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Sun Java Enterprise System 2004Q2 Technical Overview 

Java Enterprise System Key Terms

This glossary defines and explains key terms introduced in this Java Enterprise System Technical Overview. Refer to the Java Enterprise System Glossary ( for a complete list of terms that are used in the Java Enterprise System documentation set.

architecture     A design that shows the logical and physical building blocks of a distributed application (or some other software system) and their relationships to one another. In the case of a distributed enterprise application, the architectural design generally includes both the application’s logical architecture and deployment architecture.

business service     A distributed component or component assembly that performs business logic on behalf of multiple clients (and is therefore a multi-threaded process). A business service can also be an assembly of distributed components encapsulated as a web service, or it can be a standalone server.

client     Software that requests software services. (Note: this is not a person—see end user.) A client can be a service that requests another service, or a GUI component accessed by an end user.

component product     A previously-independent Sun ONE product that has been integrated into the Java Enterprise System, but which can be individually licensed.

computing node     One of a number of computers in a network or Internet environment. Distributed applications are deployed across this environment, with different distributed components, business service, and servers running on the various computing nodes.

deployment     A stage of the application life-cycle process in which a deployment scenario is translated into a deployment design, implemented, prototyped, and rolled out in a production environment. The end product of this process is also referred to as a deployment.

deployment architecture     A high-level design that depicts the mapping of a logical architecture to a physical computing environment. The physical environment includes the computing nodes in an intranet or Internet environment, the network links between them, and any other physical devices needed to support the software.

deployment scenario     A computing node and the quality of service requirements that a solution must satisfy to meet business needs. The quality of service requirements include requirement regarding: performance, availability, security, serviceability, and scalability/latent capacity. A deployment scenario is the starting point for deployment design.

development     A phase in the deployment process, in which a logical architecture is implemented (either through programming or customization) and tested.

directory     A special kind of database optimized for reading data rather than writing data. Most directories are based on LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol), an industry-standard protocol.

directory information tree     a hierarchy that reflects the organizational structure of your enterprise or other information base.

distributed component     A unit of software logic from which distributed applications are built. A distributed component usually conforms to a distributed component model (CORBA, J2EE) and performs some specific computing function. Distributed components—singly or combined—provide business services, and can be encapsulated as web services.

distributed enterprise application     An application whose logic spans a network or Internet environment (the distributed aspect) and whose scope and scale meet the needs of a production environment or service provider (the enterprise aspect).

end user     A person who uses a distributed application, often through a graphical user interface, such as an Internet browser or mobile device GUI. the number of concurrent end users supported by an application is an important determinant of the deployment architecture of the application.

instance (server instance)     A distinct execution of a server process on a computing node. In general, multiple instances of a server can run on a single node or on multiple nodes, and each instance can be configured independently.

logical architecture     A design that depicts the logical building blocks of a distributed application and the relationships (or interfaces) between these building blocks. The logical architecture includes both the distributed application components and the infrastructure services needed to support them.

object class     The set of attributes that describe an object, or some aspect of an object, stored in an LDAP directory.

operations     A stage of the application life-cycle process in which distributed applications are started up, monitored, tuned to optimize performance, and dynamically upgraded to include new functionality.

policy     a rule that describes who is authorized to access a specific resource under specific conditions. The rule can be based on groups of users or roles in an organization.

reference deployment architecture     A specific deployment scenario mapped to and deployed across a specific hardware topology and tested for performance. Reference deployment architectures are used as starting points for designing custom solution deployment architectures.

requirements analysis     A stage of the application life-cycle process in which business needs are translated into a deployment scenario: a logical architecture and a set of quality of service requirements the solution must meet.

schema     The set of object classes and corresponding attributes that can be stored in a directory. Also specifies attribute data types and formats.

server     A multi-threaded software process—as distinguished from a hardware server—that provides a distributed service or cohesive set of services for clients that access the service by way of an external interface.

service     A software function performed for one or more clients. This function might be a very low-level support service, such as a memory management, or a high-level business service, such as a credit check. Services can be local (available to local clients) or distributed (available to remote clients). A system-level service can consist of a family of individual services.

shared component     A Java Enterprise System component (system component), usually a library, that provides local services to other system components. By contrast, a system server provides distributed services to other system components (or to application-level components).

single identity     An identity that a user has by virtue of a single user entry in a Java Enterprise System directory. Based on this single user entry a user can be allowed access to various system resources, such as a portal, web pages, and services such as messaging, calendar, and instant messaging.

single sign-on     A feature that allows a user’s authentication to one service in a distributed system to be automatically applied to other services in the system.

support service     One or more services needed to support a system service. These include communication services, persistence services, security services, memory management services, logging services, and so forth. These might be provided by internal server components or, externally, by system servers.

system component     Any software package or set of packages included in the Java Enterprise System and installed by the Java Enterprise System installer. There are several kinds of system components: system servers which provide distributed services, Cluster software, which provides availability and scalability services, and shared components that provide local services to other system components.

system server     A component product—a server—included in the Java Enterprise System, and which provides one or more system services within the distributed service infrastructure.

system service     One or more distributed services that define the unique functionality provided by a system server. System services normally require the support of a number of internal support services and/or a number of shared components.

use case     A specific end-user task or set of tasks performed by a distributed enterprise application, and used as a basis for designing, testing, and measuring the performance of the application.

user provisioning     A procedure for enabling end users to access and use system services. Provisioning involves creating for each end user an account in a directory service and populating the account with the user-specific information needed by each service.

web service     A service that conforms to standardized Internet protocols for accessibility, service encapsulation, and discovery. The standards include the SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) messaging protocol, the WSDL (Web Service definition Language) interface definition, and the UDDI (Universal Discovery, Description, and Integration) registry standard.

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