To request I/O statistics for a pool or specific virtual devices, use the zpool iostat command. Similar to the iostat command, this command can display a static snapshot of all I/O activity so far, as well as updated statistics for every specified interval. The following statistics are reported:
The amount of data currently stored in the pool or device. This figure differs from the amount of space available to actual file systems by a small amount due to internal implementation details.
For more information about the difference between pool space and dataset space, see ZFS Space Accounting.
The amount of space available in the pool or device. As with the used statistic, this amount differs from the amount of space available to datasets by a small margin.
The number of read I/O operations sent to the pool or device, including metadata requests.
The number of write I/O operations sent to the pool or device.
The bandwidth of all read operations (including metadata), expressed as units per second.
The bandwidth of all write operations, expressed as units per second.
# zpool iostat capacity operations bandwidth pool used avail read write read write ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- tank 100G 20.0G 1.2M 102K 1.2M 3.45K dozer 12.3G 67.7G 132K 15.2K 32.1K 1.20K
Because these statistics are cumulative since boot, bandwidth might appear low if the pool is relatively idle. You can request a more accurate view of current bandwidth usage by specifying an interval. For example:
# zpool iostat tank 2 capacity operations bandwidth pool used avail read write read write ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- tank 100G 20.0G 1.2M 102K 1.2M 3.45K tank 100G 20.0G 134 0 1.34K 0 tank 100G 20.0G 94 342 1.06K 4.1M
In this example, the command displays usage statistics only for the pool tank every two seconds until you type Ctrl-C. Alternately, you can specify an additional count parameter, which causes the command to terminate after the specified number of iterations. For example, zpool iostat 2 3 would print a summary every two seconds for three iterations, for a total of six seconds. If there is a single pool, then the statistics are displayed on consecutive lines. If more than one pool exists, then an additional dashed line delineates each iteration to provide visual separation.
In addition to pool-wide I/O statistics, the zpool iostat command can display statistics for virtual devices. This command can be used to identify abnormally slow devices, or simply to observe the distribution of I/O generated by ZFS. To request the complete virtual device layout as well as all I/O statistics, use the zpool iostat -v command. For example:
# zpool iostat -v capacity operations bandwidth tank used avail read write read write ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- mirror 20.4G 59.6G 0 22 0 6.00K c1t0d0 - - 1 295 11.2K 148K c1t1d0 - - 1 299 11.2K 148K ---------- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- total 24.5K 149M 0 22 0 6.00K
Note two important things when viewing I/O statistics on a virtual device basis:
First, space usage is only available for top-level virtual devices. The way in which space is allocated among mirror and RAID-Z virtual devices is particular to the implementation and not easily expressed as a single number.
Second, the numbers might not add up exactly as you would expect them to. In particular, operations across RAID-Z and mirrored devices will not be exactly equal. This difference is particularly noticeable immediately after a pool is created, as a significant amount of I/O is done directly to the disks as part of pool creation that is not accounted for at the mirror level. Over time, these numbers should gradually equalize, although broken, unresponsive, or offlined devices can affect this symmetry as well.
You can use the same set of options (interval and count) when examining virtual device statistics.