Programming Interfaces Guide

Pipes Between Processes

A pipe between two processes is a pair of files that is created in a parent process. The pipe connects the resulting processes when the parent process forks. A pipe has no existence in any file name space, so it is said to be anonymous. A pipe usually connects only two processes, although any number of child processes can be connected to each other and their related parent by a single pipe.

A pipe is created in the process that becomes the parent by a call to pipe(2). The call returns two file descriptors in the array passed to it. After forking, both processes read from p[0] and write to p[1]. The processes actually read from and write to a circular buffer that is managed for them.

Because calling fork(2) duplicates the per-process open file table, each process has two readers and two writers. Closing the extra readers and writers enables the proper functioning of the pipe. For example, no end-of-file indication would ever be returned if the other end of a reader is left open for writing by the same process. The following code shows pipe creation, a fork, and clearing the duplicate pipe ends.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
        int p[2];
        if (pipe(p) == -1) exit(1);
        switch( fork() )
                case 0:                   /* in child */
                        close( p[0] );
                        dup2( p[1], 1);
                        close P[1] );
                        exec( ... );
                default:                  /* in parent */
                        close( p[1] );
                        dup2( P[0], 0 );
                        close( p[0] );

The following table shows the results of reads from a pipe and writes to a pipe, under certain conditions.

Table 7–1 Read/Write Results in a Pipe





Empty pipe, writer attached 

Read blocked 


Full pipe, reader attached 

Write blocked 


Empty pipe, no writer attached 

EOF returned 


No reader 


Blocking can be prevented by calling fcntl(2) on the descriptor to set FNDELAY. This causes an error return (-1) from the I/O call with errno set to EWOULDBLOCK.