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SQL*Plus® User's Guide and Reference
Release 11.2

Part Number E16604-02
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The SQL*Plus (pronounced "sequel plus") User's Guide and Reference introduces SQL*Plus and its uses, and provides a description of each SQL*Plus command.

This preface contains these topics:


The SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference is intended for business and technical users and system administrators who perform the following tasks:

This document assumes a basic understanding of the SQL language. If you do not have familiarity with SQL, see the Oracle Database SQL Language Reference. If you plan to use PL/SQL in conjunction with SQL*Plus, see the Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference.

Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible to all users, including users that are disabled. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Screen Readers and SQL*Plus

Your screen reader and SQL*Plus must be installed on the same computer to work properly.

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation

This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.

Deaf/Hard of Hearing Access to Oracle Support Services

To reach Oracle Support Services, use a telecommunications relay service (TRS) to call Oracle Support at 1.800.223.1711. An Oracle Support Services engineer will handle technical issues and provide customer support according to the Oracle service request process. Information about TRS is available at, and a list of phone numbers is available at

Related Documents

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

Many of the examples in this book use the sample schemas, which are installed by default when you select the Basic Installation option with an Oracle Database installation. See Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

SQL*Plus error message documentation is available in SQL*Plus Error Messages. Oracle Database error message documentation is only available in HTML. If you only have access to the Oracle Database Documentation media, you can browse the Oracle Database error messages by range. Once you find the specific range, use your browser's "find in page" feature to locate the specific message. When connected to the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search feature of the Oracle Database online documentation.


The following text conventions are used in this document:

Convention Meaning
boldface Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for which you supply particular values.
monospace Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.