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Oracle Order Management Implementation Manual
Release 12.1
Part Number E13406-04
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Data Model Overview

This appendix covers the following topics:

Overview

The Sales Order is modeled as a business object comprised of the following entities:

Many of the attributes previously defined at the header level are now also defined at the line level. For example, Bill To is now defined at the line level. This allows for order lines on the same order to be billed to different bill-to sites. The attribute values at the header level ar used to default attribute values at the line level. See: Oracle Electronic Technical Reference Manual (eTRM)

Order Management Entities

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Order types were previously used for defaulting information on orders, establishing processing controls such as invoicing, and most importantly, determining the order cycle that an order would have. Order cycles, in turn, controlled the processing flow of an order. Order cycles have been replaced with Oracle Order Management Workflow Definitions, and order types have been replaced by Order Management Transaction Types. Oracle Order Management provides seeded workflow process definitions for both orders and lines and enables you to define both order header and order line transaction types.

The new Order Line differs functionally and technically from its R11 Order Entry counterpart. It contains attributes from old SO_HEADERS, SO_ORDER_LINES, and SO_LINE_DETAILS tables, in addition to some new attributes.

Order Management offers Line level independence; each line has its own flow.

Improvements of Order Management 11i over Order Entry:

Key Order Management Modules

Cancellations

Cancellations in Order Management is flexible. A line can be partially cancelled by directly changing ordered quantity on the line. The system seeded constraints preventing cancellations for standard item line are moved further down the order processing flow to ship-confirmation or invoice interface (for no-ship flows). If needed, you can define more restrictive constraints.

Cancellations is not tracked via workflow. The canceled quantity on the line indicates whether any cancellations have been performed on the line. The canceled flag on the Order and Line indicate whether they have been fully canceled. On a full cancellation, both the Header and Line flow are forced to the close activity.

Order Management enables you to set up rules that determine when a decrement in the ordered quantity is viewed as a cancellation. A cancellation reason is required only when the canceled quantity on the line is incremented over the specified amount. A copy of the old record is stored in OE_ORDER_LINES_HISTORY whenever a reason code is provided together with a quantity change.

Defaulting Framework

Order Management provides enhanced functionality with the PL/SQL based Defaulting Framework. Order attributes are defaulted based on generated PL/SQL Defaulting Rules. You can define a set of rules for each attribute on the order header or line, and you can define the conditions for when to use each rule.

Updates to records do not cause a cascading effect on existing child record. For example, changing the warehouse on the Order Header does not change the warehouse on existing Order Lines. This eliminates the need to store the rule that was used to default a value the first time around. You can use the mass change feature to update a certain value for a set of records. You can use the Mass Change feature to change the warehouse on all the lines of an Order to a different value.

The Defaulting Framework depends on the AK dictionary for object, object relationship and attribute definitions. Various objects can serve as defaulting sources; such as same record, related record, profile options, custom APIs etc. Defaulting Rules can be applied based on user defined conditions.

Fulfillment

Fulfillment is workflow enabled and driven off fulfillment events and sets that are system or user defined. Configurations are implicitly treated as fulfillment sets by the application. The following fulfillment events are seeded:

You can define your own fulfillment event activities but must configure the seeded Fulfillment activity to recognize them. You can assign an Order line to one or more fulfillment sets. A line in a fulfilment set progresses past the fulfillment activity only when all the members of the fulfillment set(s) it is a member of have been fulfilled.

Columns on the Order Line (fulfilled flag, fulfilled quantity) indicate whether a Line has been fulfilled and the quantity that has been fulfilled. Over & Under shipment can result in a fulfillment quantity that is different from the Ordered quantity. The Over & Under Shipment tolerances control whether a line is considered fulfilled in cases of over or under shipment.

Mass Change

Mass Change enables updating attribute values against selected record sets. You can also copy, reprice, schedule, and apply holds.

Processing Constraints Framework

With PL/SQL based Processing Constraints Framework, Order Management provides enhanced and more flexible security. You can define constraint conditions based on various sources including Workflow Activity Statuses and custom APIs. Additionally constraints can be defined against responsibilities using both inclusion and exclusion rules.

The Framework depends on AK dictionary for object and attribute definitions. Order Management checks constraints for every update, insert and delete operation on the Sales Order object.

Order Management comes with fewer seeded and less stringent system constraints, which allows greater flexibility. You can define more restrictive constraints to better suit your business needs. Some constraints are seeded for backwards compatibility but can be deleted.

For example:

Sets

Order Management supports Ship and Arrival sets. The latter specifies which lines need to arrive together. Pick Release does not look at Ship or Arrival sets to determine what can be released. At Ship-Confirmation you are informed if your are breaking a ship set (and allowed to do so). If you partially ship lines from a Ship Set, they are automatically dropped from the Ship Set. When any of the lines from a Ship or Arrival Set is ship-confirmed the set is automatically closed.

There is no Shipment Parent entity. Every Line that is created is a shipment, and has both a Line and a Shipment Number. To break an existing Shipment Line further into multiple shipments you need to Split it. Splitting a Line creates a Line Set, with all the line records that were split from the original line pointing to the Line Set (via the line_set_id). The attributes that need to be common across such lines are stored on the Line Set (Item, Ordered Quantity UOM, Shipping tolerances). Line Sets are only created for outbound top level lines (standard item line, Kit Line, Top Model Lines).

When a Line is partially processed the application splits it. All the child entities split as well, including the line flow. The fully processed part progresses along its flow and the partially processed part awaits processing in its flow.

Partial processing at the following points triggers a Line Split:

Partial processing of configurations can result in proportional or non-proportional splits. In the latter case the application also creates a remnant set that has both processed and unprocessed lines.

Order Management also supports Fulfillment Sets. A line in a Fulfillment Set is marked Fulfilled only when the all the members of the fulfillment set(s) have been fulfilled.

Set definitions are stored in OE_SETS. Membership in a Line Set, Ship Set and Arrival sets is de-normalized in the Order Line. Since a given Order Line can be in one or more fulfillment set, fulfillment set membership is stored in OE_LINE_SETS.

System Parameters

Some controls that drive application processing need to be definable at an Operating Unit level. Order Management simplifies the set-up of such controls via the System Parameters entity. You need to define the following controls via the OM System Parameters form:

Order Management looks at Oracle Receivables set-up to determine your Ledger and does not require you to set the value redundantly via an OM specific profile option.

Transaction Types

The application has an entity similar to the Order Type for the Line: the Line Type. Transaction Types stores both Order Types and Line types. Most of the Transaction Type attributes are common to the two types. However there are some controls that are available only at the Header level (e.g.: Order Numbering controls) and some only at the Line level. For example, a control that dictates whether a Line is sourced internally or externally. The category code on the Order Transaction type (ORDER, RETURN, MIXED) lets you control whether you want to mix outbound and inbound lines on a given Order.

Transaction Types also determines the workflow that the Order Header or Line follows. Header workflow is assigned to an Order type and a Line workflow to an Order Type, Line Type and Item type combination. The same order can contain lines with different line types following different flows.

Relationship between orders, lines, order types, line types, and workflow processes

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