This appendix uses graphic box notation for illustration and comparison. In most illustrations, each box depicts a byte. The representation of all items requires a multiple of 4 bytes (or 32 bits) of data. The bytes are numbered 0 through n -1. The bytes are read or written to some byte stream such that byte m always precedes byte m+1. The n bytes are followed by enough (0 to 3) residual zero bytes, r, to make the total byte count a multiple of four. Ellipses (...) between boxes show zero or more additional bytes where required, as shown in the following illustration.