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Oracle Solaris Security for Developers Guide
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Document Information


1.  Oracle Solaris Security for Developers (Overview)

2.  Developing Privileged Applications

3.  Writing PAM Applications and Services

Introduction to the PAM Framework

PAM Service Modules

PAM Library

PAM Authentication Process

Requirements for PAM Consumers

PAM Configuration

Writing Applications That Use PAM Services

A Simple PAM Consumer Example

Other Useful PAM Functions

Writing Conversation Functions

Writing Modules That Provide PAM Services

Requirements for PAM Service Providers

Sample PAM Provider Service Module

4.  Writing Applications That Use GSS-API

5.  GSS-API Client Example

6.  GSS-API Server Example

7.  Writing Applications That Use SASL

8.  Introduction to the Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework

9.  Writing User-Level Cryptographic Applications and Providers

10.  Using the Smart Card Framework

A.  Sample C-Based GSS-API Programs

B.  GSS-API Reference

C.  Specifying an OID

D.  Source Code for SASL Example

E.  SASL Reference Tables

F.  Packaging and Signing Cryptographic Providers



Introduction to the PAM Framework

The PAM framework consists of four parts:

The framework provides a uniform way for authentication-related activities to take place. This approach enables application developers to use PAM services without having to know the semantics of the policy. Algorithms are centrally supplied. The algorithms can be modified independently of the individual applications. With PAM, administrators can tailor the authentication process to the needs of a particular system without having to change any applications. Adjustments are made through pam.conf, the PAM configuration file.

The following figure illustrates the PAM architecture. Applications communicate with the PAM library through the PAM application programming interface (API). PAM modules communicate with the PAM library through the PAM service provider interface (SPI). Thus, the PAM library enables applications and modules to communicate with each other.

Figure 3-1 PAM Architecture

Figure shows how the PAM library is accessed by applications and PAM service modules.

PAM Service Modules

A PAM service module is a shared library that provides authentication and other security services to system entry applications such as login, rlogin, and telnet. The four types of PAM services are:

A PAM module can implement one or more of these services. The use of simple modules with well-defined tasks increases configuration flexibility. PAM services should thus be implemented in separate modules. The services can then be used as needed as defined in the pam.conf(4) file.

For example, the Solaris OS provides the pam_authtok_check(5) module for system administrators to configure the site's password policy. The pam_authtok_check(5) module checks proposed passwords for various strength criteria.

For a complete list of Solaris PAM modules, see man pages section 5: Standards, Environments, and Macros. The PAM modules have the prefix pam_.

PAM Library

The PAM library, libpam(3LIB), is the central element in the PAM architecture:

PAM Authentication Process

As an example of how consumers use the PAM library for user authentication, consider how login authenticates a user:

  1. The login application initiates a PAM session by calling pam_start(3PAM) and by specifying the login service.

  2. The application calls pam_authenticate(3PAM), which is part of the PAM API that is exported by the PAM library, libpam(3LIB).

  3. The library searches for login entries in the pam.conf file.

  4. For each module in pam.conf that is configured for the login service, the PAM library calls pam_sm_authenticate(3PAM). The pam_sm_authenticate() function is part of the PAM SPI. The pam.conf control flag and results of each call determine whether the user is allowed access to the system. This process is described in more detail in PAM Configuration (Reference) in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

In this way, the PAM library connects PAM applications with the PAM modules that have been configured by the system administrator.

Requirements for PAM Consumers

PAM consumers must be linked with the PAM library libpam. Before an application can use any service that is provided by the modules, the application must initialize its instance of the PAM library by calling pam_start(3PAM). The call to pam_start() initializes a handle that must be passed to all subsequent PAM calls. When an application is finished with the PAM services, pam_end() is called to clean up any data that was used by the PAM library.

Communication between the PAM application and the PAM modules takes place through items. For example, the following items are useful for initialization:

For a complete list of available items, see pam_set_item(3PAM). Items can be set by the application through pam_set_item(3PAM). Values that have been set by the modules can be retrieved by the application through pam_get_item(3PAM). However, PAM_AUTHTOK and PAM_OLDAUTHTOK cannot be retrieved by the application. The PAM_SERVICE item cannot be set.