|Oracle® Database SQL Language Reference
11g Release 2 (11.2)
Part Number E17118-03
TABLESPACE statement to alter an existing tablespace or one or more of its data files or temp files.
You cannot use this statement to convert a dictionary-managed tablespace to a locally managed tablespace. For that purpose, use the
DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN package, which is documented in Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide and CREATE TABLESPACE for information on creating a tablespace
To alter the
SYSAUX tablespace, you must have the
SYSDBA system privilege.
If you have
TABLESPACE system privilege, then you can perform any
TABLESPACE operation. If you have
TABLESPACE system privilege, then you can only perform the following operations:
Take the tablespace online or offline
Begin or end a backup
Make the tablespace read only or read write
Before you can make a tablespace read only, the following conditions must be met:
The tablespace must be online.
The tablespace must not contain any active rollback segments. For this reason, the
SYSTEM tablespace can never be made read only, because it contains the
SYSTEM rollback segment. Additionally, because the rollback segments of a read-only tablespace are not accessible, Oracle recommends that you drop the rollback segments before you make a tablespace read only.
The tablespace must not be involved in an open backup, because the end of a backup updates the header file of all data files in the tablespace.
Performing this function in restricted mode may help you meet these restrictions, because only users with
SESSION system privilege can be logged on.
(table_compression ::=—part of
TABLE, storage_clause::=, size_clause::=, datafile_tempfile_clauses ::=, tablespace_logging_clauses ::=, tablespace_group_clause::=, tablespace_state_clauses::=, autoextend_clause ::=, flashback_mode_clause ::=, tablespace_retention_clause::=)
Specify the name of the tablespace to be altered.
tablespace is an undo tablespace, then the only other clauses you can specify in this statement are
TO (renaming the tablespace),
You cannot make the
SYSTEM tablespace read only or temporary and you cannot take it offline.
For locally managed temporary tablespaces, the only clause you can specify in this statement is the
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on automatic undo management and undo tablespaces
storage_clause lets you specify the new default storage parameters for objects subsequently created in the tablespace. For a dictionary-managed temporary table, Oracle Database considers only the
NEXT parameter of the
Refer to the storage_clause for more information.
Restriction on Default Tablespace Storage You cannot specify this clause for a locally managed tablespace.
This clause is valid only for permanent dictionary-managed tablespaces. The
EXTENT clause lets you control free space fragmentation in the tablespace by ensuring that every used or free extent in a tablespace is at least as large as, and is a multiple of, the value specified in the
Restriction on MINIMUM EXTENT You cannot specify this clause for a locally managed tablespace or for a dictionary-managed temporary tablespace.
See Also:size_clause for information about that clause, Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about using
EXTENTto control space fragmentation
This clause is valid only for bigfile tablespaces. It lets you increase or decrease the size of the single data file to an absolute size. Use
T to specify the size in kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes, or terabytes, respectively.
To change the size of a newly added data file or temp file in smallfile tablespaces, use the
autoextend_clause (see database_file_clauses ).
See Also:BIGFILE | SMALLFILE for information on bigfile tablespaces
For each data file in the tablespace, this clause combines all contiguous free extents into larger contiguous extents.
This clause is valid only for temporary tablespaces. It lets you reduce the amount of space the tablespace is taking. In the optional
KEEP clause, the
size_clause defines the lower bound that a tablespace can be shrunk to. It is the opposite of
MAXSIZE for an autoextensible tablespace. If you omit the
KEEP clause, then the database will attempt to shrink the tablespace as much as possible as long as other tablespace storage attributes are satisfied.
Use this clause to rename
tablespace. This clause is valid only if
tablespace and all its data files are online and the
COMPATIBLE parameter is set to 10.0.0 or greater. You can rename both permanent and temporary tablespaces.
tablespace is read only, then Oracle Database does not update the data file headers to reflect the new name. The alert log will indicate that the data file headers have not been updated.
Note:If you re-create the control file, and if the data files that Oracle Database uses for this purpose are restored backups whose headers reflect the old tablespace name, then the re-created control file will also reflect the old tablespace name. However, after the database is fully recovered, the control file will reflect the new name.
tablespace has been designated as the undo tablespace for any instance in an Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environment, and if a server parameter file was used to start up the database, then Oracle Database changes the value of the
UNDO_TABLESPACE parameter for that instance in the server parameter file (
SPFILE) to reflect the new tablespace name. If a single-instance database is using a parameter file (pfile) instead of an spfile, then the database puts a message in the alert log advising the database administrator to change the value manually in the pfile.
Restriction on Renaming Tablespaces You cannot rename the
Use these clauses to move all data files in a tablespace into or out of online (sometimes called hot) backup mode.
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on restarting the database without media recovery
DATABASE "BACKUP Clauses" for information on moving all data files in the database into and out of online backup mode
DATABASE alter_datafile_clause for information on taking individual data files out of online backup mode
BACKUP to indicate that an open backup is to be performed on the data files that make up this tablespace. This clause does not prevent users from accessing the tablespace. You must use this clause before beginning an open backup.
Restrictions on Beginning Tablespace Backup Beginning tablespace backup is subject to the following restrictions:
You cannot specify this clause for a read-only tablespace or for a temporary locally managed tablespace.
While the backup is in progress, you cannot take the tablespace offline normally, shut down the instance, or begin another backup of the tablespace.
See Also:"Backing Up Tablespaces: Examples"
BACKUP to indicate that an online backup of the tablespace is complete. Use this clause as soon as possible after completing an online backup. Otherwise, if an instance failure or
ABORT occurs, then Oracle Database assumes that media recovery (possibly requiring archived redo log) is necessary at the next instance startup.
Restriction on Ending Tablespace Backup You cannot use this clause on a read-only tablespace.
The tablespace file clauses let you add or modify a data file or temp file.
ADD to add to the tablespace a data file or temp file specified by
file_specification. Use the
datafile_tempfile_spec form of
file_specification (see file_specification) to list regular data files and temp files in an operating system file system or to list Oracle Automatic Storage Management disk group files.
For locally managed temporary tablespaces, this is the only clause you can specify at any time.
If you omit
file_specification, then Oracle Database creates an Oracle Managed File of 100M with
You can add a data file or temp file to a locally managed tablespace that is online or to a dictionary managed tablespace that is online or offline. Ensure the file is not in use by another database.
Restriction on Adding Data Files and Temp Files You cannot specify this clause for a bigfile (single-file) tablespace, as such a tablespace has only one data file or temp file.
Note:On some operating systems, Oracle does not allocate space for a temp file until the temp file blocks are actually accessed. This delay in space allocation results in faster creation and resizing of temp files, but it requires that sufficient disk space is available when the temp files are later used. To avoid potential problems, before you create or resize a temp file, ensure that the available disk space exceeds the size of the new temp file or the increased size of a resized temp file. The excess space should allow for anticipated increases in disk space use by unrelated operations as well. Then proceed with the creation or resizing operation.
See Also:file_specification, "Adding and Dropping Data Files and Temp Files: Examples", and "Adding an Oracle-managed Data File: Example"
DROP to drop from the tablespace an empty data file or temp file specified by
file_number. This clause causes the data file or temp file to be removed from the data dictionary and deleted from the operating system. The database must be open at the time this clause is specified.
TEMPFILE statement is equivalent to specifying the
Restrictions on Dropping Files To drop a data file or temp file, the data file or temp file:
Must be empty.
Cannot be the first file that was created in the tablespace. In such cases, drop the tablespace instead.
Cannot be in a read-only tablespace that was migrated from dictionary managed to locally managed. Dropping a data file from all other read-only tablespaces is supported.
Cannot be offline.
DATABASE alter_tempfile_clause for additional information on dropping temp files
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on data file numbers and for guidelines on managing data files
This clause is valid only when altering a temporary tablespace. It lets you reduce the amount of space the specified temp file is taking. In the optional
KEEP clause, the
size_clause defines the lower bound that the temp file can be shrunk to. It is the opposite of
MAXSIZE for an autoextensible tablespace. If you omit the
KEEP clause, then the database will attempt to shrink the temp file as much as possible as long as other storage attributes are satisfied.
RENAME DATAFILE Clause
DATAFILE to rename one or more of the tablespace data files. The database must be open, and you must take the tablespace offline before renaming it. Each
filename must fully specify a data file using the conventions for filenames on your operating system.
This clause merely associates the tablespace with the new file rather than the old one. This clause does not actually change the name of the operating system file. You must change the name of the file through your operating system.
ONLINE | OFFLINE Clauses
Use these clauses to take all data files or temp files in the tablespace offline or put them online. These clauses have no effect on the
OFFLINE status of the tablespace itself.
The database must be mounted. If
SYSTEM, or an undo tablespace, or the default temporary tablespace, then the database must not be open.
Use these clauses to set or change the logging characteristics of the tablespace.
LOGGING if you want logging of all tables, indexes, and partitions within the tablespace. The tablespace-level logging attribute can be overridden by logging specifications at the table, index, and partition levels.
When an existing tablespace logging attribute is changed by an
TABLESPACE statement, all tables, indexes, and partitions created after the statement will have the new default logging attribute (which you can still subsequently override). The logging attribute of existing objects is not changed.
If the tablespace is in
LOGGING mode, then you can specify
NOLOGGING in this statement to set the default logging mode of the tablespace to
NOLOGGING, but this will not take the tablespace out of
Use this clause to put the tablespace in force logging mode or take it out of force logging mode. The database must be open and in
WRITE mode. Neither of these settings changes the default
NOLOGGING mode of the tablespace.
Restriction on Force Logging Mode You cannot specify
LOGGING for an undo or a temporary tablespace.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information on when to use
LOGGINGmode and "Changing Tablespace Logging Attributes: Example"
This clause is valid only for locally managed temporary tablespaces. Use this clause to add
tablespace to or remove it from the
tablespace_group_name tablespace group.
Specify a group name to indicate that
tablespace is a member of this tablespace group. If
tablespace_group_name does not already exist, then Oracle Database implicitly creates it when you alter tablespace to be a member of it.
Specify an empty string (' ') to remove
tablespace from the
tablespace_group_name tablespace group.
Restriction on Tablespace Groups You cannot specify a tablespace group for a permanent tablespace or for a dictionary-managed temporary tablespace.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information on tablespace groups and "Assigning a Tablespace Group: Example"
Use these clauses to set or change the state of the tablespace.
ONLINE to bring the tablespace online. Specify
OFFLINE to take the tablespace offline and prevent further access to its segments. When you take a tablespace offline, all of its data files are also offline.
Suggestion:Before taking a tablespace offline for a long time, consider changing the tablespace allocation of any users who have been assigned the tablespace as either a default or temporary tablespace. While the tablespace is offline, such users cannot allocate space for objects or sort areas in the tablespace. See ALTER USER for more information on allocating tablespace quota to users.
Restriction on Taking Tablespaces Offline You cannot take a temporary tablespace offline.
OFFLINE NORMAL Specify
NORMAL to flush all blocks in all data files in the tablespace out of the system global area (SGA). You need not perform media recovery on this tablespace before bringing it back online. This is the default.
OFFLINE TEMPORARY If you specify
TEMPORARY, then Oracle Database performs a checkpoint for all online data files in the tablespace but does not ensure that all files can be written. Files that are offline when you issue this statement may require media recovery before you bring the tablespace back online.
OFFLINE IMMEDIATE If you specify
IMMEDIATE, then Oracle Database does not ensure that tablespace files are available and does not perform a checkpoint. You must perform media recovery on the tablespace before bringing it back online.
OFFLINEhas been deprecated. The syntax is supported for backward compatibility. However, Oracle recommends that you use the transportable tablespaces feature for tablespace recovery.
See Also:Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information on using transportable tablespaces to perform media recovery
ONLY to place the tablespace in transition read-only mode. In this state, existing transactions can complete (commit or roll back), but no further DML operations are allowed to the tablespace except for rollback of existing transactions that previously modified blocks in the tablespace. You cannot make the
SYSTEM, or temporary tablespaces
When a tablespace is read only, you can copy its files to read-only media. You must then rename the data files in the control file to point to the new location by using the SQL statement
WRITE to indicate that write operations are allowed on a previously read-only tablespace.
PERMANENT to indicate that the tablespace is to be converted from a temporary to a permanent tablespace. A permanent tablespace is one in which permanent database objects can be stored. This is the default when a tablespace is created.
TEMPORARY to indicate that the tablespace is to be converted from a permanent to a temporary tablespace. A temporary tablespace is one in which no permanent database objects can be stored. Objects in a temporary tablespace persist only for the duration of the session.
Restrictions on Temporary Tablespaces Temporary tablespaces are subject to the following restrictions:
You cannot specify
TEMPORARY for the
tablespace was not created with a standard block size, then you cannot change it from permanent to temporary.
You cannot specify
TEMPORARY for a tablespace in
This clause is valid only for bigfile (single-file) tablespaces. Use this clause to enable or disable autoextension of the single data file in the tablespace. To enable or disable autoextension of a newly added data file or temp file in smallfile tablespaces, use the
autoextend_clause of the database_file_clauses in the
Use this clause to specify whether this tablespace should participate in any subsequent
For you to turn
FLASHBACK mode on, the database must be mounted, either open or closed
For you to turn
FLASHBACK mode off, the database must be mounted and closed.
This clause is not valid for temporary tablespaces.
Refer to CREATE TABLESPACE for more complete information on this clause.
See Also:Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more information about Flashback Database
This clause has the same semantics in
TABLESPACE statements. Refer to tablespace_retention_clause in the documentation on
Backing Up Tablespaces: Examples The following statement signals to the database that a backup is about to begin:
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_01 BEGIN BACKUP;
The following statement signals to the database that the backup is finished:
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_01 END BACKUP;
Moving and Renaming Tablespaces: Example This example moves and renames a data file associated with the
tbs_02 tablespace, created in "Enabling Autoextend for a Tablespace: Example", from
Take the tablespace offline using an
TABLESPACE statement with the
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_02 OFFLINE NORMAL;
Copy the file from
diska:tbs_f5.dbf using your operating system commands.
Rename the data file using an
TABLESPACE statement with the
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_02 RENAME DATAFILE 'diskb:tbs_f5.dbf' TO 'diska:tbs_f5.dbf';
Bring the tablespace back online using an
TABLESPACE statement with the
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_02 ONLINE;
Adding and Dropping Data Files and Temp Files: Examples The following statement adds a data file to the tablespace. When more space is needed, new 10-kilobytes extents will be added up to a maximum of 100 kilobytes:
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_03 ADD DATAFILE 'tbs_f04.dbf' SIZE 100K AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 10K MAXSIZE 100K;
The following statement drops the empty data file:
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_03 DROP DATAFILE 'tbs_f04.dbf';
The following statements add a temp file to the temporary tablespace created in "Creating a Temporary Tablespace: Example" and then drops the temp file:
ALTER TABLESPACE temp_demo ADD TEMPFILE 'temp05.dbf' SIZE 5 AUTOEXTEND ON; ALTER TABLESPACE temp_demo DROP TEMPFILE 'temp05.dbf';
Managing Space in a Temporary Tablespace: Example The following statement manages the space in the temporary tablespace created in "Creating a Temporary Tablespace: Example" using the
SPACE clause. The
KEEP clause is omitted, so the database will attempt to shrink the tablespace as much as possible as long as other tablespace storage attributes are satisfied.
ALTER TABLESPACE temp_demo SHRINK SPACE;
Adding an Oracle-managed Data File: Example The following example adds an Oracle-managed data file to the
omf_ts1 tablespace (see "Creating Oracle Managed Files: Examples" for the creation of this tablespace). The new data file is 100M and is autoextensible with unlimited maximum size:
ALTER TABLESPACE omf_ts1 ADD DATAFILE;
Changing Tablespace Logging Attributes: Example The following example changes the default logging attribute of a tablespace to
ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_03 NOLOGGING;
Altering a tablespace logging attribute has no affect on the logging attributes of the existing schema objects within the tablespace. The tablespace-level logging attribute can be overridden by logging specifications at the table, index, and partition levels.
Changing Undo Data Retention: Examples The following statement changes the undo data retention for tablespace
undots1 to normal undo data behavior:
ALTER TABLESPACE undots1 RETENTION NOGUARANTEE;
The following statement changes the undo data retention for tablespace
undots1 to behavior that preserves unexpired undo data:
ALTER TABLESPACE undots1 RETENTION GUARANTEE;