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Oracle Process Manufacturing Process Execution User's Guide
Release 12.1
Part Number E13652-05
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Glossary

Activity
Action performed during the manufacturing process, such as mixing or heating.
Activity Factor
The number of times an activity is performed. For example, a quality test must be performed at the beginning, middle, and end of a mixing time period. Rather than defining the activity and associated resources three times, use an activity factor or multiplier to indicate three iterations of the same activity.
Allocation
For ingredients, the process of specifying lots of material in or scheduled for a specific batch. For products, the process of specifying lots yielded by a batch and locations of product yielded. As a result, only lot or location-controlled materials can be allocated.
ASQC
Automatic Step Quantity Calculation. A feature that enables a Process Engineer to calculate step quantities based on the routing step definitions and ingredient usage per step.
Autoallocation
See Automatic Allocation.
Automatic Allocation
A type of allocation where ingredients are allocated when a batch is saved for the first time, based on a specified set of business rules.
Autoreservation
A type of reservation where ingredients are reserved when a batch is saved for the first time, based on a specified set of parameters.
Backflushing
Calculation of ingredient consumption from the entry of product yield, or to calculate product yield from the entry of ingredient consumption.
Batch
A standard run or lot size determined by vessel size, convention, line rates, or standard run length.
Batch Record
A document used to plan and record a manufacturing event. The document shows the consumption of ingredients and the yielding of products, coproducts, and byproducts.
Byproduct
An item produced by a formula in addition to the product. Byproducts differ from products in that you do not plan your production to make byproducts. Byproducts can have monetary value, but generally have less monetary value than products, and cannot have costs assigned. In some instances, there can be a cost associated with disposing of a byproduct. See Coproduct.
CFR Part 11
A regulation in the Code of Federal Regulations that provides a uniform, enforceable, baseline standard for accepting electronic signatures and records and provides a level of confidence that records maintained in accordance with the rule of high integrity.
Charge
A charge is defined as one full load that can be accommodated in a single pass through the equipment. In a process manufacturing plant, the capacity of a step can be predetermined by the capacity of the equipment used in that step. For example, a mixing tank that has a maximum capacity of 1000 gallons overflows if more is added. The maximum capacity determines the total number of charges required to process the ingredients required for a batch. A batch size of 5000 gallons requires five charges at 1000 gallons each when the maximum capacity of the mixing tank is 1000 gallons.
Child Lot
Child lot is a sublot with the relationship to its parent lot. Child lot is just another lot for all the transactions purposes.
Closing a Batch
The action taken to change the status of a batch from Completed to Closed.
Closing a Batch Step
The action taken to change the status of a batch step from Completed to Closed.
Completing a Batch
The process of indicating that all product quantities are yielded, and the batch is complete. When you complete a batch, the pending transactions associated with automatic completion product lines are deleted and replaced with completed transactions.
Completing a Batch Step
The process of indicating that all step quantities are yielded, and the batch step is complete.
Consumption Type
For batch ingredients, denotes the type of ingredient consumption as: Automatic when ingredients are consumed automatically, Manual when ingredients are consumed manually, Incremental when ingredients are consumed in increments to keep inventory current, and Automatic by Step when ingredients are consumed automatically as the step is completed.
Coproduct
One of several products produced by a formula or batch. The term is used when a formula or batch produces more than one product. The application does not distinguish between products and coproducts. See Byproduct.
Context Organization
The inventory organization that serves as the framework for the data entered or displayed.
Cross Docking
A process where material is received in a facility and shipped at the earliest opportunity without going into long-term storage.
Delay
The number of hours from the end of the preceding batch step to the start of the current batch step. Delay calculations are needed to calculate operation start times.
Detailed Level Reservations
Reservation of inventory at a more detailed level of inventory control specifying the revision, lot, subinventory, or locator level.
Cost Analysis Code
A code that specifies whether an activity is value added or nonvalue added. For example, VAL for Value Added, or NVAL for Nonvalue Added.
FEFO
First Expired, First Out. Refers to use of materials closest to expiration first. Also, one method of automatic allocation based on the earliest expiring available lot. See also, FIFO. Physically, a material control technique of rotating inventory stock used primarily where expiration date is a concern so that materials closest to expiration are consumed first.
FIFO
First In, First Out. Refers to use of the oldest materials first. Also, one method of automatic allocation based on the earliest created available lot. See also FEFO. Physically, a material control technique of rotating inventory stock used primarily where shelf life is a concern so that the oldest ingredients are consumed first.
Firm Planned Order
Also FPO. A document that represents a plan to manufacture a product. This differs from a batch in that you cannot execute against an FPO. The FPO does not commit inventory and you cannot allocate lots to it.
Fixed Scale
Termed Fixed Quantity in previous OPM applications. Scaling that requires ingredients to be scaled by an amount necessary to produce the new product quantity, and not by the percent entered as scale factor. If all items are set to fixed quantity or the formula is marked as not scalable at the header level, then quantities in the formula are not changed. Fixed scale ingredients may or may not contribute to yield.
Flexfield
A field made up of subfields or segments. There are two types of flexfields: key flexfields and descriptive flexfields. A key flexfield appears on a window as a normal text field with an appropriate prompt. A descriptive flexfield appears on a window as a two-character wide text field with square brackets [ ].
Formula
A statement of ingredient requirements and planned product yield. A formula can also include processing instructions and ingredient sequencing directions. The formula specifies quantities of each item.
FPO
See Firm Planned Order.
High Level Reservation
Reservation of inventory against an item and inventory organization.
Incremental Backflushing
Completing less than the full quantity of a product. This is often done with batches that run a long time and yield product in increments, and involves the calculation of ingredient consumption from the entry of product yield, and product yield from the entry of ingredient consumption.
Ingredient
An item consumed by a batch to yield a product. Specifically, a required material for the manufacture of a product.
Integer Scaling
A scaling approach that allows materials to be scaled in integer quantities. Support is provided for rounding up or down to a full material increment within a user-defined tolerance percentage.
Item Revision
A particular version of an item.
Inventory Organization
A plant where batches are produced. Also, the organization that holds the inventory at specified locations.
Intermediate
A semiprocessed state of materials usually not available for sale to customers. Comparable to a subassembly in discrete manufacturing.
Linear Scaling
See Proportional Scaling.
Locator
A specific physical area within a subinventory such as a row, aisle, bin, or shelf where the item is stored.
Lot
A quantity of material produced together that shares the same resultant specifications and production costs.
LPN
License Plate Number.
Manual Completion
Completing a product separately from completing the batch.
Manual Release
Releasing an ingredient separately from releasing the batch that consumes it.
Move Order
A request for the movement of material within an organization.
Multiple Scaling
See Integer Scaling.
Offset Interval
The time delay from the start of the activity to the point where the resource is actually required.
Offset Type
A multiple batch scheduling method that is specified as start-to-start or end-to-start.
Operation
A combination of activities and the resources used to perform those activities. For example, the combination of mixing activity and the mixer (resource) defines the mixing operation.
Parent Lot
A quantity of an item that shares the same specifications or contains receipts from the same vendor. Genealogically, each parent lot can be divided into child lots, previously sublots, which reflect the characteristics selected for the items within the parent lot.
Pending Batch
A batch that is scheduled, but not yet released to production.
Pending Transaction
A record representing an anticipated or future change to inventory.
Phantoms
Intermediate items that are produced only in the process of making finished goods they go into. Phantoms are only tracked in inventory by the ingredients they consume.
Picking
The process of moving materials from one or more source locations and issuing them to staging subinventory.
Picking Rules
Rules that direct operators to pick material from specific locations.
Process
The manufacturing procedure.
Process Parameter
Processing parameters are used to provide operators with information needed for managing equipment used during the preparation of a product or to drive a production decision, such as the type of filter to use, or the quantity of product required to fill a container. There is no direct link between a process parameter and the equipment it describes.
Process Steps
The operations or stages in the manufacturing cycle required to transform ingredients into intermediates or finished goods.
Product
An item produced by a batch. Compare with byproduct.
Production Enabled
An indication that an item can be used in a production batch as product, byproduct, or an ingredient.
Proportional Scaling
Proportional scaling is the simplest type of batch scaling since both specified and calculated factors are applied to the scalable items proportionally. For example, proportional scaling of 100 grams of an ingredient by 200 percent means that you multiply the ingredient by a factor of two.
Putaway Rules
Rules that direct operators to put newly received material into the most appropriate location.
Raw Material
See Ingredient.
Recipe
The minimum set of information that uniquely defines the manufacturing requirements for a specific product. Recipes provide a way to describe products and include the sequencing of ingredients and processing instructions.
Release a Batch
Indicates that a batch is started. Indicates that ingredient quantities can be consumed. When you release a batch, the pending transactions associated with automatic release ingredient lines are deleted and replaced with completed transactions.
Reopening a Batch
The action taken to change the status of a batch from Closed to Completed. The batch close date is removed from the batch header.
Reopening a Batch Step
The action taken to change the status of a batch step from Closed to Completed. The batch step close date is removed.
Reservation
A reservation is an association between a demand source and a supply source. A reservation creates a permanent data link between supply and demand and represents a guaranteed allotment of material to a specified demand or supply source.
Resource
Equipment or labor used in production.
Resource Usage
Calculated as the Count multiplied by Usage multiplied by Charges.
Revert to WIP
The action taken to change the status of a batch or a batch step from Completed to Work in Process.
Routing
A sequenced set of operations to perform to complete a production batch. See Process Steps.
Routing Process Loss
Accounting for material lost during the production process at the routing level. This loss can vary depending on the routing and quantity processed by the routing. A loss factor is defined at the routing level based on a range of quantities.
Scaling
The proportional or disproportional increase or decrease of product, byproduct, or ingredient quantities in a formula or batch. Scaling types are fixed, proportional, and integer. Integer scaling is sometimes called multiple scaling.
Scrap Factor
Material that is lost before making it into product. This material is an anticipated loss and does not contribute to yield.
Single-step Function
A function that only impacts a single step in a batch, and the batch lines associated with that step. Examples of single step functions are releasing, completing, and rescheduling steps.
Subinventory
A subdivision of an inventory organization that represents either a physical area or a logical grouping of items, such as a storeroom or damaged inventory.
Supply Locator
A specific physical area within a subinventory such as a row, aisle, bin, or shelf, where items for production are stored.
Supply Subinventory
A subinventory where items required for batch production are stored.
Theoretical Process Loss
Accounting for the material lost during the production process at the routing level. This loss can vary depending on the routing or the individual quantity processed by the routing. This loss is defined at the routing class level and is based on a minimum and maximum range of quantities.
Theoretical Yield Calculation
The predicted output of product quantities from a formula or batch based on ingredient quantities and a specified yield percentage.
Total Input
The total quantity of materials used to produce a batch.
Total Output
The total quantity of product, coproduct, and byproduct produced by a batch.
Unrelease a Batch
The action taken to change the status of a whole batch from WIP to Pending.
Unrelease a Batch Step
The action taken to change the status of a batch step from WIP to Pending. Only batch steps with a status of WIP can be unreleased.
User-Initiated Automatic Allocation
A type of allocation in which ingredients are automatically allocated when the user requests allocation, based on specified rules. This contrasts with automatic allocation in that user-initiated automatic allocation is performed only when the user requests it, not automatically upon saving a batch.
Validity Rule
Formerly effectivity. The rules that specify under which circumstances a recipe can be used. The combination of a range of material quantities and a range of effective dates used by production, planning, costing, or MSDS in one or more specified organizations.
Variance
The difference between planned and actual quantities expressed as a percent. For example, if a planned value is 100 and the actual value is 125, the variance is 25 percent above plan.
Version
A number identifying a variant of a formula, operation, routing, or recipe.
Warehouse
A physical location for the storage of materials. A logical grouping of locations of specific materials can be within a production facility. Warehouses can supply one production facility.
Whole Batch Function
A function that impacts the entire batch. Whole batch functions include releasing, completing, rescheduling, incrementally backflushing, and closing batches. Similarly, whole batch functions also include unreleasing, reverting to WIP, and reopening batches.
WIP
Work in Process.
Work in Process
Batches released to production are work in process.
WMS
Warehouse Management Systems.
WMS Picking Rules
Picking rules defined by Warehouse Management Systems.
Yield
As related to quantity, the planned or actual output of a process. Yield includes either a loss, an increase, or no change in the planned or actual output quantity.
Yield Subinventory
A subinventory where the produced items are stored.
Yield Locator
A specific physical area within the yield subinventory where the produced item is stored.
Yield Type
For batch products, denotes the type of product yield as: Automatic, when products are yielded automatically, Manual when products are yielded manually, Incremental, when products are yielded in increments to keep inventory current, and Automatic by Step when products are yielded automatically as a step is completed.