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Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Application Development Guide
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Document Information


Part I Development Tasks and Tools

1.  Setting Up a Development Environment

2.  Class Loaders

3.  Debugging Applications

Part II Developing Applications and Application Components

4.  Securing Applications

5.  Developing Web Services

6.  Using the Java Persistence API

Specifying the Database

Additional Database Properties

Configuring the Cache

Setting the Logging Level

Using Lazy Loading

Primary Key Generation Defaults

Automatic Schema Generation


Generation Options

Query Hints

Changing the Persistence Provider

Restrictions and Optimizations

Oracle Database Enhancements

Extended Persistence Context

Using @OrderBy with a Shared Session Cache

Using BLOB or CLOB Types with the Inet Oraxo JDBC Driver

Database Case Sensitivity

Unique Constraints

Foreign Key Mapping

SQL Result Set Mapping

Named Native Queries and JDBC Queries

PostgreSQL Case Sensitivity

Sybase Finder Limitation

MySQL Database Restrictions

7.  Developing Web Applications

8.  Using Enterprise JavaBeans Technology

9.  Using Container-Managed Persistence

10.  Developing Java Clients

11.  Developing Connectors

12.  Developing Lifecycle Listeners

13.  Developing OSGi-enabled Java EE Applications

Part III Using Services and APIs

14.  Using the JDBC API for Database Access

15.  Using the Transaction Service

16.  Using the Java Naming and Directory Interface

17.  Using the Java Message Service

18.  Using the JavaMail API


Specifying the Database

The GlassFish Server uses the bundled Java DB (Derby) database by default, named jdbc/__default. If the transaction-type element is omitted or specified as JTA and both the jta-data-source and non-jta-data-source elements are omitted in the persistence.xml file, Java DB is used as a JTA data source. If transaction-type is specified as RESOURCE_LOCAL and both jta-data-source and non-jta-data-source are omitted, Java DB is used as a non-JTA data source.

To use a non-default database, either specify a value for the jta-data-source element, or set the transaction-type element to RESOURCE_LOCAL and specify a value for the non-jta-data-source element.

If you are using the default persistence provider, the provider attempts to automatically detect the database type based on the connection metadata. This database type is used to issue SQL statements specific to the detected database type's dialect. You can specify the optional property to guarantee that the database type is correct. For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <persistence xmlns="">
        <persistence-unit name ="em1">
                <property name="" 

The following property values are allowed. Supported platforms have been tested with the GlassFish Server and are found to be Java EE compatible.

//Supported platforms
//Others available

For more information about the property, see Using EclipseLink JPA Extensions for Session, Target Database and Target Application Server.

To use the Java Persistence API outside the EJB container (in Java SE mode), do not specify the jta-data-source or non-jta-data-source elements. Instead, specify the provider element and any additional properties required by the JDBC driver or the database. For example:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <persistence xmlns="" version="1.0">
        <persistence-unit name ="em2">
                <property name="" 
                <!-- JDBC connection properties -->
                <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.driver" value="org.apache.derby.jdbc.ClientDriver"/>
                <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.url" 
                <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.user" value="APP"/>
                <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.password" value="APP"/>

For more information about eclipselink properties, see Additional Database Properties.

For a list of the JDBC drivers currently supported by the GlassFish Server, see the Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1-3.1.1 Release Notes. For configurations of supported and other drivers, see Configuration Specifics for JDBC Drivers in Oracle GlassFish Server 3.1 Administration Guide.

To change the persistence provider, see Changing the Persistence Provider.