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Oracle® Database Vault Administrator's Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)

Part Number E16544-01
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C Postinstallation Oracle Database Vault Procedures

This appendix contains:

Registering Oracle Database Vault

After you install Oracle Database, you must register Oracle Database Vault. Oracle Database includes Database Vault by default, but you must register it before you can use it. As part of the registration process, you create the Database Vault administrative accounts. This procedure applies to both single-instance and Oracle RAC installations. To check if Database Vault has already been enabled, see "Checking if Oracle Database Vault Is Enabled or Disabled".

  1. Stop the database, Database Control console process, and listener.

    • UNIX: Log in to SQL*Plus as user SYS with the SYSOPER privilege and shut down the database. Then from the command line, stop the Database Console process and listener.

      For example:

      sqlplus sys as sysoper
      Enter password: password
      
      SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
      SQL> EXIT
      
      $ emctl stop dbconsole
      $ lsnrctl stop [listener_name]
      

      For Oracle RAC installations, shut down each database instance as follows:

      $ srvctl stop database -d db_name
      
    • Windows: Stop the database, Database Control console process, and listener from the Services tool in the Control Panel. The names of Oracle Database services begin with Oracle.

  2. Enable Oracle Database Vault as follows:

    • UNIX: Run the following commands. The make command enables both Oracle Database Vault (dv_on) and Oracle Label Security (lbac_on). You must enable Oracle Label Security before you can use Database Vault.

      $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
      $ make -f ins_rdbms.mk dv_on lbac_on ioracle
      
    • Windows: In the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\bin directory, rename the oradvll.dll.dbl file to oradvll.dll. Ensure that the name of the Oracle Label Security executable is oralbacll.dll (and not oralbacll.dll.dbl or some other backup name). You must enable Oracle Label Security before you can use Database Vault.

  3. Restart the database and listener. (Do not restart the Database Control console process yet.)

    • UNIX: Log in to SQL*Plus as user SYS with the SYSOPER privilege and restart the database. Then from the command line, restart the listener.

      For example:

      sqlplus sys as sysoper
      Enter password: password
      
      SQL> STARTUP
      SQL> EXIT
      
      $ lsnrctl start [listener_name]
      

      For Oracle RAC installations, restart each database instance as follows:

      $ srvctl start database -d db_name
      
    • Windows: Restart the database and listener from the Services tool in the Control Panel. The names of Oracle Database services begin with Oracle.

  4. Start Database Configuration Assistant.

    • UNIX: Enter the following command at a terminal window:

      dbca
      

      By default, dbca is in the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.

    • Windows: From the Start menu, click All Programs. Then, click Oracle - ORACLE_HOME, Configuration and Migration Tools, and then Database Configuration Assistant.

      Alternatively, you can start Database Configuration Assistant at a command prompt:

      dbca
      

      As with UNIX, typically, dbca is in the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\bin directory.

  5. In the Welcome page, click Next.

    The Operations page appears.

  6. Select Configure Database Options, and then click Next.

    The Database page appears.

  7. From the list, select the database where you installed Oracle Database and then click Next.

    The Database Content page appears.

  8. Perform one of the following actions:

    • If Oracle Label Security is already enabled: Select the Oracle Database Vault option, and then click Next.

    • If Oracle Label Security is not enabled: Select the Oracle Label Security option so that the Oracle Database Vault option becomes available for selection. Select the Oracle Database Vault option as well, and then click Next.

    The Oracle Database Vault Credentials page appears.

  9. Specify the name and password for the Database Vault Owner account (for example, DBVOWNER) and the Database Vault Account Manager (for example, DBVACCTMGR).

    Enter any password that is secure, according to the password guidelines described in Oracle Database Security Guide. Oracle Database Vault has additional password requirements, which are displayed if you try to create an incorrect password.

  10. Click Next.

    The Connection Mode page appears.

  11. Select either Dedicated Server Mode or Shared Server Mode (depending on the selection you made when you created this database), click Finish, and then click OK in the confirmation prompts.

    Database Configuration Assistant registers Oracle Database Vault, and then restarts the database instance.

  12. Exit Database Configuration Assistant.

  13. Restart the Database Control console process.

    • UNIX: Run the following command:

      $ emctl start dbconsole
      
    • Windows: Restart the Database Control console process (for example, OracleDBConsoleorcl if the name of the database is orcl) from the Services tool in the Control Panel.

After you have registered Oracle Database Vault with an Oracle database, you can start Oracle Database Vault Administrator. See "Starting Oracle Database Vault" for more information.

Checking the Locale and NLS Settings

Ensure that the value of the NLS_LANGUAGE initialization parameter matches the locale and NLS settings (either the NLS_LANG or LANG environment variables) used by the operating system of the computer on which Oracle Database is installed. If these values are inconsistent, then Database Vault Administrator does not display the default realms, command rules, rule sets, or factors.

For example, if the operating system locale (the variable $LANG) setting is en_US.UTF-8, then you must set the corresponding NLS_LANG environment variable to AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8 and the database NLS_LANGUAGE initialization parameter value to be AMERICAN. The database NLS_LANGUAGE parameter is derived from the operating system NLS_LANG environment variable.

For more information about checking and configuring locale and NLS settings, see the appendix that covers globalization support in the Oracle Database Installation Guide for your platform.

Manually Deploying Oracle Database Vault Administrator

If you have created an Oracle database manually, and have configured Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control by using Enterprise Manager Configuration Assistant, you must manually deploy Oracle Database Vault Administrator. This procedure deploys Database Vault Administrator in the same OC4J container as the current Enterprise Manager, rather than creating a new application.

This section contains:

Deploying Database Vault Administrator to a Standalone OC4J Container

You can manually deploy Database Vault Administrator to the Oracle Application Server Containers for J2EE (OC4J) home, which by default is in the $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home directory.

To manually deploy Database Vault Administrator:

  1. Edit the file $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home/config/server.xml. Enter the following line just before the last line that reads, </application-server>:

    <application name="dva" path="$ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib/dva_webapp.ear" auto-start="true" />
    

    For example:

    <application name="dva" path="/u00/app/oracle/oracle/product/dv12/dv/jlib/dva_webapp.ear" auto-start="true" />
    
  2. Edit the file $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home/config/http-web-site.xml. Enter the following line just above the last line that reads, </web-site>:

    <web-app application="dva" name="dva_webapp" root="/dva" />
    
  3. Edit the file $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home/config/global-web-application.xml. Search for <servlet-class>oracle.jsp.runtimev2.JspServlet</servlet-class>. Uncomment the following lines after this:

    <init-param>
       <param-name>main_mode</param-name>
       <param-value>justrun</param-value>
    </init-param>
    
  4. Create the following directory:

    mkdir -p $ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib/sysman/config
    
  5. Create the database connection configuration file, emoms.properties, in the configuration directory that you just created. Add the following lines to the file:

    oracle.sysman.emSDK.svlt.ConsoleMode=standalone
    oracle.sysman.eml.mntr.emdRepRAC=FALSE
    oracle.sysman.eml.mntr.emdRepDBName=oracle_sid
    oracle.system.eml.mntr.emdRepConnectDescriptor=TNS_connection_string
    

    Follow these instructions:

    • For an Oracle RAC environment, set oracle.sysman.eml.mntr.emdRepRAC to TRUE.

    • For oracle.sysman.eml.mntr.emdRepConnectDescriptor, you can use an alias from $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora. Alternatively, you can use the following syntax:

      oracle.sysman.eml.mntr.emdRepConnectDescriptor=
        (DESCRIPTION\=
          (ADDRESS_LIST\=(ADDRESS\=(PROTOCOL\=TCP) (HOST\=HOSTNAME)(PORT\=PORT))) 
          (CONNECT_DATA\=
             (SERVICE_NAME\=ORACLE_SID))
      
  6. Ensure that the correct environment variables are set.

    For example:

    ORACLE_SID=orcl
    export ORACLE_SID
    ORACLE_HOME=/u00/app/oracle/product/11.1/dv
    export ORACLE_HOME
    LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/lib:$ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib
    export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
    PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:$ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin:$PATH
    export PATH
    

    Set the LD_LIBRARY_PATH variable to use the OCI-based JDBC libraries.

  7. Start OC4J using the following syntax:

    $ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin/java -Djava.awt.headless=true -DEMDROOT=$ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib -jar $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home/oc4j.jar -userThreads -config $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/home/config/server.xml
    

After you complete these steps, you can start Database Vault Administrator. The HTTP port defaults to 8888 for this environment. Use the following syntax for the URL:

http://hostname:8888/dva

Deploying Database Vault Administrator to the Database Console OC4J Container

To manually deploy Database Vault Administrator to the Database Console OC4J container:

  1. Stop Oracle Database Console.

    • UNIX: Go to the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and run the following command:

      ./emctl stop dbconsole
      
    • Windows: In the Administrative Services, select the Services utility, and then right-click the OracleDBConsolesid service. Select Stop from the menu.

  2. Create a backup copy and then open the $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_service_name/config/server.xml file.

  3. Add the following line before the </application-server> element:

    <application name="dva" path="$ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib/dva_webapp.ear" parent="default" start="true" />
    

    On Windows systems, replace $ORACLE_HOME with the absolute path to your Oracle Database home.

  4. Create a backup copy and then open the $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_service_name/config/http-web-site.xml file.

  5. Add the following line before the </web-site> element:

    <web-app application="dva" name="dva_webapp" load-on-startup="true" root="/dva" shared="true"/>
    
  6. Restart Oracle Database Console.

    • UNIX: Go to the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and run the following command:

      ./emctl start dbconsole
      
    • Windows: In the Administrative Services, select the Services utility, and then right-click the OracleDBConsolesid service. Select Start from the menu.

After you complete these steps, you can start Oracle Database Vault Administrator by using the following URL:

https://hostname:port/dva

For example:

https://myserver:1158/dva

If you are unsure of the port number, open the ORACLE_HOME/host_sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file and search for REPOSITORY_URL. In most cases, the host name and port number are the same as Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.

Setting the Time-Out Value for Oracle Database Vault Administrator

By default, an Oracle Database Vault session lasts 35 minutes. If you want the session to last for a different time, follow the steps in this section.

To set the session time for Oracle Database Vault Administrator:

  1. Back up the web.xml file, which by default is in the $ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib/dva_webapp/dva_webapp/WEB-INF directory.

  2. In a text editor, open the web.xml file.

  3. Search for the following setting:

    <session-config>
     <session-timeout>35</session-timeout>
    </session-config>
    
  4. Change the <session-timeout> setting to the amount of time in minutes that you prefer.

  5. Save and close the web.xml file.

  6. Stop and restart the Database Vault Administrator.

    • UNIX: Go to the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory and run the following command:

      ./emctl stop dbconsole
      ./emctl start dbconsole
      
    • Windows: In the Administrative Services, select the Services utility, and then right-click the OracleDBConsolesid service. Select Stop from the menu. After the console stops, select Start.

Enabling Oracle Database Vault Administrator Accessibility

You can configure Database Vault Administrator to make data accessible and usable to the disabled community. The following sections explain how to enable Database Vault Administrator for full accessibility.

Enabling Oracle Database Vault Administrator Accessibility Mode

Oracle Database Vault Administrator takes advantage of user interface development technologies that improve the responsiveness of some user operations. For example, when you navigate to a new record set in a table, Oracle Database Vault Administrator does not redisplay the entire HTML page. However, this performance-improving technology is generally not supported by screen readers. To disable this feature, and as a result, make the Database Vault Administrator HTML pages more accessible for disabled users, use the following procedure.

To enable the display of an entire HTML page:

  1. Locate the uix-config.xml configuration file.

    By default, the uix-config.xml file is in the following directory:

    $ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/oc4j_applications/applications/em/em/WEB-INF 
    
  2. Open the uix-config.xml file using a text editor and locate the following entry:

    <!-- An alternate configuration that disables accessibility features  -->
    <default-configuration>
      <accessibility-mode>inaccessible</accessibility-mode>
    ...
    </default-configuration>
    
  3. Change the value of the accessibility-mode property from inaccessible to accessible.

  4. Save and close the uix-config.xml file.

  5. Restart Database Vault Administrator.

    See "Starting Oracle Database Vault".

Providing Textual Descriptions of Database Vault Administrator Charts

The Monitor page of Database Vault Administrator displays security policy data in a chart. However, charts do not convey information in a manner that can be read by a screen reader. To remedy this problem, you can configure Database Vault Administrator to provide a complete textual representation of each chart. By default, support for the textual representation of charts is disabled. When textual description for charts is enabled, Database Vault Administrator displays a textual representation of the chart data.

To enable the textual representation of charts:

  1. Locate the web.xml configuration file.

    To locate the web.xml file in a Oracle Database 10g installation, change directory to the following location in the Oracle home:

    $ORACLE_HOME/dv/jlib/dva_webapp/dva_webapp/WEB-INF/
    
  2. Open the web.xml file with your favorite text editor and locate the following six lines of the file:

    <!-- Uncomment this to enable textual chart descriptions
    <context-param>
    <param-name>enableChartDescription</param-name>
    <param-value>true</param-value>
    </context-param>
    -->
    
  3. Remove comments from this section by deleting the first line and the last line of this section so that the section consists of only these four lines:

    <context-param>
    <param-name>enableChartDescription</param-name>
    <param-value>true</param-value>
    </context-param>
    
  4. Save and exit the web.xml file.

  5. Restart Database Vault Administrator.

    See "Starting Oracle Database Vault".

Configuring Oracle Database Vault on Oracle RAC Nodes

After you install Oracle Database Vault for an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) instance, complete the following procedure for each Oracle RAC node. This procedure assumes that you have a separate Oracle home for each node.

  1. Log in to SQL*Plus as user SYS with the SYSDBA privilege.

    sqlplus sys as sysdba
    Enter password: password
    
  2. Run the following ALTER SYSTEM statements:

    ALTER SYSTEM SET AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET OS_ROLES=FALSE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET RECYCLEBIN='OFF' SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    ALTER SYSTEM SET REMOTE_LOGIN_PASSWORDFILE='EXCLUSIVE' SCOPE=SPFILE;
    ALTER SYSTEM SET SQL92_SECURITY=TRUE SCOPE=SPFILE; 
    
  3. Restart Oracle Database.

    CONNECT SYS/AS SYSOPER
    Enter password: password
    
    SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    STARTUP
    

Adding Languages to Oracle Database Vault

By default, Oracle Database Vault loads only the English language tables. You can use DVCA to add more languages to Oracle Database Vault by specifying the addlanguages flag to the dvca -action option.

This section includes the following topics:

Syntax for Using DVCA -action addlanguages

The syntax for using dvca -action addlanguages is as follows:

dvca -action addlanguages 
  -oh Oracle_home
  -instance Oracle_SID_name 
  -dbname database_name 
  -dbuniquename database_unique_name
  -sys_passwd SYS_password
  -dvsys_passwd DVSYS_password
  -jdbc_str jdbc_connection_string
  -languages language_list
  [-owner_account DV_owner_account_name]
  [-owner_passwd DV_owner_account_password]
  [-acctmgr_account DV_account_manager_account_name] 
  [-acctmgr_passwd DV_account_manager_password]
  [-silent] 
  [-logfile ./dvca.log] 
  [-nodecrypt]
  [-lockout] 
  [-racnode node]

In this specification:

  • -action is the action to perform. In this case the action is addlanguages.

  • -oh is the Oracle home for the Oracle RAC instance. Provide the ORACLE_HOME path.

  • -instance is the name of the database instance. You can confirm this name by querying the INSTANCE_NAME column of the V$INSTANCE view. It specified in the entry for the database instance in the listener.ora file that is on the server.

  • -dbname is the database identifier. You can confirm this name by querying the NAME column of the V$DATABASE data dictionary view.

  • -dbuniquename is the globally unique name for the database.

  • -sys_passwd is the password for the SYS user. If you enter a cleartext password on the command line, then you must include the nodecrypt option. If you omit the password, then DVCA prompts you for it. For better security, Oracle strongly recommends that you omit the password and then enter it interactively when you are prompted.

  • -dvsys_passwd is the password for the DVSYS user. If you enter a cleartext password on the command line, then you must include the nodecrypt option. If you omit the password, then DVCA prompts you for it. Preferably, omit the password and then enter the password interactively when prompted.

  • -jdbc_str is the JDBC connection string used to connect to the database. Enter the net service name (that is, the SID) as it is listed in the tnsnames.ora file, which is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory. For example:

    -jdbc_str jdbc:oracle:oci:@sales_orders
    
  • -languages is the list of languages to be loaded. Provide the list of languages as a string in the following format:

    • UNIX: {"language_1,language_2,language_n"}

    • Windows: {"language_1","language_2","language_n"}

    Oracle Database Vault supports the following languages:

      en: English ja: Japanese
      de: German ko: Korean
      es: Spanish pt_BR: Brazilian Portuguese
      fr: French zh_CN: Simplified Chinese
      it: Italian zh_TW: Traditional Chinese

    For example, to load German and Spanish, you would enter the following:

    • UNIX: -languages {"de,es"}

    • Windows: -languages {"de","es"}

  • -owner_account is the Oracle Database Vault Owner (DV_OWNER) account name.

  • -owner_passwd is the Oracle Database Vault Owner account password. If you enter a cleartext password on the command line, then you must include the nodecrypt option. If you omit the password, then DVCA prompts you for it. Preferably, omit the password and then enter it interactively when prompted.

  • -acctmgr_account is the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager (DV_ACCTMGR) user name.

  • -acctmgr_passwd is the Oracle Database Vault Account Manager (DV_ACCTMGR) password. If you enter a cleartext password on the command line, then you must include the nodecrypt option. If you omit the password, then DVCA prompts you for it. Preferably, omit the password and then enter it interactively when prompted.

  • -silent is the option to run in command line mode. This option is required if you are not running DVCA in an xterm window.

  • -logfile is an optional flag to specify a log file name and location. You can enter an absolute path, or enter a path that is relative to the location of the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory.

  • -nodecrypt is the option to read plaintext passwords.

  • -lockout is the flag used to disable SYSDBA operating system authentication. (This option is deprecated.)

  • -racnode is the host name of the Oracle RAC node on which the action is being performed. Do not include the domain name with the host name.

After you enter the dvca -action addlanguages command and if you omit the passwords, you will be prompted for the passwords of the SYS, DVSYS, DV_OWNER, and DV_ACCTMGR users. For better security, enter the passwords interactively.

Procedure for Adding Languages to Oracle Database Vault

To add languages to Oracle Database Vault:

  1. Log in to SQL*Plus as a user who has been granted the DV_OWNER role.

  2. Temporarily grant the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role to the user responsible for adding languages (for example, user SYS).

    GRANT DV_PATCH_ADMIN TO SYS;
    
  3. Notify this user to use DVCA to add the languages that are needed.

    For example:

    dvca -action addlanguages 
      -oh c:\oracle\product\11.2.0\db_1 
      -instance sales_orders
      -dbname sales_db
      -dbuniquename sales_db14
      -jdbc_str jdbc:oracle:oci:@sales_orders
      -owner_account lbrown_dvowner
      -acctmgr_account amalcolm_dvacctmgr
      -languages {"es","ja"}
      -silent 
      -logfile dvcalog.txt 
    
    Enter SYS password: sys_password
    Enter DVSYS password: dvsys_password
    Enter owner password: owner_password
    Enter DV account manager password: dv_acct_password
    
  4. Revoke the DV_PATCH_ADMIN role from user to whom you granted it in Step 2.

    REVOKE DV_PATCH_ADMIN FROM SYS; 
    

Deinstalling Oracle Database Vault

The following procedure removes Oracle Database Vault from an Oracle Database installation. It applies to both single-instance and Oracle RAC installations. The deinstallation process does not affect the initialization parameter settings, even those settings that were modified during the installation process.

To deinstall Oracle Database Vault:

  1. Stop the database, Database Control console process, and listener.

    For example:

    sqlplus sys as sysoper
    Enter password: password
    Connected.
    
    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    SQL> EXIT
    
    $ emctl stop dbconsole
    $ lsnrctl stop [listener_name]
    

    For Oracle RAC installations, shut down each database instance as follows:

    $ srvctl stop database -d db_name
    

    On Windows, you can stop the database, Database Control console process, and listener from the Services tool in the Control Panel. The names of Oracle Database services begin with Oracle.

  2. Run the following commands to turn off Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security:

    $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
    $ make -f ins_rdbms.mk dv_off lbac_off ioracle
    
  3. Log in to SQL*Plus and then restart the database, Database Control console process, and listener.

    For example:

    SQL> STARTUP
    SQL> EXIT
    
    $ emctl stop dbconsole
    $ lsnrctl start [listener_name]
    

    For each instance in an Oracle RAC installation:

    $ srvctl start database -d db_name
    

    On Windows, you can restart the database, Database Control console process, and listener from the Services tool in the Control Panel. The names of Oracle Database services begin with Oracle.

  4. In SQL*Plus, log in as user SYS with the SYSDBA privilege.

  5. Disable the recycle bin.

    To check if the recycle bin is enabled, enter the following command:

    SQL> SHOW PARAMETER RECYCLEBIN
    

    If the recycle bin is enabled, then disable it as follows:

    SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET RECYCLEBIN = OFF SCOPE=SPFILE;
    SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
    SQL> STARTUP
    

    Disabling the recycle bin does not purge or otherwise affect objects that are already in the recycle bin. For better security, keep the recycle bin disabled. See "Security Considerations for the Recycle Bin".

  6. Run the following SQL script:

    SQL> @$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/dvremov.sql
    
  7. Manually drop the DV_OWNER and DV_ACCTMGR user accounts.

    For example:

    SQL> DROP USER dbv_owner CASCADE;
    SQL> DROP USER dbv_acctmgr CASCADE;
    
  8. Enable Oracle Label Security.

    $ cd $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/lib
    $ make -f ins_rdbms.mk lbac_on ioracle
    

Afterward, you can double-check that Oracle Database Vault is truly deinstalled by logging in to SQL*Plus and entering the following statement:

SQL> SELECT * FROM V$OPTION WHERE PARAMETER = 'Oracle Database Vault';

If Oracle Database Vault is deinstalled, the following output appears:

PARAMETER                     VALUE
----------------------------- -----------------------
Oracle Database Vault         FALSE

Reinstalling Oracle Database Vault

To reinstall Oracle Database Vault, follow the procedure under "Registering Oracle Database Vault".