To configure localized desktop sessions, you will need to:
variable and other National Language Support (NLS) environment variables
Access language-dependent message catalogs and resource files
Execute applications remotely across internationalized systems
LANG environment variable must be set for the desktop to use
the operating system's language-sensitive routines. The desktop supports:
Western Europe, Latin-based languages
Support for other languages may have been added by your desktop vendor.
You can set
LANG to any
value supported by the operating system. The Options menu in the login screen
displays the list of supported languages and territories.
There are four ways to set
for the desktop:
By editing a resource in the Xconfig file
Using the Options menu in the login screen
By creating an executable sh or ksh Xsession.d script. (See Sourcing Xsession.d Scripts for more information about using an Xsession.d script.)
By editing the user's .dtprofile file
LANG is set, the desktop
uses the following language-dependent files to determine the localized interface.
If you set the language by means
of an Xconfig file, the login screen is localized and
LANG is set for all users. This is the only
way to change
LANG for all displays
in multi-display systems. (To modify Xconfig, copy /usr/dt/config/Xconfig to /etc/dt/config/Xconfig.)
The language is set by placing the following line in /etc/dt/config/Xconfig:
For example, the following line sets
LANG to Swedish_locale on display my_host:0.
The dtlogin client reads the appropriate message catalog for that language and brings up the localized login screen. The dtlogin client then determines the list of locales using the following resources in the /etc/dt/config/Xresources resource file:
The Xconfig file may need to set the
NLSPATH environment variable appropriately
for the chosen language. If this is not the case, or if you want to set
NLSPATH yourself, see NLSPATH Environment Variable.
To set the language for one session, use the login screen Options menu.
The login screen is localized and
is set for the user.
to its default value (set in dtlogin) at the conclusion
of the session.
A user can override the login's
LANG setting within the HomeDirectory/.dtprofile file. The login screen is not
LANG is set for
If you use sh or ksh:
LANG=language export LANG
If you use csh:
setenv LANG language
LANG environment variable
changes the directory name that is searched for your session configuration
The localized session configuration files are:
/usr/dt/config/language/Xresources (Login Manager resource file)
/usr/dt/config/language/sys.font (Session Manager resource file)
/usr/dt/config/language/sys.resources (Session Manager resource file)
/usr/dt/config/language/sys.session (Session Manager executable shell)
/usr/dt/config/language/sys.dtwmrc (Window Manager resource file)
/usr/dt/appconfig/types/language/dtwm.fp (Window Manager Front Panel)
LANG, there are other NLS environment variables
LC_ALL. These variables are not affected by
the dtlogin language resource nor by the login screen Options
menu. They must be set in the following files:
System-wide variables: /etc/dt/config/Xsession.d
Personal variables: HomeDirectory/.dtprofile
variable determines the directory paths that applications search for message
NLSPATH must be set to use those message catalogs.
Refer to Localizing Message Catalogs for the location of localized messages.
Most desktop clients will prefix the path to
NLSPATH upon startup.
Fonts included with the desktop are in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Each directory contains a directory file, fonts.dir, and an alias file, fonts.alias. See the mkfontdir man page for information on creating the fonts.dir and fonts.alias files.
The default location for
the app-defaults file for the desktop clients is /usr/dt/app-defaults/language. For example,
LANG is set to Swedish_locale, then applications will look for their app-defaults
file in /usr/dt/app-defaults/Swedish_locale. If
LANG is not set, language
is ignored, and applications look for their app-defaults
file in /usr/app-defaults/C.
To change the location of app-defaults, use the
XFILESEARCHPATH environment variable. For
example, to move app-defaults to /users,
XFILESEARCHPATH to /usr/app-defaults/language/classname.
If you set
the value applies to all desktop and X clients you run. Nonclients will not
find their resource files unless you link or copy them into the directory
To customize a file in the /usr/dt/appconfig directory, copy the file to the /etc/dt/appconfig directory prior to customizing.
The search path for action and data-type definition files includes language-dependent directories in:
The search path for Application Manager's configuration files is:
File and directory names in this directory are localized.
To localize an icon, edit the icon with Icon Editor and save it in:
If you save it in a different directory, set the
XMICONSEARCHPATH environment variable to include the directory
where you saved the icon. The
XMICONBMSEARCHPATH environment variable controls the path used to search for icons.
Localization of backdrops is done through the use of description files (desc.language and desc.backdrops). No specific localized directory exists (such as /usr/dt/backdrops/language) for backdrop files. All locales use the same set of backdrop files but have their own desc.language file containing the translated names of the backdrops.
The description file contains resource specifications for the backdrop names that are translated. For example:
Backdrops*Corduroy.desc: Velours Backdrops*DarkPaper.desc: PapierKraft Backdrops*Foreground.desc: AvantPlan
The desc.language file is used to retrieve the description of the backdrops for locale language in order to display the backdrop in the Style Manager. If there is a description specification, it will be displayed in the Style Manager backdrops list. Otherwise, the backdrop file name will be used.
Users can add their own backdrop descriptions in the HomeDirectory/.dt/backdrops/desc.backdrops file. This file is used to retrieve the backdrop descriptions for all backdrops added by the user regardless of locale.
The search path for the description files is:
Localization of palettes is done through the use of description files (desc.language and desc.palettes). No specific localized directory exists (such as /usr/dt/palettes/language). All locales use the same set of palette files but have their own desc.palettes file containing the translated names of the palettes.
The description file contains resource specifications for the palette names that are translated. For example:
Palettes*Cardamon.desc: Cardamone Palettes*Cinnamon.desc: Cannelle Palettes*Clove.desc: Brun
The desc.language file is used to retrieve the description of the palettes for locale language in order to display the palette in the Style Manager list. If there is a description specification it will be displayed in the Style Manager palettes list. Otherwise, the palette file name will be used.
Users can add their own palette descriptions in the HomeDirectory/.dt/palettes/desc.palettes file. This file is used to retrieve the palette descriptions for all palettes added by the user regardless of locale.
The search path for the description files is:
If you have localized a help volume, you must store it in one of the following directories. The first help volume found is the one used. The directories are searched in the following order:
If you have localized a message catalog, store it in the following directory:
These directories contain the *.cat files.
You can invoke localized desktop applications on any remote execution host that has a similarly localized desktop installation. The values of the NLS-related environment variables on the host that is invoking the application are passed to the remote host when the application is started. However, the environment variables do not contain any host information.
If you see unexpected characters and behaviors, or characters cannot be displayed or typed, you might need to reset or install your keyboard map or change your input method.
For example, if the user wants to open a terminal with the C locale within a POSIX shell:
This new terminal uses the C locale including the C input method and
fonts. If you are using a language-specific keyboard, the input method may
not accept any extended characters for input. When using the C locale with
a language-specific keyboard, users need to set the
LC_ALL) environment variable
to an appropriate value before invoking the terminal.
For example, to use the C locale with the German keyboard, type:
LANG=C LC_CTYPE=DeDE dtterm
If the X server has been reset and keymaps have been initialized, you can reset the proper keyboard map at the server using the txmodmap command.