Before You Begin

This manual documents the intrinsic INTERVAL data types in the Suntrademark Studio Fortran 95 compiler (f95).


Who Should Use This Book

This is a reference manual intended for programmers with a working knowledge of the Fortran language, the Solaristrademark Operating System (Solaris OS), and UNIX commands.


How This Book Is Organized

This book contains the following two chapters:

Chapter 1 describes the goals for intrinsic interval support in f95 and provides code samples that interval programmers can use to quickly learn more about the interval features in f95. This chapter contains the essential information to get started writing interval code using f95.

Chapter 2 is a complete description of the interval language extensions to f95.

Glossary contains definitions of interval terms.


What Is Not in This Book

This book is not an introduction to intervals and does not contain derivations of the interval innovations included in f95. For a list of sources containing introductory interval information, see the Interval Arithmetic Readme.


Related Interval References

The interval literature is large and growing. Interval applications exist in various substantive fields. However, most interval books and journal articles either contain new interval algorithms, or are written for interval analysts who are developing new interval algorithms. There is not yet a book titled "Introduction to Intervals."

The Sun Studio f95 compiler is not the only source of support for intervals. Readers interested in other well known sources can refer to the following books:

For a list of technical reports that establish the foundation for the interval innovations implemented in f95, see Section 2.11, References. See the Interval Arithmetic Readme for the location of the online versions of these references.


Online Resources

Additional interval information is available at various web sites and by subscribing to email lists. For a list of online resources, refer to the Interval Arithmetic Readme.

Web Sites

A detailed bibliography and interval FAQ can be obtained online at the URLs listed in the Interval Arithmetic Readme.

Email

To discuss interval arithmetic issues or ask questions regarding the use of interval arithmetic, a mailing list has been constructed. Anyone can send questions to this list. Refer to the Interval Arithmetic Readme for instructions on how to subscribe to this mailing list.

To report a suspected interval error, send email to

sun-dp-comments@Sun.COM

Include the following text in the Subject line of the email message:

FORTEDEV "7.0 mm/dd/yy" Interval

where mm/dd/yy is the month, day, and year.

Code Examples

All code examples in this book are contained in the following directory:

/opt/SUNWspro/examples/intervalmath/docExamples

The name of each file is cen-m.f95, where n is the chapter in which the example occurs and m is the number of the example. Additional interval examples can be found in the following directory:

/opt/SUNWspro/examples/intervalmath/general


Typographic Conventions


TABLE P-1 Typeface Conventions

Typeface or Symbol

Meaning

Example

AaBbCc123

Code samples, the names of commands, files, and directories; on-screen computer output

INTERVAL(4):: X = [2,3]

PRINT *, "X = ", X

AaBbCc123

What you type, contrasted with on-screen computer output

math% f95 -xia test.f95

math% a.out

X = [2.0,3.0]

math%

^d

Press the Control and d keys to terminate an application

A, B = ^d

AaBbCc123

Placeholders for INTERVAL language elements


The INTERVALaffirmative order relational operators opelement{LT, LE, EQ, GE, GT} are equivalent to the mathematical operators
op is an element of { <, <=, =, >=, >}.




Note - Examples use math% as the system prompt.




TABLE P-2 Code Conventions

Code Symbol

Meaning

Notation

Code Example

[ ]

Brackets contain arguments that are optional.

O[n]

O4, O

{ }

Braces contain a set of choices for required option.

d{y|n}

dy

|

The "pipe" or "bar" symbol separates arguments, only one of which may be chosen.

B{dynamic|static}

Bstatic

:

The colon, like the comma, is sometimes used to separate arguments.

Rdir[:dir]

R/local/libs:/U/a

...

The ellipsis indicates omission in a series.

xinline=f1[,...,fn]

xinline=alpha,dos



Shell Prompts


Shell

Prompt

C shell

%

Bourne shell and Korn shell

$

C shell, Bourne shell, and Korn shell superuser

#



Supported Platforms

This Sun Studio release supports systems that use the SPARC® and x86 families of processor architectures: UltraSPARC®, SPARC64, AMD64, Pentium, and Xeon EM64T. The supported systems for the version of the Solaris Operating System you are running are available in the hardware compatibility lists at http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/hcl. These documents cite any implementation differences between the platform types.

In this document, the term "x86" refers to 64-bit and 32-bit systems manufactured using processors compatible with the AMD64 or Intel Xeon/Pentium product families. For supported systems, see the hardware compatibility lists.


Accessing Sun Studio Software and Man Pages

The Sun Studio software and man pages are not installed into the standard /usr/bin/ and /usr/share/man directories. To access the compilers and tools, you must have your PATH environment variable set correctly (see Accessing the Software). To access the man pages, you must have the your MANPATH environment variable set correctly (see Accessing the Man Pages.).

For more information about the PATH variable, see the csh(1), sh(1), and ksh(1) man pages. For more information about the MANPATH variable, see the man(1) man page.



Note - The information in this section assumes that your Sun Studio software is installed in the /opt directory. If your software is not installed in the /opt directory, ask your system administrator for the equivalent path on your system.



Accessing the Software

Use the steps below to determine whether you need to change your PATH variable to access the software.

To Determine Whether You Need to Set Your PATH Environment Variable

1. Display the current value of the PATH variable by typing the following at a command prompt.


% echo $PATH

2. Review the output to find a string of paths that contain /opt/SUNWspro/bin/.

If you find the path, your PATH variable is already set to access the compilers and tools. If you do not find the path, set your PATH environment variable by following the instructions in the next procedure.

To Set Your PATH Environment Variable to Enable Access to the Software

1. If you are using the C shell, edit your home .cshrc file. If you are using the Bourne shell or Korn shell, edit your home .profile file.

2. Add the following to your PATH environment variable. If you have Forte Developer software, Sun ONE Studio software, or another release of Sun Studio software installed, add the following path before the paths to those installations.

/opt/SUNWspro/bin

Accessing the Man Pages

Use the following steps to determine whether you need to change your MANPATH variable to access the man pages.

To Determine Whether You Need to Set Your MANPATH Environment Variable

1. Request the dbx man page by typing the following at a command prompt.


% man dbx

2. Review the output, if any.

If the dbx(1) man page cannot be found or if the man page displayed is not for the current version of the software installed, follow the instructions in the next procedure for setting your MANPATH environment variable.

To Set Your MANPATH Environment Variable to Enable Access to the Man Pages

1. If you are using the C shell, edit your home .cshrc file. If you are using the Bourne shell or Korn shell, edit your home .profile file.

2. Add the following to your MANPATH environment variable.

/opt/SUNWspro/man

Accessing the Integrated Development Environment

The Sun Studio integrated development environment (IDE) provides modules for creating, editing, building, debugging, and analyzing the performance of a C, C++, or Fortran application.

The command to start the IDE is sunstudio. For details on this command, see the sunstudio(1) man page.

The correct operation of the IDE depends on the IDE being able to find the core platform. The sunstudio command looks for the core platform in two locations:

If the core platform is not installed or mounted to either of the locations where the sunstudio command looks for it, then each user on a client system must set the environment variable SPRO_NETBEANS_HOME to the location where the core platform is installed or mounted (/installation_directory/netbeans/3.5V).

Each user of the IDE also must add /installation_directory/SUNWspro/bin to their $PATH in front of the path to any other release of Forte Developer software, Sun ONE Studio software, or Sun Studio software.

The path /installation_directory/netbeans/3.5V/bin should not be added to the user's $PATH..


Accessing Sun Studio Documentation

You can access the documentation at the following locations:

If your software is not installed in the /opt directory, ask your system administrator for the equivalent path on your system.

The docs.sun.com web site (http://docs.sun.com) enables you to read, print, and buy Sun Microsystems manuals through the Internet. If you cannot find a manual, see the documentation index that is installed with the software on your local system or network.



Note - Sun is not responsible for the availability of third-party web sites mentioned in this document. Sun does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any content, advertising, products, or other materials that are available on or through such sites or resources. Sun will not be responsible or liable for any actual or alleged damage or loss caused by or in connection with use of or reliance on any such content, goods, or services available on or through any such sites or resources.



Documentation in Accessible Formats

The documentation is provided in accessible formats that are readable by assistive technologies for users with disabilities. You can find accessible versions of documentation as described in the following table. If your software is not installed in the /opt directory, ask your system administrator for the equivalent path on your system.


Type of Documentation

Format and Location of Accessible Version

Manuals (except third-party manuals)

HTML at http://docs.sun.com

Third-party manuals:

  • Standard C++ Library Class Reference
  • Standard C++ Library User's Guide
  • Tools.h++ Class Library Reference
  • Tools.h++ User's Guide

HTML in the installed software through the documentation index at file:/opt/SUNWspro/docs/index.html

Readmes and man pages

HTML in the installed software through the documentation index at file:/opt/SUNWspro/docs/index.html

Online help

HTML available through the Help menu in the IDE

Release notes

HTML at http://docs.sun.com


Related Compilers and Tools Documentation

The following table describes related documentation that is available at file:/opt/SUNWspro/docs/index.html and http://docs.sun.com. If your software is not installed in the /opt directory, ask your system administrator for the equivalent path on your system.


Document Title

Description

Numerical Computation Guide

Describes issues regarding the numerical accuracy of floating-point computations.



Accessing Related Solaris Documentation

The following table describes related documentation that is available through the docs.sun.com web site.


Document Collection

Document Title

Description

Solaris Reference Manual Collection

See the titles of man page sections.

Provides information about the Solaris operating environment.

Solaris Software Developer Collection

Linker and Libraries Guide

Describes the operations of the Solaris link-editor and runtime linker.

Solaris Software Developer Collection

Multithreaded Programming Guide

Covers the POSIX and Solaris threads APIs, programming with synchronization objects, compiling multithreaded programs, and finding tools for multithreaded programs.



Resources for Developers

Visit http://developers.sun.com/prodtech/cc to find these frequently updated resources:

You can find additional resources for developers at http://developers.sun.com.


Contacting Sun Technical Support

If you have technical questions about this product that are not answered in this document, go to:

http://www.sun.com/service/contacting


Sending Your Comments

Sun is interested in improving its documentation and welcomes your comments and suggestions. Submit your comments to Sun at this URL

http://www.sun.com/hwdocs/feedback

Please include the part number (819-0503-10) of your document.