This chapter describes the network protocols supported by Coherence.
Coherence uses TCMP, a clustered IP-based protocol, for server discovery, cluster management, service provisioning and data transmission. To ensure true scalability, the TCMP protocol is completely asynchronous, meaning that communication is never blocking, even when many threads on a server are communicating at the same time. Further, the asynchronous nature also means that the latency of the network (for example, on a routed network between two different sites) does not affect cluster throughput, although it affects the speed of certain operations.
TCMP uses a combination of UDP/IP multicast, UDP/IP unicast and TCP/IP as follows:
Cluster discovery: Is there a cluster running that a new member can join?
Cluster heartbeat: The most senior member in the cluster issues a periodic heartbeat through multi-cast; the rate can be configured and defaults to one beat per second.
Message delivery: Messages that must be delivered to multiple cluster members are often sent through multicast, instead of unicasting the message one time to each member.
Direct member-to-member ("point-to-point") communication, including messages, asynchronous acknowledgments (ACKs), asynchronous negative acknowledgments (NACKs) and peer-to-peer heartbeats.
Under some circumstances, a message may be sent through unicast even if the message is directed to multiple members. This is done to shape traffic flow and to reduce CPU load in very large clusters.
An optional TCP/IP ring is used as an additional "death detection" mechanism, to differentiate between actual node failure and an unresponsive node, such as when a JVM conducts a full GC.
TCP/IP is not used as a data transfer mechanism due to the intrinsic overhead of the protocol and its synchronous nature.
The TCMP protocol provides fully reliable, in-order delivery of all messages. Since the underlying UDP/IP protocol does not provide for either reliable or in-order delivery, TCMP uses a queued, fully asynchronous ACK- and NACK-based mechanism for reliable delivery of messages, with unique integral identity for guaranteed ordering of messages.
The TCMP protocol requires only two UDP/IP sockets (one multicast, one unicast) and six threads per JVM, regardless of the cluster size. This is a key element in the scalability of Coherence, in that regardless of the number of servers, each node in the cluster can still communicate either point-to-point or with collections of cluster members without requiring additional network connections.
The optional TCP/IP ring uses a few additional TCP/IP sockets, and a total of one additional thread.
The TCMP protocol is very tunable to take advantage of specific network topologies, or to add tolerance for both low-bandwidth high-latency segments in a geographically distributed cluster. Coherence comes with a pre-set configuration. Some TCMP attributes are dynamically self-configuring at run time, but can also be overridden and locked down for deployment purposes.
Multicast UDP/IP packets are configured with a time-to-live value (TTL) that designates how far those packets can travel on a network. The TTL is expressed in terms of how many "hops" a packet survives; each network interface, router and managed switch is considered one hop. Coherence provides a TTL setting to limit the scope of multicast messages.
In most WAN environments, and some LAN environments, multicast traffic is disallowed. To prevent Coherence from using multicast, configure a list of
well-known-addresses (WKA). This disables multicast discovery, and also disable multicast for all data transfer. Coherence is designed to use point-to-point communication as much as possible, so most application profiles do not see a substantial performance impact.