurs, but the key for that row is returned. If the row was disabled, then running the grant enables the existing row.

Note:

If you are granting FilePermission, then you must provide the physical name of the directory or file, such as /private/oracle. You cannot provide either an environment variable, such as $ORACLE_HOME, or a symbolic link. To denote all files within a directory, provide the * symbol, as follows:
/private/oracle/*

To denote all directories and files within a directory, provide the - symbol, as follows:

/private/oracle/-

You can grant permissions using the DBMS_JAVA package, as follows:

procedure grant_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, 
permission_action varchar2 )

procedure grant_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, 
permission_action varchar2, key OUT number)

You can grant permissions using Java, as follows:

long oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.grant ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name, java.lang.String permission_action);

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.grant ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name, java.lang.String permission_action, long[] key);

You can limit permissions using the DBMS_JAVA package, as follows:

procedure restrict_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, 
permission_action varchar2)

procedure restrict_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, 
permission_action varchar2, key OUT number)

You can limit permissions using Java, as follows:

long oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.restrict ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name, java.lang.String permission_action);

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.restrict ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name, java.lang.String permission_action, long[] key);

Example 10-1 shows how to use the grant_permission() method to grant permissions. Example 10-2 shows how to limit permissions using the restrict() method.

Example 10-1 Granting Permissions

Assuming that you have appropriate permissions to modify the policy table, you can use the grant_permission() method, which is in the DBMS_JAVA package, to modify PolicyTable to allow user access to the indicated file. In this example, the user, Larry, has modification permission on PolicyTable. Within a SQL package, Larry can grant permission to Dave to read and write a file, as follows:

connect larry
Enter password: password

REM Grant DAVE permission to read and write the Test1 file.
call dbms_java.grant_permission('DAVE', 'java.io.FilePermission', '/test/Test1',  'read,write');

REM commit the changes to PolicyTable
commit;

Example 10-2 Limiting Permissions

You can use the restrict() method to specify a limitation or exception to general rules. A general rule is a rule where, in most cases, the permission is true or granted. However, there may be exceptions to this rule. For these exceptions, you specify a limitation permission.

If you have defined a general rule that no one can read or write an entire directory, then you can define a limitation on an aspect of this rule through the restrict() method. For example, if you want to allow access to all files within the /tmp directory, except for your password file that exists in that directory, then you would grant permission for read and write to all files within /tmp and limit read and write access to the password file.

If you want to specify an exception to the limitation, then you must create an explicit grant permission to override the limitation permission. In the previously mentioned scenario, if you want the file owner to still be able to modify the password file, then you can grant a more explicit permission to allow access to one user, which will override the limitation. Oracle JVM security combines all rules to understand who really has access to the password file. This is demonstrated in the following diagram:

Files in the /tmp directory
Description of the illustration limitper.gif

The explicit rule is as follows:

If the limitation permission implies the request, then for a grant permission to be effective, the limitation permission must also imply the grant.

The following code implements this example:

connect larry
Enter password: password

REM Grant permission to all users (PUBLIC) to be able to read and write
REM all files in /tmp.
call dbms_java.grant_permission('PUBLIC', 'java.io.FilePermission', '/tmp/*', 'read,write');

REM Limit permission to all users (PUBLIC) from reading or writing the
REM password file in /tmp.
call dbms_java.restrict_permission('PUBLIC', 'java.io.FilePermission', '/tmp/password', 'read,write');

REM By providing a more specific rule that overrides the limitation,
REM Larry can read and write /tmp/password.
call dbms_java.grant_permission('LARRY', 'java.io.FilePermission', '/tmp/password', 'read,write');

commit;

The preceding code performs the following actions:

  1. Grants everyone read and write permission to all files in /tmp.

  2. Limits everyone from reading or writing only the password file in /tmp.

  3. Grants only Larry explicit permission to read and write the password file.

Acquiring Administrative Permission to Update Policy Table

All permissions are rows in PolicyTable. Because it is a table in the database, you need appropriate permissions to modify it. Specifically, the PolicyTablePermission object is required to modify the table. After initializing Oracle JVM, only a single role, JAVA_ADMIN, is granted PolicyTablePermission to modify PolicyTable. The JAVA_ADMIN role is immediately assigned to the database administrator (DBA). Therefore, if you are assigned to the DBA group, then you will automatically take on all JAVA_ADMIN permissions.

If you need to add permissions as rows to this table, JAVA_ADMIN must grant your schema update rights using PolicyTablePermission. This permission defines that your schema can add rows to the table. Each PolicyTablePermission is for a specific type of permission. For example, to add a permission that controls access to a file, you must have PolicyTablePermission that lets you grant or limit a permission on FilePermission. Once this occurs, you have administrative permission for FilePermission.

An administrator can grant and limit PolicyTablePermission in the same manner as other permissions, but the syntax is complicated. For ease of use, you can use the grant_policy_permission() or grantPolicyPermission() method to grant administrative permissions.

You can grant policy table administrative permission using DBMS_JAVA, as follows:

procedure grant_policy_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_schema varchar2,
permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2 )

procedure grant_policy_permission ( grantee varchar2, permission_schema varchar2,
permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, key OUT number )

You can grant policy table administrative permission using Java, as follows:

long oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.grantPolicyPermission ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name);

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.grantPolicyPermission ( java.lang.String grantee, 
java.lang.String permission_type, java.lang.String permission_name, long[] key);
Parameter Description
Grantee The name of the user, schema, or role to which you want the grant to apply. PUBLIC specifies that the row applies to all users.
Permission_schema The schema where the Permission class is loaded.
Permission_type The Permission class on which you are granting permission. For example, if you were defining access to a file, the permission type would be FilePermission. This parameter requires a fully-qualified name of a class that extends java.lang.security.Permission. If the class is not within SYS, the name should be prefixed by schema:. For example, mySchema:myPackage.MyPermission is a valid name for a user-generated permission.
Permission_name The meaning of the target attribute as defined by the Permission class. Examine the appropriate Permission class for the relevant name.
Row_ number Number returned from grant or limitation to use on enable, disable, or delete methods.

Note:

When looking at the policy table, the name in the PolicyTablePermission rows contains both the permission type and the permission name, which are separated by a #. For example, to grant a user administrative rights for reading a file, the name in the row contains java.io.FilePermission#read. The # separates the Permission class from the permission name.

Example 10-3 shows how you can modify PolicyTable.

Example 10-3 Granting PolicyTable Permission

This example shows SYS, which has the JAVA_ADMIN role assigned, giving Larry permission to update PolicyTable for FilePermission. Once this permission is granted, Larry can grant permissions to other users for reading, writing, and deleting files.

REM Connect as SYS, which is assigned JAVA_ADMIN role, to give Larry permission
REM to modify the PolicyTable
connect SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: password

REM SYS grants Larry the right to administer permissions for
REM FilePermission
call dbms_java.grant_policy_permission('LARRY', 'SYS', 'java.io.FilePermission', '*');

Creating Permissions

You can create your own permission type by performing the following steps:

  1. Create and load the user permission

    Create your own permission by extending the java.security.Permission class. Any user-defined permission must extend Permission. The following example creates MyPermission, which extends BasicPermission, which, in turn, extends Permission.

    package test.larry;
    import java.security.Permission;
    import java.security.BasicPermission;
    
    public class MyPermission extends BasicPermission
    {
    
      public MyPermission(String name)
      {
        super(name);
      }
    
      public boolean implies(Permission p)
      {
        boolean result = super.implies(p);
        return result;
      }
    }
    
  2. Grant administrative and action permissions to specified users

    When you create a permission, you are designated as the owner of that permission. The owner is implicitly granted administrative permission. This means that the owner can be an administrator for this permission and can run grant_policy_permission(). Administrative permission enable the user to update the policy table for the user-defined permission.

    For example, if LARRY creates a permission, MyPermission, then only he can call grant_policy_permission() for himself or another user. This method updates PolicyTable on who can grant rights to MyPermission. The following code demonstrates this:

    REM Since Larry is the user that owns MyPermission, Larry connects to
    REW the database to assign permissions for MyPermission.
    connect larry
    Enter password: password
    
    REM As the owner of MyPermission, Larry grants himself the right to
    REM administer permissions for test.larry.MyPermission within the JVM
    REM security PolicyTable. Only the owner of the user-defined permission
    REM can grant administrative rights.
    call dbms_java.grant_policy_permission ('LARRY', 'LARRY', 'test.larry.MyPermission', '*');
    
    REM commit the changes to PolicyTable
    commit;
    

    Once you have granted administrative rights, you can grant action permissions for the created permission. For example, the following SQL statements grant LARRY the permission to run anything within MyPermission and DAVE the permission to run only actions that start with "act.".

    REM Since Larry is the user that creates MyPermission, Larry connects to
    REW the database to assign permissions for MyPermission.
    connect larry
    Enter password: password
    
    REM Once able to modify PolicyTable for MyPermission, Larry grants himself
    REM full permission for MyPermission. Notice that the Permission is prefixed
    REM with its owner schema.
    call dbms_java.grant_permission( 'LARRY', 'LARRY:test.larry.MyPermission', '*', null);
    
    REM Larry grants Dave permission to do any actions that start with 'act.*'.
    call dbms_java.grant_permission
     ('DAVE', 'LARRY:test.larry.MyPermission', 'act.*', null);
    
    REM commit the changes to PolicyTable
    commit;
    
  3. Implement security checks using the permission

    Once you have created, loaded, and assigned permissions for MyPermission, you must implement the call to SecurityManager to have the permission checked. There are four methods in the following example: sensitive(), act(), print(), and hello(). Because of the permissions granted using SQL in the preceding steps, the following users can run methods within the example class:

    • LARRY can run any of the methods.

    • DAVE is given permission to run only the act() method.

    • Anyone can run the print() and hello() methods. The print() method does not check any permissions. As a result, anyone can run it. The hello() method runs AccessController.doPrivileged(), which means that the method runs with the permissions assigned to LARRY. This is referred to as the definer's rights.

    package test.larry;
    import java.security.AccessController;
    import java.security.Permission;
    import java.security.PrivilegedAction;
    
    import java.sql.Connection;
    import java.sql.SQLException;
    
    /**
    * MyActions is a class with a variety of public methods that
    * have some security risks associated with them. We will rely
    * on the Java security mechanisms to ensure that they are
    * performed only by code that is authorized to do so.
    */
    
    public class Larry {
    
      private static String secret = "Larry's secret";
      MyPermission sensitivePermission = new MyPermission("sensitive");
    
    /**
    * This is a security sensitive operation. That is it can
    * compromise our security if it is executed by a "bad guy".
    * Only larry has permission to execute sensitive.
    */
      public void sensitive()
      {
        checkPermission(sensitivePermission);
        print();
      }
    
    /**
    * Will display a message from Larry. You must be
    * careful about who is allowed to do this
    * because messages from Larry may have extra impact.
    * Both larry and dave have permission to execute act.
    */
      public void act(String message)
      {
        MyPermission p = new MyPermission("act." + message);
        checkPermission(p);
        System.out.println("Larry says: " + message);
      }
    
    /**
    * display secret key
    * No permission check is made; anyone can execute print.
    */
      private void print()
      {
        System.out.println(secret);
      }
    
    /**
    * Display "Hello"
    * This method invokes doPrivileged, which makes the method run
    * under definer's rights. So, this method runs under Larry's
    * rights, so anyone can execute hello. Only Larry can execute hello
    */
      public void hello()
      {
        AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction() {
          public Object run() { act("hello"); return null; }
        });
      }
    
    /**
    * If a security manager is installed ask it to check permission
    * otherwise use the AccessController directly
    */
      void checkPermission(Permission permission)
      {
        SecurityManager sm = System.getSecurityManager();
        sm.checkPermission(permission);
      }
    }
    

Enabling or Disabling Permissions

Once you have created a row that defines a permission, you can disable it so that it no longer applies. However, if you decide that you want the row action again, then you can enable the row. You can delete the row from the table if you believe that it will never be used again. To delete, you must first disable the row. If you do not disable the row, then the deletion will not occur.

To disable rows, you can use either of the following methods:

  • revoke_permission()

    This method accepts parameters similar to the grant() and restrict() methods. It searches the entire policy table for all rows that match the parameters provided.

  • disable_permission()

    This method disables only a single row within the policy table. To do this, it accepts the policy table key as parameter. This key is also necessary to enable or delete a permission. To retrieve the permission key number, perform one of the following:

    • Save the key when it is returned on the grant or limit calls. If you do not foresee a need to ever enable or disable the permission, then you can use the grant and limit calls that do not return the permission number.

    • Look up DBA_JAVA_POLICY or USER_JAVA_POLICY for the appropriate permission key number.

You can disable permissions using DBMS_JAVA, as follows:

procedure revoke_permission (permission_schema varchar2, permission_type varchar2, permission_name varchar2, 
permission_action varchar2)
procedure disable_permission (key number)

You can disable permissions using Java, as follows:

void revoke (String schema, String type, String name, String action);

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.disable (long number);

You can enable permissions using DBMS_JAVA, as follows:

procedure enable_permission (key number)

You can enable permissions using Java, as follows:

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.enable (long number);

You can delete permissions using DBMS_JAVA, as follows:

procedure delete_permission (key number)

You can delete permissions using Java, as follows:

void oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTableManager.delete (long number);

Permission Types

Whenever you want to grant or limit a permission, you must provide the permission type. The permission types with which you control access are the following:

  • Java2 permission types

  • Oracle-specific permission types

  • User-defined permission types that extend java.security.Permission

Table 10-1 lists the installed permission types.

Table 10-1 Predefined Permissions

Type Permissions

Java2

  • java.util.PropertyPermission

  • java.io.SerializablePermission

  • java.io.FilePermission

  • java.net.NetPermission

  • java.net.SocketPermission

  • java.lang.RuntimePermission

  • java.lang.reflect.ReflectPermission

  • java.security.SecurityPermission

Oracle specific

  • oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTablePermission

  • oracle.aurora.security.JServerPermission


Note:

SYS is granted permission to load libraries that come with Oracle Database. However, Oracle JVM does not support other users loading libraries, because loading C libraries within the database is insecure. As a result, you are not allowed to grant RuntimePermission for loadLibrary.*.

The Oracle-specific permissions are:

  • oracle.aurora.rdbms.security.PolicyTablePermission

    This permission controls who can update the policy table. Once granted the right to update the policy table for a certain permission type, you can control the access to few resources.

    After the initialization of Oracle JVM, only the JAVA_ADMIN role can grant administrative rights for the policy table through PolicyTablePermission. Once it grants this right to other users, these users can, in turn, update the policy table with their own grant and limitation permissions.

    To grant policy table updates, you can use the grant_policy_permission() method, which is in the DBMS_JAVA package. Once you have updated the table, you can view either the DBA_JAVA_POLICY or USER_JAVA_POLICY view to see who has been granted permissions.

  • oracle.aurora.security.JServerPermission

    This permission is used to grant and limit access to Oracle JVM resources. The JServerPermission extends BasicPermission. The following table lists the permission names for which JServerPermission grants access:

    Permission Name Description
    LoadClassInPackage.package_name Grants the ability to load a class within the specified package
    Verifier Grants the ability to turn the bytecode verifier on or off
    Debug Grants the ability for debuggers to connect to a session
    JRIExtensions Grants the use of MEMSTAT
    Memory.Call Grants rights to call certain methods in oracle.aurora.vm.OracleRuntime on call settings
    Memory.Stack Grants rights to call certain methods in oracle.aurora.vm.OracleRuntime on stack settings
    Memory.SGAIntern Grants rights to call certain methods in oracle.aurora.vm.OracleRuntime on SGA settings
    Memory.GC Grants rights to call certain methods in oracle.aurora.vm.OracleRuntime on garbage collector settings

Initial Permission Grants

When you first initialize Oracle JVM, several roles are populated with certain permission grants. The following tables show these roles and their initial Permissions:

The JAVA_ADMIN role is given access to modify the policy table for all permissions. All DBAs, including SYS, are granted JAVA_ADMIN. Full administrative rights to update the policy table are granted for the permissions listed in Table 10-1. In addition to the JAVA_ADMIN permissions, SYS is granted some additional permissions.

Table 10-2 lists the additional permissions granted to SYS.

Table 10-2 SYS Initial Permissions

Permission Type Permission Name Action

oracle.aurora.rdbms.security. PolicyTablePermission

*

Administrative rights to modify the policy table

oracle.aurora.security.JServerPermission

*

null

java.net.NetPermission

*

null

java.security.SecurityPermission

*

null

java.util.PropertyPermission

*

write

java.lang.reflect.ReflectPermission

*

null

java.lang.RuntimePermission

*

null

 

loadLibrary.xaNative

null

 

loadLibrary.corejava

null

 

loadLibrary.corejava_d

null


Table 10-3 lists permissions initially granted to all users.

Table 10-3 PUBLIC Default Permissions

Permission Type Permission Name Action

oracle.aurora.rdbms.security. PolicyTablePermission

java.lang.RuntimePermission.loadLibrary.*

null

java.util.PropertyPermission

*

read

 

user.language

write

java.lang.RuntimePermission

_

null

 

exitVM

null

 

createSecurityManager

null

 

modifyThread

null

 

modifyThreadGroup

null

oracle.aurora.security. JServerPermission

loadClassInPackage.* except for loadClassInPackage.java.*, loadClassInPackage.oracle.aurora.*, and loadClassInPackage.jdbc.*

null


Table 10-4 lists permissions initially granted to the JAVAUSERPRIV role.

Table 10-4 JAVAUSERPRIV Permissions

Permission Type Permission Name Action

java.net.SocketPermission

*

connect, resolve

java.io.FilePermission

<<ALL FILES>>

read

java.lang.RuntimePermission

modifyThreadGroup, stopThread, getProtectionDomain, readFileDescriptor, accessClassInPackage.*, and defineClassInPackage.*

null


Table 10-5 lists permissions initially granted to the JAVASYSPRIV role.

Table 10-5 JAVASYSPRIV Permissions

Permission Type Permission Name Action

java.io.SerializablePermission

*

no applicable action

java.io.FilePermission

<<ALL FILES>>

read, write, execute, delete

java.net.SocketPermission

*

accept, connect, listen, resolve

java.lang.RuntimePermission

createClassLoader

null

 

getClassLoader

null

 

setContextClassLoader

null

 

setFactory

null

 

setIO

null

 

setFileDescriptor

null

 

readFileDescriptor

null

 

writeFileDescriptor

null


Table 10-6 lists permissions initially granted to the JAVADEBUGPRIV role.

Table 10-6 JAVADEBUGPRIV Permissions

Permission Type Permission Name Action

oracle.aurora.security.JServerPermission

Debug

null

java.net.SocketPermission

*

connect, resolve


General Permission Definition Assigned to Roles

In Oracle8i Database release 8.1.5, Oracle JVM security was controlled by granting the JAVASYSPRIV, JAVAUSERPRIV, or JAVADEBUGPRIV role to schemas. In Oracle Database 11g, these roles still exist as permission groups. You can set up and define your own collection of permissions. Once defined, you can grant any collection of permissions to any user or role. That user will then have the same permissions that exist within the role. In addition, if you need additional permissions, then you can add individual permissions to either your specified user or role. Permissions defined within the policy table have a cumulative effect.

Note:

The ability to write to properties, granted through the write action on PropertyPermission, is no longer granted to all users. Instead, you must have either JAVA_ADMIN grant this permission to you or you can receive it by being granted the JAVASYSPRIV role.

The following example gives Larry and Dave the following permissions:

  • Larry receives JAVASYSPRIV permissions.

  • Dave receives JAVADEBUGPRIV permissions and the ability to read and write all files on the system.

REM Granting Larry the same permissions as those existing within JAVASYSPRIV
grant javasyspriv to larry;

REM Granting Dave the ability to debug
grant javadebugpriv to dave;

commit;

REM I also want Dave to be able to read and write all files on the system
call dbms_java.grant_permission('DAVE', 'SYS:java.io.FilePermission',
 '<<ALL FILES>>', 'read,write', null);

Debugging Permissions

A debug role, JAVADEBUGPRIV, was created to grant permissions for running the debugger. The permissions assigned to this role are listed in Table 10-6. To receive permission to call the debug agent, the caller must have been granted JAVADEBUGPRIV or the debug JServerPermission as follows:

REM Granting Dave the ability to debug
grant javadebugpriv to dave;

REM Larry grants himself permission to start the debug agent.
call dbms_java.grant_permission(
  'LARRY', 'oracle.aurora.security.JServerPermission', 'Debug', null);

Although a debugger provides extensive access to both code and data on the server, its use should be limited to development environments.

Permission for Loading Classes

To load classes, you must have the following permission:

JServerPermission("LoadClassInPackage." + class_name)

where, class_name is the fully qualified name of the class that you are loading.

This excludes loading into System packages or replacing any System classes. Even if you are granted permission to load a System class, Oracle Database prevents you from performing the load. System classes are classes that are installed by Oracle Database using the CREATE JAVA SYSTEM statement. The following error is thrown if you try to replace a System class:

ORA-01031 "Insufficient privileges"

The following describes what each user can do after database installation:

  • SYS can load any class except for System classes.

  • Any user can load classes in its own schema that do not start with the following patterns: java.*, oracle.aurora.*, and oracle.jdbc.*. If the user wants to load such classes into another schema, then it must be granted the JServerPermission(LoadClassInPackage.class) permission.

    The following example shows how to grant SCOTT permission to load classes into the oracle.aurora.* package:

    dbms_java.grant_permission('SCOTT', 'SYS:oracle.aurora.tools.*', null)
    

Database Authentication Mechanisms

The following database authentication mechanisms are available: