This chapter describes new features in the Solaris installation programs. To view features for all of the Solaris OS, see Solaris 10 What’s New. This chapter describes the following sections.
Starting with the Solaris 10 10/08 release, you can install and boot a ZFS root file system.
The Solaris text installer performs an initial installation for a ZFS root pool. During the installation, you can choose to install either a UFS file system or a ZFS root pool. You can set up a mirrored ZFS root pool by selecting two disks during the installation. Or, you can attach or add additional disks after the installation to create a mirrored ZFS root pool. Swap and dump devices on ZFS volumes are automatically created in the ZFS root pool.
For step-by-step instructions, see Chapter 3, Installing With the Solaris Interactive Text Installer for ZFS Root Pools (Planning and Tasks), in Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Basic Installations.
With custom JumpStart, you can create a profile to create a ZFS storage pool and designate a bootable ZFS file system. New ZFS profile keywords install a ZFS root pool for an initial installation. A ZFS profile contains a limited set of keywords.
For more information about JumpStart and ZFS, see Chapter 9, Installing a ZFS Root Pool With JumpStart, in Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations
You can use Solaris Live Upgrade to perform the following tasks:
Migrate a UFS root (/) file system to a ZFS root pool
Create a new boot environment in the following ways:
Within an existing ZFS root pool
Within another ZFS root pool
From a source other than the currently running system
On a system with non-global zones installed
After you have used the lucreate command to create a ZFS boot environment, you can use other Solaris Live Upgrade commands on the boot environment, such as the luupgrade and luactivate commands. For more information on using Solaris Live Upgrade for ZFS, see Chapter 11, Solaris Live Upgrade and ZFS (Overview), in Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.
Starting with the Solaris 10 10/08 release, the structure of the Solaris Operating System DVD and Solaris Software - 1 CD have changed for the SPARC platform. Slice 0 is no longer at the top of the directory structure. Therefore, the structure of the x86 and SPARC DVD and Solaris Software - 1 CD are the same. This change in structure makes setting up an install server easier if you have a mix of platforms, such as a SPARC install server and x86 media. For procedures for setting up an install server, see the following:
The only limitation to upgrading involves a Solaris Flash archive. When you use a Solaris Flash archive to install, an archive that contains non-global zones is not properly installed on your system.
Changes to accommodate systems that have non-global zones installed are summarized below.
For the Solaris interactive installation program, you can upgrade or patch a system when non-global zones are installed with CDs, as well as DVDs. Or you can use a network installation image for either the DVD or CDs. Previously, you were limited to upgrading with a DVD. The time to upgrade or patch might be extensive, depending on the number of non-global zones that are installed.
For an automated JumpStart installation, you can upgrade or patch with any keyword that applies to an upgrade or patching. In previous releases, a limited number of keywords could be used. The time to upgrade or patch might be extensive, depending on the number of non-global zones that are installed.
For Solaris Live Upgrade, you can upgrade or patch a system that contains non-global zones. If you have a system that contains non-global zones, Solaris Live Upgrade is the recommended upgrade program or program to add patches. Other upgrade programs might require extensive upgrade time, because the time required to complete the upgrade increases linearly with the number of installed non-global zones. If you are patching a system with Solaris Live Upgrade, you do not have to take the system to single-user mode and you can maximize your system's uptime.
Solaris Live Upgrade creates a copy of the OS on the inactive boot environment. The inactive boot environment can be upgraded or patched when non-global zones are installed. The inactive boot environment can then be booted to become the new boot environment. Changes to accommodate systems that have non-global zones installed are the following:
A new package, SUNWlucfg, is required to be installed with the other Solaris Live Upgrade packages, SUNWlur and SUNWluu. This package is required for any system, not just a system with non-global zones installed.
These three packages comprise the software needed to upgrade by using Solaris Live Upgrade. These packages include existing software, new features, and bug fixes. If you do not install these packages on your system before using Solaris Live Upgrade, upgrading to the target release fails.
Creating a new boot environment from the currently running boot environment remains the same as in previous releases with one exception. You can specify a destination disk slice for a shared file system within a non-global zone.
The argument to the -m option has a new optional field, zonename. This new field enables creating the new boot environment and specifying zones that contain separate file systems. This argument places the zone's file system on a separate slice in the new boot environment.
The lumount command now provides non-global zones with access to their corresponding file systems that exist on inactive boot environments. When the global zone administrator uses the lumount command to mount an inactive boot environment, the boot environment is mounted for non-global zones as well.
Comparing boot environments is enhanced. The lucompare command now generates a comparison of boot environments that includes the contents of any non-global zone.
Listing file systems with the lufslist command is enhanced to display a list of file systems for both the global zone and the non-global zones.
For step-by-step procedures for upgrading a system with non-global zones installed or for information on the Solaris Zones partitioning technology, see the following references.
For More Information
Upgrading with Solaris Live Upgrade on a system with non-global zones
Creating and using non-global zones
Upgrading with JumpStart
Upgrading with the Solaris installation interactive GUI
This feature is new in the following releases:
For SPARC, starting with the Solaris 10 10/06 release
For x86, starting with the Solaris 10 8/07 release
The following procedure occurs:
If the keyboard is self-identifying, the keyboard language and layout automatically configures during installation.
If the keyboard is not self-identifying, the sysidkdb tool provides you, during the installation, a list of supported keyboard layouts during installation, so that you can select a layout for keyboard configuration.
SPARC: Previously, the USB keyboard assumed a self-identifying value of 1 during the installation. Therefore, all of the keyboards that were not self-identifying always configured for a U.S. English keyboard layout during installation.
PS/2 keyboards are not self-identifying. You are asked to select the keyboard layout during the installation.
If the keyboard is not self-identifying and you want to prevent being prompted during your JumpStart installation, select the keyboard language in your sysidcfg file. For JumpStart installations, the default is for the U.S. English language. To select another language and its corresponding keyboard layout, set the keyboard keyword in your sysidcfg file.
For more information, see one of the following:
sysidtool(1M) man page
sysidcfg(4) man page
Starting with the Solaris 10 8/07 release, the NFS version 4 domain can now be defined during the installation of the Solaris OS. Previously, the NFS domain name was defined during the first system reboot after installation.
This new feature affects installation as follows:
The sysidtool command includes an enhanced sysidnfs4 program. The sysidnfs4 program now runs during the installation process to determine whether an NFSv4 domain has been configured for the network.
During an interactive installation, the user is provided with the default NFSv4 domain name that is automatically derived from the OS. The user can accept this default. Or, the user can specify a different NFSv4 domain.
As part of a Solaris JumpStart installation, a new keyword is available in the sysidcfg file. The user can now assign a value for the NFSv4 domain by using the new keyword, nfs4_domain.
Starting with the Solaris 10 11/06 release, you can, during installation, set the default behavior for network services to run in a much more secured manner. During an interactive installation (hands on), this new security option is provided in the installation configuration selection screens. For automated JumpStart installations (hands off), you can select a restricted network profile by using a new service_profile keyword in the sysidcfg file. This security option is only available for initial installations. An upgrade maintains all previously set services. If necessary, you can restrict network services after an upgrade by using the netservices command.
If you choose to restrict network security, numerous services are fully disabled. Other services are still enabled, but these services are restricted to local connections only. Secure Shell remains available for remote administrative access to the system.
With this restricted networking profile, you reduce your risk of exposure on the Internet or LAN. The system retains full graphical desktop use and outbound network access. For example, you can still access your graphical interface, use browsers or email clients, and mount NFSv4 file shares.
The network services can be enabled after installation by using the netservices open command or by enabling individual services by using SMF commands. See Revising Security Settings After Installation.
For additional information about this security option, see the following references.Table 2–1 Additional Information About the Limited Network Profile
For More Information
Administer security for network services
Reopen network services after installation
Plan installation configuration
Select restricted network security during a hands-on installation
Set up restricted network security for a JumpStart installation
Starting with the Solaris 10 11/06 release, Solaris Trusted Extensions provides multilevel security for the Solaris OS. This feature enables you to control information in a flexible but highly secure manner. You can now enforce strict access controls to your data based on data sensitivity, not just data ownership.
An installation that accesses Solaris Trusted Extensions differs from a standard installation. For a list of these installation differences and further information about Solaris Trusted Extensions, see Installing or Upgrading the Solaris OS for Trusted Extensions in Solaris Trusted Extensions Installation and Configuration.
The flarcreate command no longer has size limitations on individual files. You can create a Solaris Flash archive that contains individual files that are greater than 4 Gbytes. The following two archive utilities are available for use:
The cpio archive utility is the default. Individual files cannot be greater than 2 or 4 Gbytes. The size limitation depends on the version of cpio used.
The portable archive interchange utility, pax, is invoked with the -L pax option. If the -L pax option is specified, the archive can be created without size limitations on individual files.
This section describes the following new installation features in the Solaris 10 1/06 release.
Solaris Zones partitioning technology provides the ability to configure non-global zones in a single instance of Solaris, the global zone. A non-global zone is an application execution environment in which processes are isolated from all other zones. Starting with the Solaris 10 1/06 release and if you are running a system with non-global zones installed, you can use standard Solaris upgrade programs to upgrade. You can use either the Solaris interactive installation program or custom JumpStart to upgrade. There are some limitations to upgrading with non-global zones installed.
A limited number of custom JumpStart keywords are supported. For a list of supported custom JumpStart keywords, see Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
You must use the Solaris Operating System DVD or a network installation image created from a DVD. You cannot use the Solaris Software CDs to upgrade a system. For more information about installing with this program, see Chapter 2, Installing With the Solaris Installation Program For UFS File Systems (Tasks), in Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Basic Installations.
On a system with non-global zones installed, do not use Solaris Live Upgrade to upgrade your system. While you can create a boot environment with the lucreate command, the luupgrade command cannot upgrade a boot environment that has non-global zones installed. In that case, the upgrade fails and an error message is displayed.
For details on using the Solaris interactive installation program, see Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Basic Installations
Starting with the Solaris 10 1/06 release, the open source GNU GRand Unified Boot Loader (GRUB) has been adopted in the Solaris OS for x86 based systems. GRUB is responsible for loading a boot archive into the system's memory. A boot archive is a collection of critical files that is needed during system startup before the root (/) file system is mounted. The boot archive is used to boot the Solaris OS.
The most notable change is the replacement of the Solaris Device Configuration Assistant with the GRUB menu. The GRUB menu facilitates booting the different operating systems that are installed on your system. The GRUB menu is displayed when you boot an x86 based system. From the GRUB menu, you can select an OS instance to install by using the arrow keys. If you do not make a selection, the default OS instance is booted.
The GRUB based boot feature provides the following improvements:
Faster boot times
Installation from USB CD or DVD drives
Ability to boot from USB storage devices
Simplified DHCP setup for PXE boot (no vendor-specific options)
Elimination of all realmode drivers
Ability to use Solaris Live Upgrade and the GRUB menu to quickly activate and fall back to boot environments
For more information about GRUB refer to the following sections.
For More Information
Overview information about GRUB based booting
Installation planning for GRUB based booting
How to boot and install over the network with the GRUB menu
How to boot and install with the GRUB menu and the Custom JumpStart installation method
How to use the GRUB menu and Solaris Live Upgrade to activate and fall back to boot environments
Locating the GRUB menu's menu.lst file
How to perform system administration tasks with the GRUB menu
GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not UNIX.” For more information, go to http://www.gnu.org.
Starting with the Solaris 10 1/06 release, you can upgrade the Solaris OS from the Solaris 8, 9, or 10 releases. Upgrades from the Solaris 7 release are not supported.
This section describes the following new installation features in the Solaris 10 3/05 release.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, several changes in the installation of the Solaris OS provide a more simplified and unified installation experience.
The changes include the following:
This release has one installation DVD and several installation CDs. The Solaris Operating System DVD includes the content of all the installation CDs.
Solaris Software 1 – This CD is the only bootable CD. From this CD, you can access both the Solaris installation graphical user interface (GUI) and the console-based installation. This CD also enables you to install selected software products from both the GUI and the console-based installation.
Other Solaris Operating System CDs – These CDs contain the following:
Solaris packages that the software prompts you to install if necessary
ExtraValue software that includes supported and unsupported software
Localized interface software and documentation
The Solaris Installation CD no longer exists.
For both CD and DVD media, the GUI installation is the default (if your system has enough memory). However, you can specify a console-based installation with the text boot option.
The installation process has been simplified, enabling you to select the language support at boot time, but select locales later.
The (noninteractive) Solaris custom JumpStartTM installation method has not changed.
To install the OS, simply insert the Solaris Software - 1 CD or the Solaris Operating System DVD and type one of the following commands.
For the default GUI installation (if system memory permits), type boot cdrom.
For the console-based installation, type boot cdrom - text.
For instructions about how to install the Solaris OS by using CD or DVD media with the new text boot option
For changes to setting up an installation server with CD media
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, you can choose to install the software with a GUI or with or without a windowing environment. If the memory is sufficient, the GUI is displayed by default. If the memory is insufficient for the GUI, other environments are displayed by default. You can override defaults with the nowin or text boot options. However, you are limited by the amount of memory in your system or by installing remotely. Also, if the Solaris installation program does not detect a video adapter, the program is automatically displayed in a console-based environment.
For specific memory requirements, see System Requirements and Recommendations.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, when you install and upgrade the Solaris OS by using the custom JumpStart installation method, new customizations enable the following:
A Solaris Flash installation with additional packages
The custom JumpStart profile package keyword has been enhanced to enable installing a Solaris Flash archive with additional packages. For example, you can install the same base archive on two machines, but add a different set of packages to each machine. These packages do not have to be a part of the Solaris OS distribution.
An installation with additional packages that might not be part of the Solaris distribution
The package keyword has also been enhanced to enable an installation with a package that is not part of the Solaris distribution. You no longer need to write a postinstallation script to add extra packages.
An installation with the ability to install Solaris OS patches
The new custom JumpStart profile patch keyword enables the installation of Solaris OS patches. This feature allows the installation of a list of patches that are specified in a patch file.
For further information, see Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, the Solaris installation programs enable you to configure multiple interfaces during your installation. You can preconfigure these interfaces in the sysidcfg file for your system. Or you can configure multiple interfaces during the installation. For more information, see the following documents:
In previous Solaris releases, the Solaris software was delivered in separate packages for 32-bit components and 64-bit components. Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, packaging has been simplified with the delivery of most 32-bit components and 64-bit components in a single package. The combined packages retain the names of the original 32-bit packages, and the 64-bit packages are no longer delivered.
The removal of the 64-bit packages simplifies installation and increases performance:
Reduces the number of packages, which simplifies Custom JumpStart scripts that contain lists of packages
Simplifies the packaging system with only one package that groups software functions
Reduces installation time because fewer packages are installed
The 64-bit packages are renamed with the following conventions:
If a 64-bit package has a 32-bit counterpart, the 64-bit package is named with the 32-bit package name. For example, a 64-bit library such as /usr/lib/sparcv9/libc.so.1 previously would have been delivered in SUNWcslx, but now is delivered in SUNWcsl. The 64-bit SUNWcslx package is no longer delivered.
If a package does not have a 32-bit counterpart, the “x” suffix is removed from the name. For example, SUNW1394x becomes SUNW1394.
This change means that you might need to modify your custom JumpStart script or other package installation scripts to remove references to the 64-bit packages.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, you can now use the JumpStart installation method to create an empty boot environment when you install the Solaris Operating System. The empty boot environment can then be populated with a Solaris Flash archive for later use.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, you can now create a more secure system with fewer enabled network services by selecting or specifying the Reduced Networking software group (SUNWCrnet) during your installation. The Reduced Networking software group provides system administration utilities and a multiuser text-based console. SUNWCrnet enables the system to recognize network interfaces. During the installation, you can customize your system's configuration by adding software packages and by activating network services as needed.
For further information, see Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, the Solaris installation program now enables you to load existing slices from the virtual table of contents (VTOC.) You can now preserve and use the system's existing disk slice tables during your installation, rather than use the installer's default disk layout.
Starting with the Solaris 10 3/05 release, a new feature in the Solaris installation program is a boot-disk partition layout. This layout, by default, accommodates the Service partition on Sun x86 based systems. This installation program enables you to preserve an existing Service partition.
The new default includes the following partitions.
First partition – Service partition (existing size on system)
Second partition – x86 boot partition (approximately 11 Mbytes)
Third partition – Solaris Operating System partition (remaining space on the boot disk)
If you want to use this default layout, select Default when the Solaris installation program asks you to choose a boot-disk layout.
If you install the Solaris OS for x86 based systems on a system that does not currently include a Service partition, the Solaris installation program does not create a new Service partition. If you want to create a Service partition on your system, first use your system's diagnostic CD to create the Service partition. After the Service partition is created, then install the Solaris Operating System.
For information about how to create the Service partition, see your hardware documentation.
For more information, see Solaris 10 10/08 Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.