The zfs send command creates a stream representation of a snapshot that is written to standard output. By default, a full stream is generated. You can redirect the output to a file or to a different system. The zfs receive command creates a snapshot whose contents are specified in the stream that is provided on standard input. If a full stream is received, a new file system is created as well. You can send ZFS snapshot data and receive ZFS snapshot data and file systems with these commands. See the examples in the next section.
The following backup solutions for saving ZFS data are available:
Enterprise backup products – If you need the following features, then consider an enterprise backup solution:
Backup media verification
File system snapshots and rolling back snapshots – Use the zfs snapshot and zfs rollback commands if you want to easily create a copy of a file system and revert to a previous file system version, if necessary. For example, to restore a file or files from a previous version of a file system, you could use this solution.
For more information about creating and rolling back to a snapshot, see Overview of ZFS Snapshots.
Saving snapshots – Use the zfs send and zfs receive commands to send and receive a ZFS snapshot. You can save incremental changes between snapshots, but you cannot restore files individually. You must restore the entire file system snapshot. These commands do not provide a complete backup solution for saving your ZFS data.
Remote replication – Use the zfs send and zfs receive commands to copy a file system from one system to another system. This process is different from a traditional volume management product that might mirror devices across a WAN. No special configuration or hardware is required. The advantage of replicating a ZFS file system is that you can re-create a file system on a storage pool on another system, and specify different levels of configuration for the newly created pool, such as RAID-Z, but with identical file system data.
Archive utilities – Save ZFS data with archive utilities such as tar, cpio, and pax or third-party backup products. Currently, both tar and cpio translate NFSv4-style ACLs correctly, but pax does not.
In addition to the zfs send and zfs receive commands, you can also use archive utilities, such as the tar and cpio commands, to save ZFS files. These utilities save and restore ZFS file attributes and ACLs. Check the appropriate options for both the tar and cpio commands.
For up-to-date information about issues with ZFS and third-party backup products, see the Solaris 10 Release Notes or the ZFS FAQ, available here:
You can use the zfs send command to send a copy of a snapshot stream and receive the snapshot stream in another pool on the same system or in another pool on a different system that is used to store backup data. For example, to send the snapshot stream on a different pool to the same system, use syntax similar to the following:
# zfs send tank/data@snap1 | zfs recv spool/ds01
You can use zfs recv as an alias for the zfs receive command.
If you are sending the snapshot stream to a different system, pipe the zfs send output through the ssh command. For example:
host1# zfs send tank/dana@snap1 | ssh host2 zfs recv newtank/dana
When you send a full stream, the destination file system must not exist.
You can send incremental data by using the zfs send -i option. For example:
host1# zfs send -i tank/dana@snap1 tank/dana@snap2 | ssh host2 zfs recv newtank/dana
Note that the first argument (snap1) is the earlier snapshot and the second argument (snap2) is the later snapshot. In this case, the newtank/dana file system must already exist for the incremental receive to be successful.
The incremental snap1 source can be specified as the last component of the snapshot name. This shortcut means you only have to specify the name after the @ sign for snap1, which is assumed to be from the same file system as snap2. For example:
host1# zfs send -i snap1 tank/dana@snap2 > ssh host2 zfs recv newtank/dana
This shortcut syntax is equivalent to the incremental syntax in the preceding example.
The following message is displayed if you attempt to generate an incremental stream from a different file system snapshot1:
cannot send 'pool/fs@name': not an earlier snapshot from the same fs
If you need to store many copies, consider compressing a ZFS snapshot stream representation with the gzip command. For example:
# zfs send pool/fs@snap | gzip > backupfile.gz
Both the snapshot and the file system are received.
The file system and all descendent file systems are unmounted.
The file systems are inaccessible while they are being received.
The original file system to be received must not exist while it is being transferred.
If the file system name already exists, you can use zfs rename command to rename the file system.
# zfs send tank/gozer@0830 > /bkups/gozer.083006 # zfs receive tank/gozer2@today < /bkups/gozer.083006 # zfs rename tank/gozer tank/gozer.old # zfs rename tank/gozer2 tank/gozer
If you make a change to the destination file system and you want to perform another incremental send of a snapshot, you must first roll back the receiving file system.
Consider the following example. First, make a change to the file system as follows:
host2# rm newtank/dana/file.1
Then, perform an incremental send of tank/dana@snap3. However, you must first roll back the receiving file system to receive the new incremental snapshot. Or, you can eliminate the rollback step by using the -F option. For example:
host1# zfs send -i tank/dana@snap2 tank/dana@snap3 | ssh host2 zfs recv -F newtank/dana
When you receive an incremental snapshot, the destination file system must already exist.
If you make changes to the file system and you do not roll back the receiving file system to receive the new incremental snapshot or you do not use the -F option, you see a message similar to the following:
host1# zfs send -i tank/dana@snap4 tank/dana@snap5 | ssh host2 zfs recv newtank/dana cannot receive: destination has been modified since most recent snapshot
The following checks are performed before the -F option is successful:
If the most recent snapshot doesn't match the incremental source, neither the roll back nor the receive is completed, and an error message is returned.
If you accidentally provide the name of different file system that doesn't match the incremental source specified in the zfs receive command, neither the rollback nor the receive is completed, and the following error message is returned:
cannot send 'pool/fs@name': not an earlier snapshot from the same fs
This section describes how to use the zfs send -I and -R options to send and receive more complex snapshot streams.
Keep the following points in mind when sending and receiving complex ZFS snapshot streams:
Use the zfs send -I option to send all incremental streams from one snapshot to a cumulative snapshot. Or, use this option to send an incremental stream from the original snapshot to create a clone. The original snapshot must already exist on the receiving side to accept the incremental stream.
Use the zfs send -R option to send a replication stream of all descendent file systems. When the replication stream is received, all properties, snapshots, descendent file systems, and clones are preserved.
Use both options to send an incremental replication stream.
Changes to properties are preserved, as are snapshot and file system rename and destroy operations are preserved.
If zfs recv -F is not specified when receiving the replication stream, dataset destroy operations are ignored. The zfs recv -F syntax in this case also retains its rollback if necessary meaning.
As with other (non zfs send -R) -i or -I cases, if -I is used, all snapshots between snapA and snapD are sent. If -i is used, only snapD (for all descendents) are sent.
To receive any of these new types of zfs send streams, the receiving system must be running a software version capable of sending them. The stream version is incremented.
However, you can access streams from older pool versions by using a newer software version. For example, you can send and receive streams created with the newer options to and from a version 3 pool. But, you must be running recent software to receive a stream sent with the newer options.
Example 7-1 Sending and Receiving Complex ZFS Snapshot Streams
A group of incremental snapshots can be combined into one snapshot by using the zfs send -I option. For example:
# zfs send -I pool/fs@snapA pool/fs@snapD > /snaps/fs@all-I
Then, you would remove snapB, snapC, and snapD.
# zfs destroy pool/fs@snapB # zfs destroy pool/fs@snapC # zfs destroy pool/fs@snapD
To receive the combined snapshot, you would use the following command.
# zfs receive -d -F pool/fs < /snaps/fs@all-I # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT pool 428K 16.5G 20K /pool pool/fs 71K 16.5G 21K /pool/fs pool/fs@snapA 16K - 18.5K - pool/fs@snapB 17K - 20K - pool/fs@snapC 17K - 20.5K - pool/fs@snapD 0 - 21K -
You can also use the zfs send -I command to combine a snapshot and a clone snapshot to create a combined dataset. For example:
# zfs create pool/fs # zfs snapshot pool/fs@snap1 # zfs clone pool/fs@snap1 pool/clone # zfs snapshot pool/clone@snapA # zfs send -I pool/fs@snap1 pool/clone@snapA > /snaps/fsclonesnap-I # zfs destroy pool/clone@snapA # zfs destroy pool/clone # zfs receive -F pool/clone < /snaps/fsclonesnap-I
You can use the zfs send -R command to replicate a ZFS file system and all descendent file systems, up to the named snapshot. When this stream is received, all properties, snapshots, descendent file systems, and clones are preserved.
In the following example, snapshots are created for user file systems. One replication stream is created for all user snapshots. Next, the original file systems and snapshots are destroyed and then recovered.
# zfs snapshot -r users@today # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT users 187K 33.2G 22K /users users@today 0 - 22K - users/user1 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user1 users/user1@today 0 - 18K - users/user2 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user2 users/user2@today 0 - 18K - users/user3 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user3 users/user3@today 0 - 18K - # zfs send -R users@today > /snaps/users-R # zfs destroy -r users # zfs receive -F -d users < /snaps/users-R # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT users 196K 33.2G 22K /users users@today 0 - 22K - users/user1 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user1 users/user1@today 0 - 18K - users/user2 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user2 users/user2@today 0 - 18K - users/user3 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user3 users/user3@today 0 - 18K -
In the following example, the zfs send -R command was used to replicate the users dataset and its descendents, and to send the replicated stream to another pool, users2.
# zfs create users2 mirror c0t1d0 c1t1d0 # zfs receive -F -d users2 < /snaps/users-R # zfs list NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT users 224K 33.2G 22K /users users@today 0 - 22K - users/user1 33K 33.2G 18K /users/user1 users/user1@today 15K - 18K - users/user2 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user2 users/user2@today 0 - 18K - users/user3 18K 33.2G 18K /users/user3 users/user3@today 0 - 18K - users2 188K 16.5G 22K /users2 users2@today 0 - 22K - users2/user1 18K 16.5G 18K /users2/user1 users2/user1@today 0 - 18K - users2/user2 18K 16.5G 18K /users2/user2 users2/user2@today 0 - 18K - users2/user3 18K 16.5G 18K /users2/user3 users2/user3@today 0 - 18K -
You can use the zfs send and zfs recv commands to remotely copy a snapshot stream representation from one system to another system. For example:
# zfs send tank/cindy@today | ssh newsys zfs recv sandbox/restfs@today
This command sends the tank/cindy@today snapshot data and receives it into the sandbox/restfs file system. The command also creates a restfs@today snapshot on the newsys system. In this example, the user has been configured to use ssh on the remote system.