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Oracle® Streams Replication Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E10705-06
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11 Oracle Streams Heterogeneous Information Sharing

This chapter explains concepts relating to Oracle Streams support for information sharing between Oracle databases and non-Oracle databases.

This chapter contains these topics:

Oracle to Non-Oracle Data Sharing with Oracle Streams

To share DML changes from an Oracle source database to a non-Oracle destination database, the Oracle database functions as a proxy and carries out some of the steps that would usually be done at the destination database. That is, the LCRs intended for the non-Oracle destination database are dequeued in the Oracle database itself and an apply process at the Oracle database applies the changes to the non-Oracle database across a network connection through an Oracle Database Gateway. Figure 11-1 shows an Oracle database sharing data with a non-Oracle database.

Figure 11-1 Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Data Sharing

Description of Figure 11-1 follows
Description of "Figure 11-1 Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Data Sharing"

You should configure the Oracle Database Gateway to use the transaction model COMMIT_CONFIRM.

See Also:

The Oracle documentation for your specific Oracle Database Gateway for information about using the transaction model COMMIT_CONFIRM for your Oracle Database Gateway

Change Capture and Staging in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

In an Oracle to non-Oracle environment, a capture process or a synchronous capture functions the same way as it would in an Oracle-only environment. That is, a capture process finds changes in the redo log, captures them based on its rules, and enqueues the captured changes as logical change records (LCRs) into an ANYDATA queue. A synchronous capture uses an internal mechanism to capture changes based on its rules and enqueue the captured changes as row LCRs into an ANYDATA queue. In addition, a single capture process or synchronous capture can capture changes that will be applied at both Oracle and non-Oracle databases.

Similarly, the ANYDATA queue that stages the LCRs functions the same way as it would in an Oracle-only environment, and you can propagate LCRs to any number of intermediate queues in Oracle databases before they are applied at a non-Oracle database.

See Also:

Change Apply in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

An apply process running in an Oracle database uses Heterogeneous Services and an Oracle Database Gateway to apply changes encapsulated in LCRs directly to database objects in a non-Oracle database. The LCRs are not propagated to a queue in the non-Oracle database, as they would be in an Oracle-only Oracle Streams environment. Instead, the apply process applies the changes directly through a database link to the non-Oracle database.

Note:

Oracle Streams apply processes do not support Generic Connectivity.

Apply Process Configuration in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

This section describes the configuration of an apply process that will apply changes to a non-Oracle database.

Before Creating an Apply Process in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

Before you create an apply process that will apply changes to a non-Oracle database, configure Heterogeneous Services, the Oracle Database Gateway, and a database link.

Oracle Streams supports the following Oracle Database Gateways:

  • Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase

  • Oracle Database Gateway for Informix

  • Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server

  • Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA

The database link will be used by the apply process to apply the changes to the non-Oracle database. The database link must be created with an explicit CONNECT TO clause.

See Also:

Apply Process Creation in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

After the database link has been created and is working properly, create the apply process using the CREATE_APPLY procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package and specify the database link for the apply_database_link parameter. After you create an apply process, you can use apply process rules to specify which changes are applied at the non-Oracle database.

See Also:

Substitute Key Columns in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Environment

If you use substitute key columns for any of the tables at the non-Oracle database, then specify the database link to the non-Oracle database when you run the SET_KEY_COLUMNS procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package.

Parallelism in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Environment

You must set the parallelism apply process parameter to 1, the default setting, when an apply process is applying changes to a non-Oracle database. Currently, parallel apply to non-Oracle databases is not supported. However, you can use multiple apply processes to apply changes a non-Oracle database.

Procedure DML Handlers in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Environment

If you use a procedure DML handler to process row LCRs for any of the tables at the non-Oracle database, then specify the database link to the non-Oracle database when you run the SET_DML_HANDLER procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package.

See Also:

Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for information about message processing options for an apply process
Message Handlers in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Environment

If you want to use a message handler to process user messages for a non-Oracle database, then, when you run the CREATE_APPLY procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package, specify the database link to the non-Oracle database using the apply_database_link parameter, and specify the message handler procedure using the message_handler parameter.

Error and Conflict Handlers in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Heterogeneous Environment

Currently, error handlers and conflict handlers are not supported when sharing data from an Oracle database to a non-Oracle database. If an apply error occurs, then the transaction containing the LCR that caused the error is moved into the error queue in the Oracle database.

Data Types Applied at Non-Oracle Databases

When applying changes to a non-Oracle database, an apply process applies changes made to columns of only the following data types:

  • CHAR

  • VARCHAR2

  • NCHAR

  • NVARCHAR2

  • NUMBER

  • DATE

  • RAW

  • TIMESTAMP

  • TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE

  • TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE

  • INTERVAL YEAR TO MONTH

  • INTERVAL DAY TO SECOND

The apply process does not apply changes in columns of the following data types to non-Oracle databases: CLOB, NCLOB, BLOB, BFILE, LONG, LONG RAW, ROWID, UROWID, user-defined types (including object types, REFs, varrays, and nested tables), and Oracle-supplied types (including Any types, XML types, spatial types, and media types). The apply process raises an error when an LCR contains a data type that is not listed, and the transaction containing the LCR that caused the error is moved to the error queue in the Oracle database.

Each Oracle Database Gateway might have further limitations regarding data types. For a data type to be supported in an Oracle to non-Oracle environment, the data type must be supported by both Oracle Streams and the Oracle Database Gateway being used.

See Also:

Types of DML Changes Applied at Non-Oracle Databases

When you specify that DML changes made to certain tables should be applied at a non-Oracle database, an apply process can apply only the following types of DML changes:

  • INSERT

  • UPDATE

  • DELETE

Note:

The apply process cannot apply DDL changes at non-Oracle databases.

Instantiation in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

Before you start an apply process that applies changes to a non-Oracle database, complete the following steps to instantiate each table at the non-Oracle database:

  1. Use the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package or the tools supplied with the non-Oracle database to create the table at the non-Oracle database.

    The following is an example that uses the DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH package to create the hr.regions table in the het.example.com non-Oracle database:

    DECLARE 
     ret INTEGER; 
    BEGIN 
    ret := DBMS_HS_PASSTHROUGH.EXECUTE_IMMEDIATE@het.example.com ( 
      'CREATE TABLE regions (region_id INTEGER, region_name VARCHAR(50))'); 
    END; 
    / 
    COMMIT; 
    

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide and the Oracle documentation for your specific Oracle Database Gateway for more information about Heterogeneous Services and Oracle Database Gateway
  2. If the changes that will be shared between the Oracle and non-Oracle database are captured by a capture process or synchronous capture at the Oracle database, then prepare all tables that will share data for instantiation.

  3. Create a PL/SQL procedure (or a C program) that performs the following actions:

    • Gets the current SCN using the GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER function in the DBMS_FLASHBACK package.

    • Invokes the ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER procedure in the DBMS_FLASHBACK package to set the current session to the obtained SCN. This action ensures that all fetches are done using the same SCN.

    • Populates the table at the non-Oracle site by fetching row by row from the table at the Oracle database and then inserting row by row into the table at the non-Oracle database. All fetches should be done at the SCN obtained using the GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER function.

    For example, the following PL/SQL procedure gets the flashback SCN, fetches each row in the hr.regions table in the current Oracle database, and inserts them into the hr.regions table in the het.example.com non-Oracle database. Notice that flashback is disabled before the rows are inserted into the non-Oracle database.

    SET SERVEROUTPUT ON
    CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE insert_reg IS
      CURSOR c1 IS
        SELECT region_id, region_name FROM hr.regions;
      c1_rec c1 % ROWTYPE;
      scn NUMBER;
    BEGIN
      scn := DBMS_FLASHBACK.GET_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER();
      DBMS_FLASHBACK.ENABLE_AT_SYSTEM_CHANGE_NUMBER(
         query_scn  =>  scn);
      /* Open c1 in flashback mode */
      OPEN c1;
      /* Disable Flashback */
      DBMS_FLASHBACK.DISABLE;
      LOOP
        FETCH c1 INTO c1_rec;
        EXIT WHEN c1%NOTFOUND;
       /*
         Note that all the DML operations inside the loop are performed
         with Flashback disabled
       */
       INSERT INTO hr.regions@het.example.com VALUES (
         c1_rec.region_id,
         c1_rec.region_name);
      END LOOP;
      COMMIT;
      DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('SCN = ' || scn);
      EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN 
        DBMS_FLASHBACK.DISABLE; 
        RAISE;
    END;
    /
    

    Make a note of the SCN returned.

    If the Oracle Database Gateway you are using supports the Heterogeneous Services callback functionality, then you can replace the loop in the previous example with the following SQL statement:

    INSERT INTO hr.region@het.example.com SELECT * FROM hr.region@!;
    

    Note:

    The user who creates and runs the procedure in the previous example must have EXECUTE privilege on the DBMS_FLASHBACK package and all privileges on the tables involved.

    See Also:

    Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity User's Guide and the Oracle documentation for your specific Oracle Database Gateway for information about callback functionality and your Oracle Database Gateway
  4. Set the instantiation SCN for the table at the non-Oracle database. Specify the SCN you obtained in Step 3 in the SET_TABLE_INSTANTIATION_SCN procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package to instruct the apply process to skip all LCRs with changes that occurred before the SCN you obtained in Step 3. Ensure that you set the apply_database_link parameter to the database link for the remote non-Oracle database.

    See Also:

    "Setting Instantiation SCNs at a Destination Database" and Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for more information about the SET_TABLE_INSTANTIATION_SCN procedure

Transformations in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

In an Oracle to non-Oracle environment, you can specify rule-based transformations during capture or apply the same way as you would in an Oracle-only environment. In addition, if your environment propagates LCRs to one or more intermediate Oracle databases before they are applied at a non-Oracle database, then you can specify a rule-based transformation during propagation from a queue at an Oracle database to another queue at an Oracle database.

See Also:

Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for more information about rule-based transformations

Messaging Gateway and Oracle Streams

Messaging Gateway is a feature of the Oracle database that provides propagation between Oracle queues and non-Oracle message queuing systems. Messages enqueued into an Oracle queue are automatically propagated to a non-Oracle queue, and the messages enqueued into a non-Oracle queue are automatically propagated to an Oracle queue. It provides guaranteed message delivery to the non-Oracle messaging system and supports the native message format for the non-Oracle messaging system. It also supports specification of user-defined transformations that are invoked while propagating from an Oracle queue to the non-Oracle messaging system or from the non-Oracle messaging system to an Oracle queue.

See Also:

Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide for more information about the Messaging Gateway

Error Handling in an Oracle to Non-Oracle Environment

If the apply process encounters an unhandled error when it tries to apply an LCR at a non-Oracle database, then the transaction containing the LCR is placed in the error queue in the Oracle database that is running the apply process. The apply process detects data conflicts in the same way as it does in an Oracle-only environment, but automatic conflict resolution is not supported currently in an Oracle to non-Oracle environment. Therefore, any data conflicts encountered are treated as apply errors.

Example Oracle to Non-Oracle Streams Environment

Oracle Streams Extended Examples contains a detailed example that includes sharing data in an Oracle to non-Oracle Streams environment.

Non-Oracle to Oracle Data Sharing with Oracle Streams

To capture and propagate changes from a non-Oracle database to an Oracle database, a custom application is required. This application gets the changes made to the non-Oracle database by reading from transaction logs, by using triggers, or by some other method. The application must assemble and order the transactions and must convert each change into a logical change record (LCR). Next, the application must enqueue the LCRs in an Oracle database using the DBMS_STREAMS_MESSAGING package or the DBMS_AQ package. The application must commit after enqueuing all LCRs in each transaction. Figure 11-2 shows a non-Oracle databases sharing data with an Oracle database.

Figure 11-2 Non-Oracle to Oracle Heterogeneous Data Sharing

Description of Figure 11-2 follows
Description of "Figure 11-2 Non-Oracle to Oracle Heterogeneous Data Sharing"

Change Capture in a Non-Oracle to Oracle Environment

Because the custom user application is responsible for assembling changes at the non-Oracle database into LCRs and enqueuing the LCRs at the Oracle database, the application is completely responsible for change capture. This means that the application must construct LCRs that represent changes at the non-Oracle database and then enqueue these LCRs into the queue at the Oracle database. The application can enqueue multiple transactions concurrently, but the transactions must be committed in the same order as the transactions on the non-Oracle source database.

See Also:

"Constructing and Enqueuing LCRs" for more information about constructing and enqueuing LCRs

Staging in a Non-Oracle to Oracle Environment

If you want to ensure the same transactional consistency at both the Oracle database where changes are applied and the non-Oracle database where changes originate, then you must use a transactional queue to stage the LCRs at the Oracle database. For example, suppose a single transaction contains three row changes, and the custom application enqueues three row LCRs, one for each change, and then commits. With a transactional queue, a commit is performed by the apply process after the third row LCR, retaining the consistency of the transaction. If you use a nontransactional queue, then a commit is performed for each row LCR by the apply process. The SET_UP_QUEUE procedure in the DBMS_STREAMS_ADM package creates a transactional queue automatically.

Also, the queue at the Oracle database should be a commit-time queue. A commit-time queue orders LCRs by approximate commit system change number (approximate CSCN) of the transaction that includes the LCRs. Commit-time queues preserve transactional dependency ordering between LCRs in the queue, assuming that the application that enqueued the LCRs commit transactions in the correct order. Also, commit-time queues ensure consistent browses of LCRs in a queue.

Change Apply in a Non-Oracle to Oracle Environment

In a non-Oracle to Oracle environment, the apply process functions the same way as it would in an Oracle-only environment. That is, it dequeues each LCR from its associated queue based on apply process rules, performs any rule-based transformation, and either sends the LCR to a handler or applies it directly. Error handling and conflict resolution also function the same as they would in an Oracle-only environment. So, you can specify a prebuilt update conflict handler or create a custom conflict handler to resolve conflicts.

The apply process should be configured to apply persistent LCRs, not captured LCRs. So, the apply process should be created using the CREATE_APPLY procedure in the DBMS_APPLY_ADM package, and the apply_captured parameter should be set to FALSE when you run this procedure. After the apply process is created, you can use procedures in the DBMS_STREAMS_ADM package to add rules for LCRs to the apply process rule sets.

See Also:

Instantiation from a Non-Oracle Database to an Oracle Database

There is no automatic way to instantiate tables that exist at a non-Oracle database at an Oracle database. However, you can perform the following general procedure to instantiate a table manually:

  1. At the non-Oracle database, use a non-Oracle utility to export the table to a flat file.

  2. At the Oracle database, create an empty table that matches the table at the non-Oracle database.

  3. At the Oracle database, use SQL*Loader to load the contents of the flat file into the table.

See Also:

Oracle Database Utilities for information about using SQL*Loader

Non-Oracle to Non-Oracle Data Sharing with Oracle Streams

Oracle Streams supports data sharing between two non-Oracle databases through a combination of non-Oracle to Oracle data sharing and Oracle to non-Oracle data sharing. Such an environment would use Oracle Streams in an Oracle database as an intermediate database between two non-Oracle databases.

For example, a non-Oracle to non-Oracle environment can consist of the following databases:

A user application assembles changes at het1.example.com and enqueues them in dbs1.example.com. Next, the apply process at dbs1.example.com applies the changes to het2.example.com using Heterogeneous Services and an Oracle Database Gateway. Another apply process at dbs1.example.com could apply some or all of the changes in the queue locally at dbs1.example.com. One or more propagations at dbs1.example.com could propagate some or all of the changes in the queue to other Oracle databases.