C H A P T E R  1

Configuring DR

This chapter describes key DR functionality and also guides you through the tasks for configuring DR. You will find

Note - In this document, the phrase "DR detach operation" refers to the complete detach or removal of a system board. This detach operation can be accomplished by using the ADR command deleteboard(1M). For instructions on detaching boards from Solaris 9 domains (which support only DR model 3.0), refer to the Sun Enterprise 10000 Dynamic Reconfiguration User Guide (part number 816-3627-10).

DR Models

There are two models of DR available for the Sun Enterprise 10000 system. DR model 2.0 is sometimes referred to as "legacy DR," and DR model 3.0 is referred to as "next generation DR." The following table shows the different versions of the Solaris operating environment and the SSP software that are used with DR models 2.0 and 3.0:

DR Model

Solaris Software Versions

SSP Software Versions


Solaris 5.1, 6, 7, and 8

3.3, 3.4, or 3.5


Solaris 8 10/01 and 02/02, Solaris 9

3.5 only

Domains running version 9 of the Solaris software support only DR model 3.0, and version 3.5 of the SSP software is required.

Only one model of DR can run within a domain at a time. To check the version of DR that is running, use the domain_status command with its -m option (available only on domains running version 3.5 of the SSP software). Make sure to verify the DR model before you execute any DR commands. The following is an example of the domain_status (1M) output. The DR-MODEL column indicates which model is enabled

# domain_status -m
DOMAIN     TYPE                     PLATFORM   DR-MODEL   OS   SYSBDS
A          Ultra-Enterprise-10000   all-A      2.0        5.8  2
B          Ultra-Enterprise-10000   all-A      3.0        5.8  3 4
C          Ultra-Enterprise-10000   all-A      2.0        5.7  5 6
D          Ultra-Enterprise-10000   all-A      3.0        5.9  7

According to this output, domain A is running Solaris version 8 software (OS 5.8) with DR model 2.0 enabled; domain B is running Solaris version 8 software with DR model 3.0 enabled; domain C is running Solaris version 7 software (OS 5.7) with DR model 2.0 enabled; and domain D is running Solaris version 9 software (OS 5.9) with DR model 3.0 enabled.

Only certain commands are available in each model, and if you execute a command that is not supported, an error message appears on the console.

caution icon

Caution Caution - Before you switch to DR 3.0 in a domain that is running the Solaris 8 10/01 operating environment, you must upgrade the SSP software to version 3.5 because previous versions of SSP do not support DR 3.0 operations.

For more information about using DR 2.0, see the the Sun Enterprise 10000 Dynamic Reconfiguration (DR) User Guide (part number 806-7616-10). For more information about using DR 3.0, see the Sun Enterprise 10000 Dynamic Reconfiguration (DR) User Guide (part number 816-3627-10).

Enhancements in DR Model 3.0

The DR 3.0 model offers the following enhancements to DR 2.0:

Where to Execute DR Commands

You execute DR operations from either of two places: from the system service processor (SSP) by using the SSP commands-- addboard (1M), moveboard (1M), deleteboard (1M), rcfgadm (1M), and showdevices (1M); or from the domain, using the cfgadm(1M) command.

Requirements for Multipathing in DR 3.0

To use multipathing on DR model 3.0 domains, run IPMP (the IP multi-pathing software provided with the Solaris 8 operating environment) and MPxIO software, included in Solaris Kernal Update Patches 111412-02, 111413-02, 111095-02, 111096-02, and 111097-02.

Getting Started

Before you run DR operations on your domain, you must

Device Prerequisites

DR requires that drivers for devices on boards involved in DR detach operations be both:

Note Note - The drivers currently released by Sun Microsystems that are known to be suspend-safe are: st, sd, isp, esp, fas, sbus, pci, pci-pci, qfe, and hme (Sun FastEthernettrademark); nf (NPI-FDDI); qe (Quad Ethernet); le (Lance Ethernet); the SSA drivers (soc, pln, and ssd); and the Sun StorEdge A5000 drivers (sf, socal, and ses). For additional information about suspend-safe and detach-safe device drivers, contact your Sun service representative.

Allocating Sufficient Domain Swap Space

The domain swap configuration consists of the swap devices and swapfs (memory). The domain must contain enough swap space so that it can flush pageable memory. For example, if you want to remove 1 Gbyte of memory from a 2-Gbyte domain, you will need 1 Gbyte of swap space, depending on the load. Insufficient swap space can prevent the completion of a DR operation.

The domain swap space must be configured as multiple partitions on disks attached to controllers hosted by different boards. With this type of configuration, a particular swap partition is not a vital resource because swap partitions can be added and deleted dynamically (refer to the swap (1M) man page for more information).

Note Note - When memory (swapfs) or swap space on a disk is detached, there must be enough memory or swap space remaining in the domain to accommodate currently running programs.

Qualifying Third-Party Device Drivers

Many third-party drivers (those purchased from vendors other than Sun Microsystems) do not support the standard Solaris modunload (1M) interface, which is used to unload detach-unsafe or suspend-unsafe device drivers. Conditions that invoke the driver functions occur infrequently during normal operation and the functions are sometimes missing or work improperly. Sun Microsystems suggests that you test these driver functions during the qualification and installation phases of any third-party device.

Overview of DR Configuration Tasks

This section identifies the various configuration tasks that you must complete before running DR operations on Solaris 9 domains (which support only DR model 3.0). Note that it may not be necessary to perform all the tasks described in this section, depending on the types of devices on your system boards and the type of DR operation to be performed.

After you configure DR or whenever you make changes to the DR configuration, you must reboot your domain. If you want to minimize the number of domain reboots, determine which configuration tasks are applicable to your DR environment and then perform the appropriate set of configuration tasks before rebooting your domain.

  1. If you intend to perform DR detach operations, enable the kernel cage, as explained in To Enable the Kernel Cage .

  2. For devices, do the following:

  3. If you want to use multipathing, configure your domain for multipathing and run the appropriate multipathing software on the domain.

  4. Reboot the domain to process the configuration changes.

    Note Note - You must reboot the domain after any changes to the DR configuration. If you want to minimize the number of reboots, you may want to perform various configuration tasks then reboot the domain.

  5. After the reboot completes successfully, review the /var/adm/messages file for messages that verify the DR configuration changes.

    For example, if you enabled the kernel cage, the following message is generated:

    NOTICE: DR Kernel Cage is Enabled

procedure icon  To Enable the Kernel Cage

A caged kernel confines the nonpageable memory to a minimal (most often one) number of systems boards. By default the kernel cage is disabled, preventing DR detach operations. If you plan to perform DR detach operations, you must enable the kernel cage by using the system (4) variable kernel_cage_enable , as explained in the following procedure.

Be aware that DR attach or addboard operations are enabled by default, regardless of the setting of the kernel_cage_enable variable.

Note Note - Before the release of version 7 of the Solaris software, the dr-max-mem variable was used to enable DR. The dr-max-mem variable is not used to enable DR in version 7 and subsequent versions of the Solaris software.

1. Using a text editor, edit the /etc/system file for the domain so that kernel_cage_enable equals 1.

set kernel_cage_enable=1 

2. After all DR configuration tasks are complete, be sure to reboot the domain so that this configuration can take effect.

3. Verify this configuration change in the /var/adm/messages file.

The following example is a section from a messages file, which indicates that the kernel cage was enabled:

NOTICE: DR Kernel Cage is Enabled

To Set Permanent Driver Parameters for Network Drivers

If you use the ndd (1M) command to set the driver configuration parameters for network devices, those parameters may not persist after a DR operation.

If you want to set the driver configuration parameters permanently, set the parameters in the /etc/system file or the driver.conf file for a specific driver.

procedure icon  To Enable Device Suspension for the soc and pln Drivers

If your system boards contain soc and pln devices, perform the following steps to make those drivers suspend-safe.

1. Using a text editor, edit the /etc/system file so that the pln_enable_detach_suspend and soc_enable_detach_suspend variables are set to 1, as in the following example:

set pln:pln_enable_detach_suspend=1
set soc:soc_enable_detach_suspend=1

2. After all DR configuration tasks are complete, reboot the domain so that this configuration can take effect.

procedure icon  To Specify an Unsafe Driver List

You can provide the Solaris operating environment with information regarding any suspend-unsafe devices in the system by specifying an unsafe-driver list in the ngdr.conf file.

DR reads this list when it prepares to suspend the operating environment so that a board containing nonpageable memory can be detached. If DR finds an active driver in the unsafe driver list, it aborts the operation and returns an error message. The message identifies the active, unsafe driver. You must manually suspend the device so that the DR operation can be performed.

1. Using a text editor, edit the /platform/SUNW,Ultra-Enterprise-10000/kernel/drv/ngdr.conf file and specify suspend-unsafe device drivers as shown below:


where driverx represents each suspend-unsafe device driver.

2. After all DR configuration tasks are complete, reboot the domain so that this configuration can take effect.

procedure icon  To Make an Unsupported Tape Device Detach-Safe

For the Solaris 9 operating environment, tape devices that are natively supported by Sun Microsystems are suspend-safe and detach-safe. For details, refer to the st (7D) man page for a list of natively-supported drives. If a system board to be detached contains a natively-supported tape device, you can safely detach the board without suspending the device.

However, if you want to use a tape device that is not natively supported by Sun Microsystems, you can use it, but you must make it detach-safe by performing the following steps.

1. Edit the /kernel/drv/st.conf file with the ST_UNLOADABLE (0x0400) flag set in the entry. Refer to the st (7D) man page for more information.

2. After all DR configuration tasks are complete, be sure to reboot the domain so that this configuration can take effect.

Preparing for DR Detach Operations

You must prepare a board for DR detach operations by following the steps described below. Although the following list of tasks implies a sequence of order, strict adherence to the order is not necessary. These steps apply to boards containing I/O or non-network devices. .

  1. Unmount file systems.

    For example, if you are using Solstice DiskSuite metadevices, you must unmount the file system for metadevices that have a board-resident partition (for example, umount /partit ).

    If you have suspend-unsafe devices that manage file systems, unmount those file systems before a detach operation. If have to manually suspend unsafe devices that manage file systems, lock those file systems using the lockfs (1M) command before manually suspending the unsafe devices.

    caution icon

    Caution Caution - Unmounting shared file systems by using the share(1M) utility may affect NFS client systems.

  2. Remove disk partitions from the swap configuration by using swap (1M).

  3. If you want to detach a board that hosts Sun StorEdge A3000 controllers, make those controllers idle or take them offline manually using the rm6 or rdacutil programs.

    The Sun StorEdge A3000 (formerly known as the RSM Array 2000) has dual controller paths with automatic load balancing and automatic failover functionality.

  4. Close all non-network devices by doing the following:

    • Close all instances of a device by killing any processes that directly open the device or raw partition, or by directing the process to close an open device on the board.

    • Run modunload (1M) to unload each detach-unsafe or loaded device driver.

    Note Note - In situations where you cannot unload a device that has an unsafe driver, you can blacklist the board that contains the unsafe device and then reboot the domain. You can remove the board later. For details on blacklisting, refer to the blacklist(1M) man page.

  5. Processes bound to the processors of a board prevent that board from being detached. You can use pbind (1M) to rebind them to other processors.

Configuration Changes During DR Operations

This section describes

Controlling Forcible Conditions that Affect System Quiescence

If the Solaris operating environment cannot quiesce during a DR detach operation involving a board with nonpageable memory, it displays the reason why it cannot quiesce. For example, a suspend-unsafe device is open that cannot be quiesced by the operating environment.

A failure to quiesce due to open suspend-unsafe devices is known as a forcible condition . You have the option to retry the operation, or you can try to force the quiescence. The conditions that cause processes not to suspend are generally temporary in nature. You can retry the operation until the quiescence succeeds.

When you try to force the quiescence, you give the operating environment permission to continue with the quiescence even if forcible conditions are still present. Doing this forces the operating environment to permit the detach. Note that, although a detach can be forced to proceed when there are open suspend-unsafe devices in the system, it is not possible to force a detach when a detach-unsafe device resides on the board and its driver is loaded

Note Note - Real-time processes do not prevent the operating environment from quiescence.

The most straightforward way to quiesce a domain is to close any suspend-unsafe devices. For each network driver you must execute the ifconfig (1M) command with its down parameter, then again with its unplumb parameter (refer to the ifconfig (1M) man page for more information).

Note Note - It should be possible to unplumb all network drivers. However, this action is rarely tested in normal environments and may result in driver error conditions. If you use DR, Sun Microsystems suggests that you test these driver functions during the qualification and installation phases of any suspend-unsafe device.

If a suspend-unsafe device is open and cannot be closed, you can manually suspend the device, and then force the operating environment to quiesce. After the operating environment resumes, you can manually resume the device as explained below.

Note Note - If you cannot make a device suspend its access to the domain centerplane, do not force the operating environment to quiesce. Doing so could cause a domain to crash or hang. Instead, postpone the DR operation until the suspend-unsafe device is no longer open.

procedure icon  To Manually Suspend a Suspend-Unsafe Device

1. Remove the usage of the device by performing one or more of the following:

    a. Close the device by killing the processes using the device.

    b. Ask users not to utilize the device.

    c. Disconnect the cables to the device.

    For example, if a device that allows asynchronous unsolicited input is open, you can disconnect its cables prior to quiescing the operating environment, preventing traffic from arriving at the device and the device from accessing the domain centerplane. You can reconnect the cables after the operating environment resumes.

    d. Unload the device driver by using the modunload (1M) command.

2. Perform the DR operation again.

3. Do the following:

    a. Reload the device by using the modload (1M) command.

    b. Reconnect the cables to the device.

    c. Inform users that the device can be used again.

    d. Restart any processes associated with the device.

caution icon

Caution Caution - If you attempt a forced quiesce operation while activity is occurring on a suspend-unsafe device, the domain may hang. However, if the domain hangs, it will not affect other domains that are running on the Sun Enterprise 10000 system.

procedure icon  To Force a System Quiescence

caution icon

Caution Caution - Exercise care when using the force option. To successfully force the operating environment to quiesce, you must first manually quiesce the controller. Procedures to do that, if any, are device-specific. The device must not transfer any data, reference memory, or generate interrupts during the operation. Be sure to test any procedures used to quiesce the controller while it is open before running them on a production system. Using the force option to quiesce the operating environment, without first successfully quiescing the controller, can result in a domain failure and subsequent reboot.

For Solaris 9 (DR model 3.0) operations, run the deleteboard (1M) or moveboard (1M) command with the -f option.

Target Memory Constraints

When detaching a board with nonpageable memory, DR locates an alternative (target) memory board to which to copy the nonpageable memory.

If no target board is found for a copy rename operation, the deleteboard (1M) and moveboard (1M) commands display the following error messages, respectively:

deleteboard: unconfigure SB2: No available memory target: dr@0:SB2::memory

moveboard: unconfigure SB2: No available memory target: dr@0:SB2::memory


The boot processor is responsible for maintaining the netcon BBSRAM buffer.

Before detaching a board on which the boot processor resides, DR assigns the boot processor role to another active (online) processor.

Network Devices

A detach operation will fail if there are any network interfaces on the board that fit the following conditions. In these cases, the detach operation fails and DR displays an error message.

Remote DR Communication

In Solaris 9 domains, the domain configuration server, dcs (1M), controls DR operations.

procedure icon  To Troubleshoot a Connection Failure During a Solaris 9 (DR Model 3.0) Operation

1. Check the domain.

dcs (1M) must be configured in the /etc/inetd.conf file of the domain. The following lines must be present in the file:

sun-dr stream tcp   wait root /usr/lib/dcs dcs
sun-dr stream tcp6  wait root /usr/lib/dcs dcs

2. If the dcs daemon is configured in /etc/inetd.conf , kill dcs (1M) if it is currently running, and send a HUP signal to the inetd (1M) daemon to cause it to re-read the inetd.conf (4) configuration file:

# kill -9 dcs_pid
# kill -HUP inetd_pid

where dcs_pid is the process ID of the dcs(1M) daemon and inetd_pid is the process ID of the inetd (1M) daemon.

3. Check the /var/adm/messages file for possible error messages from inetd (1M) if it is having trouble starting dcs (1M).

The dcs (1M) daemon executable file resides in the /usr/lib directory.

4. Try the DR operation again, starting from the beginning.