A privilege is a discrete right that a process requires to perform an operation. The right is enforced in the kernel. A program that operates within the bounds of the Solaris basic set of privileges operates within the bounds of the system security policy. setuid programs are examples of programs that operate outside the bounds of the system security policy. By using privileges, programs eliminate the need for calls to setuid.
Privileges discretely enumerate the kinds of operations that are possible on a system. Programs can be run with the exact privileges that enable the program to succeed. For example, a program that sets the date and writes the date to an administrative file might require the file_dac_write and sys_time privileges. This capability eliminates the need to run any program as root.
Historically, systems have not followed the privilege model. Rather, systems used the superuser model. In the superuser model, processes run as root or as a user. User processes were limited to acting on the user's directories and files. root processes could create directories and files anywhere on the system. A process that required creation of a directory outside the user's directory would run with a UID=0, that is, as root. Security policy relied on DAC, discretionary access control, to protect system files. Device nodes were protected by DAC. For example, devices owned by group sys could be opened only by members of group sys.
However, setuid programs, file permissions, and administrative accounts are vulnerable to misuse. The actions that a setuid process is permitted are more numerous than the process requires to complete its operation. A setuid program can be compromised by an intruder who then runs as the all-powerful root user. Similarly, any user with access to the root password can compromise the entire system.
In contrast, a system that enforces policy with privileges allows a gradation between user capabilities and root capabilities. A user can be granted privileges to perform activities that are beyond the capabilities of ordinary users, and root can be limited to fewer privileges than root currently possesses. With RBAC, a command that runs with privileges can be isolated in a rights profile and assigned to one user or role. Table 8–1 summarizes the gradation between user capabilities and root capabilities that the RBAC plus privileges model provides.
The privilege model provides greater security than the superuser model. Privileges that have been removed from a process cannot be exploited. Process privileges prevent a program or administrative account from gaining access to all capabilities. Process privileges can provide an additional safeguard for sensitive files, where DAC protections alone can be exploited to gain access.
Privileges, then, can restrict programs and processes to just the capabilities that the program requires. This capability is called the principle of least privilege. On a system that implements least privilege, an intruder who captures a process has access to only those privileges that the process has. The rest of the system cannot be compromised.