This section describes the transaction support built into the Enterprise JavaBeans programming model for the GlassFish Server.
As a developer, you can write an application that updates data in multiple databases distributed across multiple sites. The site might use EJB servers from different vendors.
The following topics are addressed here:
The Enterprise JavaBeans Specification, v3.0 requires support for flat (as opposed to nested) transactions. In a flat transaction, each transaction is decoupled from and independent of other transactions in the system. Another transaction cannot start in the same thread until the current transaction ends.
Flat transactions are the most prevalent model and are supported by most commercial database systems. Although nested transactions offer a finer granularity of control over transactions, they are supported by far fewer commercial database systems.
Both local and global transactions are demarcated using the javax.transaction.UserTransaction interface, which the client must use. Local transactions bypass the XA commit protocol and are faster. For more information, see The Transaction Manager, the Transaction Synchronization Registry, and UserTransaction.
The EJB protocol is designed to give the container the flexibility to select the disposition of the instance state at the time a transaction is committed. This allows the container to best manage caching an entity object’s state and associating an entity object identity with the EJB instances.
Option A – The container caches a ready instance between transactions. The container ensures that the instance has exclusive access to the state of the object in persistent storage.
In this case, the container does not have to synchronize the instance’s state from the persistent storage at the beginning of the next transaction.
Note - Commit option A is not supported for this GlassFish Server release.
Option B – The container caches a ready instance between transactions, but the container does not ensure that the instance has exclusive access to the state of the object in persistent storage. This is the default.
In this case, the container must synchronize the instance’s state by invoking ejbLoad from persistent storage at the beginning of the next transaction.
Option C – The container does not cache a ready instance between transactions, but instead returns the instance to the pool of available instances after a transaction has completed.
The life cycle for every business method invocation under commit option C looks like this.
ejbActivate ejbLoad business method ejbStore ejbPassivate
If there is more than one transactional client concurrently accessing the same entity, the first client gets the ready instance and subsequent concurrent clients get new instances from the pool.
The glassfish-ejb-jar.xml deployment descriptor has an element, commit-option, that specifies the commit option to be used. Based on the specified commit option, the appropriate handler is instantiated.
The transaction timeout for the domain is specified using the Transaction Timeout setting of the Transaction Service. A transaction started by the container must commit (or rollback) within this time, regardless of whether the transaction is suspended (and resumed), or the transaction is marked for rollback. The default value, 0, specifies that the server waits indefinitely for a transaction to complete.
To override this timeout for an individual bean, use the optional cmt-timeout-in-seconds element in glassfish-ejb-jar.xml. The default value, 0, specifies that the Transaction Service timeout is used. The value of cmt-timeout-in-seconds is used for all methods in the bean that start a new container-managed transaction. This value is not used if the bean joins a client transaction.