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Oracle® Database Net Services Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E10835-04
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5 Parameters for the sqlnet.ora File

This chapter provides complete listing of the sqlnet.ora file configuration parameters.

This chapter includes the following topics:

Overview of Profile Configuration File

The sqlnet.ora file is the profile configuration file. It resides on the client machines and the database server. Profiles are stored and implemented using this file. The database server can be configured with access control parameters in the sqlnet.ora file. These parameters specify whether clients are allowed or denied access based on the protocol.

The sqlnet.ora file enables you to do the following:

By default, the sqlnet.ora file is located in the ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. The sqlnet.ora file can also be stored in the directory specified by the TNS_ADMIN environment variable.

sqlnet.ora Profile Parameters

This section lists and describes the following sqlnet.ora file parameters:

BEQUEATH_DETACH

Purpose

To turn signal handling on or off for Linux and UNIX systems.

Default

NO

Values

  • yes to turn signal handling off

  • no to leave signal handling on

Example

BEQUEATH_DETACH=yes

DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE

Purpose

To specify the session data unit (SDU) size, in bytes to connections.

Usage

Oracle recommends setting this parameter in both the client-side and server-side sqlnet.ora file to ensure the same SDU size is used throughout a connection. When the configured values of client and database server do not match for a session, the lower of the two values is used.

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the SDU parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for complete SDU usage and configuration information

Default

8192 bytes (8 KB)

Values

512 to 65535 bytes

Example

DEFAULT_SDU_SIZE=4096

DISABLE_OOB

Purpose

To enable or disable Oracle Net to send or receive out-of-band break messages using urgent data provided by the underlying protocol.

If turned off, then the parameter enables Oracle Net to send and receive break messages. If turned on, then the parameter disables the ability to send and receive break messages. Once enabled, this feature applies to all protocols used by this client.

Default

OFF

Example

DISABLE_OOB=on

See Also:

Operating system-specific documentation to determine if the protocols you are using support urgent data requests. TCP/IP is an example of a protocol that supports this feature.

NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN

Purpose

To set the domain from which the client most often looks up names resolution requests. When this parameter is set, the default domain name is automatically appended to any unqualified net service name or service name.

For example, if the default domain is set to us.example.com, then the connect string CONNECT scott@sales gets searched as sales.us.example.com. If the connect string includes the domain extension, such as CONNECT scott@sales.us.example.com, then the domain is not appended to the string.

Default

None

Example

NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN=example.com

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH

Purpose

To specify the order of the naming methods used for client name resolution lookups.

Default

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames, ldap, ezconnect)

Values

Table 5-1 NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH Values

Naming Method Value Description

tnsnames (local naming method)

Set to resolve a net service name through the tnsnames.ora file on the client.

ldap (directory naming method)

Set to resolve a database service name, net service name, or net service alias through a directory server.

ezconnect or hostname (Easy Connect naming or host naming method)

Select to enable clients to use a TCP/IP connect identifier, consisting of a host name and optional port and service name.

nis (Network Information Service (NIS) external naming method)

Set to resolve service information through an existing NIS.


Example

NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(tnsnames)

NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND

Purpose

To specify whether the LDAP naming adapter should attempt to authenticate using a specified wallet when it connects to the LDAP directory to resolve the name in the connect string.

Usage

The parameter value is Boolean.

If the parameter is set to TRUE, then the LDAP connection is authenticated using a wallet whose location must be specified in the WALLET_LOCATION parameter.

If the parameter is set to FALSE, then the LDAP connection is established using an anonymous bind.

Default

FALSE

Example

NAMES.LDAP_AUTHENTICATE_BIND=TRUE

NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION

Purpose

To specify whether the LDAP naming adapter should leave the session with the LDAP server open after name lookup is complete.

Usage

The parameter value is Boolean.

If the parameter is set to TRUE, then the connection to the LDAP server is left open after the name lookup is complete; the connection will effectively stay open for the duration of the process. If the connection is lost, then it will be re-established as needed.

If the parameter is set to FALSE, then the LDAP connection is terminated as soon as the name lookup completes. Every subsequent lookup opens the connection, performs the lookup, and closes the connection. This option prevents the LDAP server from having a large number of clients connected to it at any one time.

Default

FALSE

Example

NAMES.LDAP_PERSISTENT_SESSION=TRUE

RECV_BUF_SIZE

Purpose

To specify the buffer space limit for receive operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Note:

Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain operating systems. Refer to the operating system-specific documentation for additional information about additional protocols that support this parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Net Services Administrator's Guide for additional information about configuring this parameter

Default

The default value for this parameter is operating system-specific.

Usage

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the RECV_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

Example

RECV_BUF_SIZE=11784

SDP.PF_INET_SDP

Purpose

To specify the protocol family or address family constant for the SDP protocol on your system.

Default

27

Values

Any positive integer

Example

SDP.PF_INET_SDP=30

SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER

Purpose

To specify a text file containing the banner contents that warn the user about possible user action auditing. The complete path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on the server. Oracle Call Interface (OCI) applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and display it to the user.

Default

None

Values

Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions.

Example

SEC_USER_AUDIT_ACTION_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/auditwarning.txt

SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER

Purpose

To specify a text file containing the banner contents that warn the user about unauthorized access to the database. The complete path of the text file must be specified in the sqlnet.ora file on the server. OCI applications can make use of OCI features to retrieve this banner and display it to the user.

Default

None

Values

Name of the file for which the database owner has read permissions.

Example

SEC_USER_UNAUTHORIZED_ACCESS_BANNER=/opt/oracle/admin/data/unauthwarning.txt

SEND_BUF_SIZE

Purpose

To specify the buffer space limit for send operations of sessions. This parameter is supported by the TCP/IP, TCP/IP with SSL, and SDP protocols.

Note:

Additional protocols might support this parameter on certain operating systems. Refer to the operating system-specific documentation for additional information about additional protocols that support this parameter.

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for additional information about configuring this parameter

Default

The default value for this parameter is operating system-specific.

Usage

You can override this parameter for a particular client connection by specifying the SEND_BUF_SIZE parameter in the connect descriptor for a client.

Example

SEND_BUF_SIZE=11784

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION

Purpose

To define the minimum Oracle Database client release that is allowed to attempt connections to Oracle database instances under the control of the given code tree.

If the client release does not meet or exceed the value defined by this parameter, then authentication fails with an ORA-28040 error.

Allowed Values

  • 11 for Oracle Database 11g authentication protocols (recommended for strongest protection)

  • 10 for Oracle Database 10g authentication protocols

  • 9 for Oracle9i authentication protocols

Note the following implications of setting the value to 11:

  • To take advantage of the password protections introduced in Oracle Database 11g, users must change their passwords.

  • Releases of OCI clients before Oracle Database 10g and all versions of JDBC thin clients cannot authenticate to the Oracle database using password-based authentication.

Default

8

Example

If both Oracle Database 11g and Oracle Database 10g are present, then set the parameter as follows:

SQLNET.ALLOWED_LOGON_VERSION=10

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE

Purpose

To define the name of the service used to obtain a Kerberos service ticket.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_KERBEROS5_SERVICE=oracle

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES

Purpose

To enable one or more authentication services. If authentication has been installed, then it is recommended that this parameter be set to either none or to one of the authentication methods.

Default

None

Note:

When installing the database with Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), this parameter may be set to nts in the sqlnet.ora file.

Values

  • Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Net Services:

    • none for no authentication methods, including Microsoft Windows native operating system authentication. When SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES is set to none, a valid user name and password can be used to access the database.

    • all for all authentication methods.

    • nts for Microsoft Windows native operating system authentication.

  • Authentication Methods Available with Oracle Advanced Security:

    • kerberos5 for Kerberos authentication.

    • radius for RADIUS authentication.

    • tcps for SSL authentication.

Example

SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES=(kerberos5)

SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION

Purpose

To set a unique identifier for the client computer. This identifier is passed to the listener with any connection request and is included in the Audit Trail. The identifier can be any alphanumeric string up to 128 characters long.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.CLIENT_REGISTRATION=1432

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the checksum behavior for the client.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side.

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side.

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it.

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service.

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_CLIENT=accepted

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the checksum behavior for the database server.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side.

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side.

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it.

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service.

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_SERVER=accepted

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify a list of crypto-checksum algorithms for the client to use.

Default

All available algorithms

Values

  • md5 for the RSA Data Security MD5 algorithm.

  • sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm.

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_CLIENT=(MD5)

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER

Purpose

To specify a list of crypto-checksum algorithms for the database server to use.

Default

All available algorithms

Values

  • md5 for the RSA Data Security's MD5 algorithm

  • sha1 for the Secure Hash algorithm

Example

SQLNET.CRYPTO_CHECKSUM_TYPES_SERVER=(md5)

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT

Purpose

To turn encryption on for the client.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side.

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side.

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it.

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service.

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_CLIENT=accepted

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER

Purpose

To turn encryption on for the database server.

Default

accepted

Values

  • accepted to enable the security service if required or requested by the other side.

  • rejected to disable the security service, even if the required by the other side.

  • requested to enable the security service if the other side allows it.

  • required to enable the security service and disallow the connection if the other side is not enabled for the security service.

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_SERVER=accepted

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify a list of encryption algorithms for the client to use.

Default

All available algorithms.

Values

One or more of the following:

  • 3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112-bit) option

  • 3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168-bit) option

  • des for standard 56-bit key size

  • des40 for 40-bit key size

  • rc4_40 for 40-bit key size

  • rc4_56 for 56-bit key size

  • rc4_128 for 128-bit key size

  • rc4_256 for 256-bit key size

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_CLIENT=(rc4_56)

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER

Purpose

To specify a list of encryption algorithms for the database server to use.

Default

All available algorithms.

Values

One or more of the following:

  • 3des112 for triple DES with a two-key (112-bit) option

  • 3des168 for triple DES with a three-key (168-bit) option

  • des for standard 56-bit key size

  • des40 for 40-bit key size

  • rc4_40 for 40-bit key size

  • rc4_56 for 56-bit key size

  • rc4_128 for 128-bit key size

  • rc4_256 for 256-bit key size

Example

SQLNET.ENCRYPTION_TYPES_SERVER=(rc4_56, des, ...)

SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME

Purpose

To specify a time interval, in minutes, to send a check to verify that client/server connections are active. The following usage notes apply to this parameter:

  • Setting a value greater than 0 ensures that connections are not left open indefinitely, due to an abnormal client termination.

  • If the probe finds a terminated connection, or a connection that is no longer in use, then it returns an error, causing the server process to exit.

  • This parameter is primarily intended for the database server, which typically handles multiple connections at any one time.

  • Limitations on using this terminated connection detection feature are:

    • It is not allowed on bequeathed connections.

    • Though very small, a probe packet generates additional traffic that may downgrade network performance.

    • Depending on which operating system is in use, the server may need to perform additional processing to distinguish the connection probing event from other events that occur. This can also result in degraded network performance.

Default

0

Minimum Value

0

Recommended Value

10

Example

SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME=10

SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, for a client to connect with the database server and provide the necessary authentication information.

If the client fails to establish a connection and complete authentication in the time specified, then the database server terminates the connection. In addition, the database server logs the IP address of the client and an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error message to the sqlnet.log file. The client receives either an ORA-12547: TNS:lost contact or an ORA-12637: Packet receive failed error message.

The default value of this parameter is appropriate for typical usage scenarios. However, if you need to explicitly set a different value, then Oracle recommends setting this parameter in combination with the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter in the listener.ora file. When specifying the values for these parameters, note the following recommendations:

  • Set both parameters to an initial low value.

  • Set the value of the INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name parameter to a lower value than the SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter.

For example, you can set INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT_listener_name to 2 seconds and SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter to 3 seconds. If clients are unable to complete connections within the specified time due to system or network delays that are normal for the particular environment, then increment the time as needed.

Default

60 seconds

Example

SQLNET.INBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3

See Also:

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME

Purpose

To specify the complete path name to the Kerberos credentials cache file.

Default

/usr/tmp/krbcache on Linux and UNIX operating systems, and c:\tmp\krbcache on Microsoft Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CC_NAME=/usr/tmp/krbcache

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW

Purpose

To specify how many seconds can pass before a Kerberos credential is considered out of date.

Default

300

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CLOCKSKEW=1200

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF

Purpose

To specify the complete path name to the Kerberos configuration file, which contains the realm for the default Key Distribution Center (KDC) and maps realms to KDC hosts. The KDC maintains a list of user principals and is contacted through the kinit program for the user's initial ticket.

Default

/krb5/krb.conf on Linux and UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.conf on Microsoft Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_CONF=/krb5/krb.conf

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB

Purpose

To specify the complete path name to the Kerberos principal/secret key mapping file, which is used to extract keys and decrypt incoming authentication information.

Default

/etc/v5srvtab on Linux and UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\v5srvtab on Microsoft Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_KEYTAB=/etc/v5srvtab

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS

Purpose

To specify the complete path name to the Kerberos realm translation file, which provides a mapping from a host name or domain name to a realm.

Default

/krb5/krb.realms on Linux and UNIX operating systems and c:\krb5\krb.realms on Microsoft Windows operating systems

Example

SQLNET.KERBEROS5_REALMS=/krb5/krb.realms

SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, for a client to establish an Oracle Net connection to the database instance.

If an Oracle Net connection is not established in the time specified, then the connect attempt is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error.

The outbound connect timeout interval is a superset of the TCP connect timeout interval, which specifies a limit on the time taken to establish a TCP connection. Additionally, the outbound connect timeout interval includes the time taken to be connected to an Oracle instance providing the requested service.

Without this parameter, a client connection request to the database server may block for the default TCP connect timeout duration (60 seconds) when the database server host system is unreachable.

The outbound connect timeout interval is only applicable for TCP, TCP with SSL, and IPC transport connections.

Default

None

Usage Notes

This parameter is overridden by the CONNECT_TIMEOUT parameter in the address description.

Example

SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE

Purpose

To specify an alternate RADIUS server to use in case the primary server is unavailable. The value can be either the IP address or host name of the server.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE=radius2

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT

Purpose

To specify the listening port of the alternate RADIUS server.

Default

1645

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_PORT=1667

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES

Purpose

To specify the number of times the database server should resend messages to the alternate RADIUS server.

Default

3

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_ALTERNATE_RETRIES=4

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION

Purpose

To specify the location of the primary RADIUS server, either by its host name or IP address.

Default

Local host

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENETICATION=officeacct

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE

Purpose

To specify the class containing the user interface used to interact with the user.

Default

DefaultRadiusInterface

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_INTERFACE=DefaultRadiusInterface

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT

Purpose

Use the parameter SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT to specify the listening port of the primary RADIUS server.

Default

1645

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_PORT= 1667

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES

Purpose

To specify the number of times the database server should resend messages to the primary RADIUS server.

Default

3

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_RETRIES=4

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, that the database server should wait for a response from the primary RADIUS server.

Default

5

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_AUTHENTICATION_TIMEOUT=10

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE

Purpose

To turn challenge response on or off.

Default

off

Values

on | off

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_CHALLENGE_RESPONSE=on

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET

Purpose:

To specify the location of the RADIUS secret key.

Default

The ORACLE_HOME/network/security/radius.key file.

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_SECRET=oracle/bin/admin/radiuskey

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING

Purpose

To turn accounting on and off. If enabled, then packets are sent to the active RADIUS server at listening port plus one. The default port is 1646.

Default

off

Values

on | off

Example

SQLNET.RADIUS_SEND_ACCOUNTING=on

SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, for a database server to wait for client data after establishing a connection. A client must send some data within the time interval.

For environments in which clients shut down on occasion or abnormally, setting this parameter is recommended. If a client does not send any data in time specified, then the database server logs ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out and ORA-12609: TNS: Receive timeout occurred messages to the sqlnet.log file. Without this parameter, the database server may continue to wait for data from clients that may be down or are experiencing difficulties.

You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to wait for response data from the database server after connection establishment. Without this parameter, the client may wait a long period of time for a response from a database server saturated with requests. If you choose to set the value, then set the value to an initial low value and adjust according to system and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter with the SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT parameter.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT=3

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for additional information about configuring these parameters

SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, for a database server to complete a send operation to clients after establishing a connection. Setting this parameter is recommended for environments in which clients shut down occasionally or abnormally.

If the database server cannot complete a send operation in the time specified, then it logs ORA-12535: TNS:operation timed out and ORA-12608: TNS: Send timeout occurred messages to the sqlnet.log file. Without this parameter, the database server may continue to send responses to clients that are unable to receive data due to a downed computer or a busy state.

You can also set this parameter on the client-side to specify the time, in seconds, for a client to complete send operations to the database server after connection establishment. Without this parameter, the client may continue to send requests to a database server already saturated with requests. If you choose to set the value, then set the value to an initial low value and adjust according to system and network capacity. If necessary, use this parameter with the SQLNET.RECV_TIMEOUT parameter.

Default

None

Example

SQLNET.SEND_TIMEOUT=3

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for additional information about configuring these parameters

SSL_CERT_REVOCATION

Purpose

To configure a revocation check for a certificate.

Default

None

Values

  • none to turn off certificate revocation checking. This is the default.

  • requested to perform certificate revocation in case a Certificate Revocation List (CRL) is available. Reject SSL connection if the certificate is revoked. If no appropriate CRL is found to determine the revocation status of the certificate and the certificate is not revoked, then accept the SSL connection.

  • required to perform certificate revocation when a certificate is available. If a certificate is revoked and no appropriate CRL is found, then reject the SSL connection. If no appropriate CRL is found to ascertain the revocation status of the certificate and the certificate is not revoked, then accept the SSL connection.

Example

SSL_CERT_REVOCATION=required

SSL_CERT_FILE

Purpose

To specify the name of the file where you can assemble the certificate revocation list (CRL) for client authentication.

This file contains the PEM-encoded CRL files, in order of preference. You can use this file alternatively or in addition to the SSL_CERT_PATH parameter. This parameter is only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or required.

Default

None

Example

SSL_CERT_FILE=

SSL_CERT_PATH

Purpose

To specify the destination directory of the CRL of CA. The files in this directory are hashed symbolic links created by Oracle Wallet Manager. This parameter is only valid if SSL_CERT_REVOCATION is set to either requested or required.

Default

None

Example

SSL_CERT_PATH=

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES

Purpose

To control which combination of encryption and data integrity is used by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Cipher suites that use Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) only work with Transport Layer Security (TLS 1.0).

Default

None

Values

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_DH_anon_WITH_3DES_EDE_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_DH_anon_WITH_RC4_128_MD5

  • SSL_DH_anon_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_RC4_40_MD5

  • SSL_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA

  • SSL_RSA_WITH_AES_256_CBC_SHA

Example

SSL_CIPHER_SUITES=(ssl_rsa_with_rc4_138_md5)

See Also:

Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide for additional information about cipher suite values

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION

Purpose

To specify whether a client, in addition to the database server, is authenticated using SSL.

Default

true

Values

true | false

Example

SSL_CLIENT_AUTHENTICATION=true

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH

Purpose

To enforce that the distinguished name (DN) for the database server matches its service name. If you enforce the match verifications, then SSL ensures that the certificate is from the server. If you select to not enforce the match verification, then SSL performs the check but allows the connection, regardless if there is a match. Not enforcing the match allows the server to potentially fake its identify.

Default

no

Values

  • yes | on | true to specify to enforce a match. If the DN matches the service name, then the connection succeeds. If the DN does not match the service name, then the connection fails.

  • no | off | false to specify not to enforce a match. If the DN does not match the service name, then the connection is successful, but an error is logged to the sqlnet.log file.

Usage Notes

In addition to the sqlnet.ora file, configure the tnsnames.ora parameter SSL_SERVER_CERT_DN to enable server DN matching.

Example

SSL_SERVER_DN_MATCH=yes

SSL_VERSION

Purpose

To force the version of the SSL connection. Clients and database servers must use a compatible version.

Default

undetermined

Values

undetermined | 2.0 | 3.0

Example

SSL_VERSION=2.0

TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT

Purpose

To specify the time, in seconds, for a client to establish a TCP connection (PROTOCOL=tcp in the TNS connect address) to the database server. If a TCP connection to the database host is not established in the time specified, then the connection attempt is terminated. The client receives an ORA-12170: TNS:Connect timeout occurred error.

The timeout applies to each IP address to which a host name resolves. For example, if a host name resolves to an IPv6 and an IPv4 address, and if the host is not reachable through the network, then the connection request times out twice the TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT setting because there are two IP addresses. In this example, the default timeout setting of 60 would cause a timeout in 120 seconds.

Default

60

Example

TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT=10

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES

Purpose

To specify which clients are denied access to the database. This parameter does not use wildcards for IP addresses or partial IP addresses.

Syntax

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example

TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES=(finance.us.example.com, mktg.us.example.com, 192.168.2.25, 172.30.*, 2001:DB8:200C:417A/32)

TCP.INVITED_NODES

Purpose

To specify which clients are allowed access to the database. This parameter does not use wildcards for IP addresses or partial IP addresses. This list takes precedence over the TCP.EXCLUDED_NODES parameter if both lists are present.

Syntax

TCP.INVITED_NODES=(hostname | ip_address, hostname | ip_address, ...)

Example

TCP.INVITED_NODES=(sales.us.example.com, hr.us.example.com, 192.168.2.73)

TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING

Purpose

To create a hard failure when host names in the invited or excluded list fail to resolve to an IP address. This ensures a customer's desired configuration is enforced, meaning that valid node checking cannot take place unless the host names are resolvable to IP addresses.

This is important in the context of the TCP.INVITED_NODES parameter, because it requires that every one of the client nodes be listed in the server's sqlnet.invited_nodes list. When one of the clients is decommissioned, and removed from the host name database, it becomes unresolvable, and causes the listener to fail to start.

Note:

In order to use the TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING parameter invited nodes, the host name database must be kept in up-to-date with the sqlnet.invited_node list.

Default

no

Values

yes | no

Example

TCP.VALIDNODE_CHECKING=yes

TCP.NODELAY

Purpose

To preempt delays in buffer flushing within the TCP/IP protocol stack.

Default

yes

Values

yes | no

Example

TCP.NODELAY=yes

TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY

Purpose

To specify the destination directory for the TNSPING utility trace file, tnsping.trc.

Default

The ORACLE_HOME/network/trace directory.

Example

TNSPING.TRACE_DIRECTORY=/oracle/traces

TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL

Purpose

To turn TNSPING utility tracing on at a specified level or to turn it off.

Default

off

Values

  • off for no trace output

  • user for user trace information

  • admin for administration trace information

  • support for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TNSPING.TRACE_LEVEL=admin

USE_CMAN

Purpose

To specify client routing to Oracle Connection Manager.

If set to true, then the parameter routes the client to a protocol address for an Oracle Connection Manager.

If set to false, then the client picks one of the address lists at random and fails over to the other address list if the chosen ADDRESS_LIST fails. With USE_CMAN=true, the client always uses the first address list.

If no Oracle Connection Manager addresses are available, then connections are routed through any available listener address.

Default

false

Values

true | false

Example

USE_CMAN=true

USE_DEDICATED_SERVER

Purpose

To append (SERVER=dedicated) to the CONNECT_DATA section of the connect descriptor used by the client. It overrides the current value of the SERVER parameter in the tnsnames.ora file.

If set to on, then the parameter USE_DEDICATED_SERVER automatically appends (SERVER=dedicated) to the connect data for a connect descriptor. This way connections from this client use a dedicated server process, even if shared server is configured.

Default

off

Values

  • on to append (SERVER=dedicated)

  • off to send requests to existing server processes

Example

USE_DEDICATED_SERVER=on

See Also:

Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for complete configuration information

WALLET_LOCATION

Purpose

To specify the location of wallets. Wallets are certificates, keys, and trustpoints processed by SSL.

Syntax

The syntax depends on the wallet, as follows:

  • Oracle wallets on the file system:

    WALLET_LOCATION=
      (SOURCE=
        (METHOD=file)
        (METHOD_DATA=
           (DIRECTORY=directory)
           [(PKCS11=TRUE/FALSE)]))
    
  • Microsoft certificate store:

    WALLET_LOCATION=
      (SOURCE=
         (METHOD=mcs))
    
  • Oracle wallets in the Microsoft Windows registry:

    WALLET_LOCATION=
       (SOURCE=
          (METHOD=reg)
          (METHOD_DATA=
             (KEY=registry_key)))
    
  • Entrust wallets:

    WALLET_LOCATION=
       (SOURCE=
          (METHOD=entr)
          (METHOD_DATA=
             (PROFILE=file.epf)
             (INIFILE=file.ini)))
    

Additional Parameters

WALLET_LOCATION supports the following parameters:

  • SOURCE: The type of storage for wallets and storage location.

  • METHOD: The type of storage.

  • METHOD_DATA: The storage location.

  • DIRECTORY: The location of Oracle wallets on file system.

  • KEY: The wallet type and location in the Microsoft Windows registry.

  • PROFILE: The Entrust profile file (.epf).

  • INIFILE: The Entrust initialization file (.ini).

Default

None

Usage Notes

  • The key/value pair for Microsoft certificate store (MCS) omits the METHOD_DATA parameter because MCS does not use wallets. Instead, Oracle PKI (public key infrastructure) applications obtain certificates, trustpoints and private keys directly from the user's profile.

  • If an Oracle wallet is stored in the Microsoft Windows registry and the wallet's key (KEY) is SALESAPP, then the storage location of the encrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\EWALLET.P12. The storage location of the decrypted wallet is HKEY_CURRENT_USER\SOFTWARE\ORACLE\WALLETS\SALESAPP\CWALLET.SSO.

Values

true | false

Examples

Oracle wallets on file system:

WALLET_LOCATION=  
  (SOURCE=
      (METHOD=file)
      (METHOD_DATA=  
         (DIRECTORY=/etc/oracle/wallets/databases)))

Microsoft certificate store:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=mcs))
   

Oracle Wallets in the Microsoft Windows registry:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=REG)
     (METHOD_DATA=
        (KEY=SALESAPP)))

Entrust Wallets:

WALLET_LOCATION=
   (SOURCE=
     (METHOD=entr)
     (METHOD_DATA=
       (PROFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.epf)
       (INIFILE=/etc/oracle/wallets/test.ini)))

WALLET_OVERRIDE

Purpose

To determine whether the client should override the strong authentication credential with the password credential in the stored wallet to log in to the database.

Usage Notes

  • When wallets are used for authentication, the database credentials for user name and password are securely stored in an Oracle wallet. The auto-login feature of the wallet is turned on so the database does not need a password to open the wallet. From the wallet, the database gets the credentials to access the database for the user.

  • Wallet usage can simplify large-scale deployments that rely on password credentials for connecting to databases. When this feature is configured, application code, batch jobs, and scripts do not need embedded user names and passwords. Risk is reduced because such passwords are no longer exposed in the clear, and password management policies are more easily enforced without changing application code whenever user names or passwords change.

  • Users connect using the connect /@database_name command instead of specifying a user name and password explicitly. This simplifies the maintenance of the scripts and secures the password management for the applications.

  • Middle-tier applications create an Oracle Applications wallet at installation time to store the application's specific identity. The password may be randomly generated rather than hardcoded. When an Oracle application accesses the database, it sets appropriate values for SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_SERVICES and WALLET_LOCATION. The new wallet-based password authentication code uses the password credential in the Oracle Applications wallet to log on to the database.

Values

TRUE | FALSE

Examples

WALLET_OVERRIDE=TRUE

See Also:

In order to use wallets, a wallet must be configured on the client. Refer to Oracle Database Security Guide for additional information about configuring the clients.

ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora

Beginning with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Database includes an advanced fault diagnosability infrastructure for preventing, detecting, diagnosing, and resolving problems. The problems are critical errors such as those caused by database code bugs, metadata corruption, and customer data corruption.

When a critical error occurs, it is assigned an incident number, and diagnostic data for the error, such as traces and dumps, is immediately captured and tagged with the incident number. The data is then stored in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR), a file-based repository outside the database.

This section describes the parameters used when ADR is enabled. "Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora" describes the parameters used when ADR is disabled. Non-ADR parameters listed in the sqlnet.ora file are ignored when ADR is enabled. ADR is enabled by default.

This section lists the parameters used when ADR is enabled (when DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is set to on):

ADR_BASE

Purpose

To specify the base directory into which tracing and logging incidents are stored when ADR is enabled.

Default

The default on the server side is ORACLE_BASE, or ORACLE_HOME/log, if ORACLE_BASE is not defined.

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

ADR_BASE=/oracle/network/trace

See Also:

Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for the default on the client side

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED

Purpose

To specify whether ADR tracing is enabled.

Usage

If the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter is set to OFF, then non-ADR file tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on | off

Example

DIAG_ADR_ENABLED=on

TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT

Purpose

To turn client tracing on at a specified level or to turn it off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

off or 0

Values

  • off or 0 for no trace output

  • user or 4 for user trace information

  • admin or 10 for administration trace information

  • support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TRACE_LEVEL_CLIENT=user

TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER

Purpose

To turn server tracing on at a specified level or to turn it off. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

off or 0

Values

  • off or 0 for no trace output

  • user or 4 for user trace information

  • admin or 10 for administration trace information

  • support or 16 for Oracle Support Services trace information

Example

TRACE_LEVEL_SERVER=admin

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT

Purpose

To add a time stamp in the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the client trace file, which has a default name of sqlnet.trc. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on or true | off or false

Example

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_CLIENT=true

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER

Purpose

To add a time stamp in the form of dd-mon-yyyy hh:mi:ss:mil to every trace event in the database server trace file, which has a default name of svr_pid.trc. This parameter is also applicable when non-ADR tracing is used.

Default

on

Values

on or true | off or false

Example

TRACE_TIMESTAMP_SERVER=true

Non-ADR Diagnostic Parameters in sqlnet.ora

This section lists the parameters used when ADR is disabled.

Notes:

The default value of DIAG_ADR_ENABLED is on. Therefore, the DIAG_ADR_ENABLED parameter must explicitly be set to off in order for non-ADR tracing to be used.

LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the destination directory for the client log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/log

Values

Any valid directory path.

Example

LOG_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/network/log

LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the destination directory for the database server log file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/trace

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

LOG_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/network/trace

LOG_FILE_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the name of the log file for the client. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/log/sqlnet.log

Values

The default value cannot be changed.

LOG_FILE_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the name of the log file for the database server. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

sqlnet.log

Example

LOG_FILE_SERVER=svr.log

TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the destination directory for the client trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

The current working directory.

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

TRACE_DIRECTORY_CLIENT=/oracle/traces

TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the destination directory for the database server trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/trace

Values

Any valid directory path to a directory with write permission.

Example

TRACE_DIRECTORY_SERVER=/oracle/traces

TRACE_FILE_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the name of the client trace file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Values

Any valid file name.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/cli.trc

Example

TRACE_FILE_CLIENT=clientsqlnet.trc

TRACE_FILE_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the name of the file to which the execution trace of the server program is written. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

ORACLE_HOME/network/trace/svr_pid.trc

Values

Any valid file name. The pid is appended to the name automatically.

Example

TRACE_FILE_SERVER=svrsqlnet.trc

TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the size of the client trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Example

TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT=100

TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the size of the database server trace files in kilobytes (KB). When the size is met, the trace information is written to the next file. The number of files is specified with the TRACE_FILENO_SERVER parameter. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Example

TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER=100

TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify the number of trace files for client tracing. When this parameter is set with the TRACE_FILELEN_CLIENT parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is re-used, and so on.

The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For example, if the default trace file of sqlnet.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3, then the trace files would be named sqlnet1.trc, sqlnet2.trc and sqlnet3.trc.

In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

None

Example

TRACE_FILENO_CLIENT=3

TRACE_FILENO_SERVER

Purpose

To specify the number of trace files for database server tracing. When this parameter is set with the TRACE_FILELEN_SERVER parameter, trace files are used in a cyclical fashion. The first file is filled first, then the second file, and so on. When the last file has been filled, the first file is re-used, and so on.

The trace file names are distinguished from one another by their sequence number. For example, if the default trace file of svr_pid.trc is used, and this parameter is set to 3, then the trace files would be named svr1_pid.trc, svr2_pid.trc and svr3_pid.trc.

In addition, trace events in the trace files are preceded by the sequence number of the file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

None

Example

TRACE_FILENO_SERVER=3

TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT

Purpose

To specify whether a unique trace file is created for each client trace session. When the value is set to on, a process identifier is appended to the name of each trace file, enabling several files to coexist. For example, trace files named sqlnetpid.trc are created if default trace file name sqlnet.trc is used. When the value is set to off, data from a new client trace session overwrites the existing file. Use this parameter when ADR is not enabled.

Default

on

Values

on or off

Example

TRACE_UNIQUE_CLIENT=on