f95 supports constants and expressions of Boolean type. However, there are no Boolean variables or arrays, and there is no Boolean type statement.
For masking operations, a bitwise logical expression has a Boolean result; each of its bits is the result of one or more logical operations on the corresponding bits of the operands.
For binary arithmetic operators, and for relational operators:
If one operand is Boolean, the operation is performed with no conversion.
If both operands are Boolean, the operation is performed as if they were integers.
No user-specified function can generate a Boolean result, although some (nonstandard) intrinsics can.
Boolean and logical types differ as follows:
Variables, arrays, and functions can be of logical type, but they cannot be Boolean type.
There is a LOGICAL statement, but no BOOLEAN statement.
A logical variable, constant, or expression represents only two values, .TRUE. or .FALSE. A Boolean variable, constant, or expression can represent any binary value.
Logical entities are invalid in arithmetic, relational, or bitwise logical expressions. Boolean entities are valid in all three.
f95 allows a Boolean constant (octal, hexadecimal, or Hollerith) in the following alternate forms (no binary). Variables cannot be declared Boolean. Standard Fortran does not allow these forms.
ddddddB, where d is any octal digit
You can use the letter B or b.
There can be 1 to 11 octal digits (0 through 7).
11 octal digits represent a full 32-bit word, with the leftmost digit allowed to be 0, 1, 2, or 3.
Each octal digit specifies three bit values.
The last (right most) digit specifies the content of the right most three bit positions (bits 29, 30, and 31).
If less than 11 digits are present, the value is right-justified—it represents the right most bits of a word: bits n through 31. The other bits are 0.
Blanks are ignored.
Within an I/O format specification, the letter B indicates binary digits; elsewhere it indicates octal digits.
X’ddd’ or X"ddd", where d is any hexadecimal digit
There can be 1 to 8 hexadecimal digits (0 through 9, A-F).
Any of the letters can be uppercase or lowercase (X, x, A-F, a-f).
The digits must be enclosed in either apostrophes or quotes.
Blanks are ignored.
The hexadecimal digits may be preceded by a + or - sign.
8 hexadecimal digits represent a full 32-bit word and the binary equivalents correspond to the contents of each bit position in the 32-bit word.
If less than 8 digits are present, the value is right-justified—it represents the right most bits of a word: bits n through 31. The other bits are 0.
Accepted forms for Hollerith data are:
nH… |
’…’H |
"…"H |
nL… |
’…’L |
"…"L |
nR… |
’…’R |
"…"R |
Above, “…” is a string of characters and n is the character count.
If any character constant is in a bitwise logical expression, the expression is evaluated as Hollerith.
A Hollerith constant can have 1 to 4 characters.
Examples: Octal and hexadecimal constants.
Boolean Constant |
Internal Octal for 32-bit Word |
---|---|
0B |
00000000000 |
77740B |
00000077740 |
X"ABE" |
00000005276 |
X"-340" |
37777776300 |
X’1 2 3’ |
00000000443 |
X’FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF’ |
37777777777 |
Examples: Octal and hexadecimal in assignment statements.
i = 1357B j = X"28FF" k = X’-5A’ |
Use of an octal or hexadecimal constant in an arithmetic expression can produce undefined results and do not generate syntax errors.
f95 allows BOZ constants in the places other than DATA statements.
B’bbb’ |
O’ooo’ |
Z’zzz’ |
B"bbb" |
O"ooo" |
Z"zzz" |
If these are assigned to a real variable, no type conversion occurs.
Standard Fortran allows these only in DATA statements.