As mentioned above, root user accounts in traditional directories are special because they can to bypass access controls and other restrictions, and there are some kinds of operations that only root users can perform. This is much like the concept of root users in traditional UNIX operating systems, and it often creates a bit of a paradigm because there may be cases in which a user needs to do something that only root can do. If users are given root access, then they are given far more power than they actually need to do their job, and system administrators have to hope that they use it responsibly and not intentionally or unintentionally impact some other part of the system. Alternately, the user may not be given root access and either not be able to perform a vital function or have to get one of the system administrators to perform the task.
Solaris 10 has addressed this problem in UNIX systems by creating a privilege subsystem (also called “process rights management”). The engineers developing Solaris realized that it is dangerous and undesirable to be forced to give someone root access just to perform one specific task. For example, just because a user may need to start a process that listens on a port below 1024 does not mean that they should also be able to bypass filesystem permissions, change network interface settings, or mount and unmount file systems. With the privilege subsystem in Solaris 10, it is possible to give a user just the specific capability that they need, for example, the ability to bind to privileged ports, without giving them full root access. Similarly, it is possible to take away privileges that might otherwise be available. For example, an account that is only used to run a specific daemon does not need to be able to see processes owned by other users on the system.
The directory server has embraced this concept, and it too has a privilege subsystem that defines distinct capabilities that users might need and makes it possible to give them just the level of access that they require. Normal users may be granted privileges that they would not otherwise have, and it is even possible to take certain privileges away from root users. The set of privileges currently defined in the directory server includes:
Allows the user to bypass access control evaluation
Allows the user to make changes to the access controls defined in the server
Allows the user to have read access to the server configuration
Allows the user to have write access to the server configuration
Allows the user to read JMX attribute values
Allows the user to update JMX attribute values
* Allows the user to subscribe to JMX notifications
Allows the user to request the LDIF import task
Allows the user to request the LDIF export task
Allows the user to request the backend backup task
Allows the user to request the backend restore task
Allows the user to request the server shutdown task
Allows the user to request the server restart task
Allows the user to use the proxied authorization control or request an alternate SASL authorization ID
Allows the user to terminate arbitrary client connections
* Allows the user to cancel arbitrary client requests
Allows the user to request unindexed search operations
Allows the user to reset the passwords for other users
* Allows the user to participate in the data synchronization environment
Allows the user to update the server schema
Allows the user to change the set of privileges assigned to a user, or to change the set of default root privileges
At the present time, the privileges marked with an asterisk (*) are not yet implemented in the server and therefore have no effect.
Note that the privilege subsystem is largely independent from the access control subsystem. Unless the user also has the bypass-acl privilege, operations may still be subject to access control checking. For example, if a user has the config-read privilege, then that user can see only those parts of the configuration that are allowed by access control. As a rule, whenever an operation is covered by both the privilege subsystem and access control, both mechanisms must allow that operation.