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|Oracle GlassFish Server Message Queue 4.5 Developer's Guide for Java Clients|
SAAJ is an application programming interface that can be implemented to support a programming model for SOAP messaging and to furnish Java objects that application or tool writers can use to construct, send, receive, and examine SOAP messages. SAAJ defines two packages:
javax.xml.soap: you use the objects in this package to define the parts of a SOAP message and to assemble and disassemble SOAP messages. You can also use this package to send a SOAP message without the support of a provider.
Note - Beginning with SAAJ 1.3, you must put the file mail.jar explicitly in CLASSPATH.
This chapter focuses on the javax.xml.soap package and how you use the objects and methods it defines
to assemble and disassemble SOAP messages
to send and receive these messages
It also explains how you can use the JMS API and Message Queue to send and receive JMS messages that carry SOAP message payloads.
A SOAP Message Object is a tree of objects as shown in Figure 5-5. The classes or interfaces from which these objects are derived are all defined in the javax.xml.soap package.
Figure 5-5 SOAP Message Object
As shown in the figure, the SOAPMessage object is a collection of objects divided in two parts: a SOAP part and an attachment part. The main thing to remember is that the attachment part can contain non-xml data.
The SOAP part of the message contains an envelope that contains a body (which can contain data or fault information) and an optional header. When you use SAAJ to create a SOAP message, the SOAP part, envelope, and body are created for you: you need only create the body elements. To do that you need to get to the parent of the body element, the SOAP body.
In order to reach any object in the SOAPMessage tree, you must traverse the tree starting from the root, as shown in the following lines of code. For example, assuming the SOAPMessage is MyMsg, here are the calls you would have to make in order to get the SOAP body:
SOAPPart MyPart = MyMsg.getSOAPPart(); SOAPEnvelope MyEnv = MyPart.getEnvelope(); SOAPBody MyBody = envelope.getBody();
At this point, you can create a name for a body element (as described in Namespaces) and add the body element to the SOAPMessage.
For example, the following code line creates a name (a representation of an XML tag) for a body element:
Name bodyName = envelope.createName("Temperature");
The next code line adds the body element to the body:
SOAPBodyElement myTemp = MyBody.addBodyElement(bodyName);
Finally, this code line defines some data for the body element bodyName :
The elements of a SOAP message form a tree. Each node in that tree implements the Node interface and, starting at the envelope level, each node implements the SOAPElement interface as well. The resulting shared methods are described in Table 5-1.
Table 5-1 Inherited Methods
An XML namespace is a means of qualifying element and attribute names to disambiguate them from other names in the same document. This section provides a brief description of XML namespaces and how they are used in SOAP. For complete information, see http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-xml-names/
An explicit XML namespace declaration takes the following form:
<prefix:myElement xmlns:prefix ="URI">
The declaration defines prefix as an alias for the specified URI. In the element myElement, you can use prefix with any element or attribute to specify that the element or attribute name belongs to the namespace specified by the URI.
The following is an example of a namespace declaration:
This declaration defines SOAP_ENV as an alias for the namespace:
After defining the alias, you can use it as a prefix to any attribute or element in the Envelope element. In Example 5-1, the elements <Envelope> and <Body> and the attribute encodingStyle all belong to the SOAP namespace specified by the http://schemas.sxmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/URI .
Example 5-1 Explicit Namespace Declarations
<SOAP-ENV:Envelope xmlns:SOAP-ENV="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" SOAP-ENV:encodingStyle= "http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/encoding/"> <SOAP-ENV:Header> <HeaderA xmlns="HeaderURI" SOAP-ENV:mustUnderstand="0"> The text of the header </HeaderA> </SOAP-ENV:Header> <SOAP-ENV:Body> . . . </SOAP-ENV:Body> </SOAP-ENV:Envelope>
Note that the URI that defines the namespace does not have to point to an actual location; its purpose is to disambiguate attribute and element names.
SOAP defines two namespaces:
The SOAP envelope, the root element of a SOAP message, has the following namespace identifier:
The SOAP serialization, the URI defining SOAP’s serialization rules, has the following namespace identifier:
When you use SAAJ to construct or consume messages, you are responsible for setting or processing namespaces correctly and for discarding messages that have incorrect namespaces.
When you create the body elements or header elements of a SOAP message, you must use the Name object to specify a well-formed name for the element. You obtain a Name object by calling the method SOAPEnvelope.createName.
When you call this method, you can pass a local name as a parameter or you can specify a local name, prefix, and URI. For example, the following line of code defines a name object bodyName.
Name bodyName = MyEnvelope.createName("TradePrice", "GetLTP","http://foo.eztrade.com");
This would be equivalent to the namespace declaration:
<GetLTP:TradePrice xmlns:GetLTP= "http://foo.eztrade.com">
The following code shows how you create a name and associate it with a SOAPBody element. Note the use and placement of the createName method.
SoapBody body = envelope.getBody();//get body from envelope Name bodyName = envelope.createName("TradePrice", "GetLTP", "http://foo.eztrade.com"); SOAPBodyElement gltp = body.addBodyElement(bodyName);
getQualifiedName returns "prefix:LocalName ", for the given name, this would be GetLTP:TradePrice.
getURI would return "http://foo.eztrade.com" .
getLocalName would return "TradePrice ".
getPrefix would return "GetLTP".
SOAP messaging occurs when a SOAP message, produced by a message factory , is sent to an endpoint by way of a connection .
If you are working without a provider, you must do the following:
Create a SOAPConnectionFactory object.
Create a SOAPConnection object.
Create an Endpoint object that represents the message’s destination.
Create a MessageFactory object and use it to create a message.
Populate the message.
Send the message.
If you are working with a provider, you must do the following:
Create a ProviderConnectionFactory object.
Get a ProviderConnection object from the provider connection factory.
Get a MessageFactory object from the provider connection and use it to create a message.
Populate the message.
Send the message.
The following three sections describe endpoint, message factory, and connection objects in greater detail.
You can initialize an endpoint by calling its constructor. The following code uses a constructor to create a URLEndpoint.
myEndpoint = new URLEndpoint("http://somehost/myServlet");
To address a message to an endpoint, specify the endpoint as a parameter to the SOAPConnection.call method, which you use to send a SOAP message.
To instantiate a message factory directly, use a statement like the following:
MessageFactory mf = MessageFactory.newInstance();
To send a SOAP message using SAAJ, you must obtain a SOAPConnection . You can also transport a SOAP message using Message Queue; for more information, see Integrating SOAP and Message Queue.
A SOAPConnection allows you to send messages directly to a remote party. You can obtain a SOAPConnection object simply by calling the static method SOAPConnectionFactory.newInstance(). Neither reliability nor security are guaranteed over this type of connection.