Solaris Transition Guide

Chapter 12 Network Service Administration

This chapter outlines changes to the network facilities, TCP/IP and UUCP.

Changes to TCP/IP

The user interface to TCP/IP is virtually the same as in previous releases of the Solaris software, but the administration of NIS+ maps is handled through AdminTool, which is different from the process in the SunOS release 4 software and traditional AT&T SVR4.

The NIS+ maps administered by AdminTool include:

When you are ready to configure SunOS release 5.7 TCP/IP facilities, see TCP/IP and Data Communications Administration Guide for information about setting up TCP/IP.

Also, Solaris 7 software bundles the popular traceroute utility. The traceroute utility is used to trace the route an IP packet follows to an Internet host. It is especially useful for determining routing misconfiguration and routing path failures.


TCP selective acknowledgment (TCP SACK) provides the support described in RFC 2018 to solve the problems related to congestion and multiple packet drops, especially in applications using TCP large windows (RFC 1323) over satellite links or transcontinental links.

Changes to NFS

The Solaris 7 operating environment simplifies resource sharing with a new set of commands and files to administer NFS resources. Specifically, exportfs and /etc/exports have been replaced by share, shareall, and /etc/dfs/dfstab.This new command set was designed to allow for future distributed file system types.

Several of the daemons associated with NFS have been renamed. rpc.statd, rpc.lockd, and rpc.mountd are now simply called statd, lockd, and mountd.

Unlike the SunOS release 4 environment, there are no client side block I/O daemons (biods) in the Solaris 7 release. They have been superceded by kernel threads. Also, the NFS daemon, nfsd, has been altered so that it does not spawn multiple copies to handle concurrent requests.

Other features included in this release:

All these features are described in NFS Administration Guide.


PPP for Solaris 7 systems is an asynchronous implementation of the standard data link-level, point-to-point protocol (PPP) included in the internet protocol suite. PPP enables a network administrator to create a communications link using modems and telephone lines. See TCP/IP and Data Communications Administration Guide for detailed information about expanding your network with PPP.


The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an open-standard, platform-independent, access protocol based on the X.500 informational model. It is designed to run over TCP/IP and uses simple string encodings. LDAP applications are client-server applications and the client library included in this release enables developers to write LDAP applications and users to run LDAP enabled applications.


Solaris 7 software implements the Internet Intranet Input Method Protocol (IIIMP) to enable seamless interoperability between the input methods provided in Solaris, Java, and non-X Windows applications.


The Solaris 7 UNIX-to-UNIX Copy (UUCP) is similar to the HoneyDanBer UUCP available with SunOS release 4 systems. It uses the same set of configuration files, scripts, and commands, so you should be able to restore most changes you made in SunOS release 4 files and scripts to run with this release. However, the spool directory is organized differently in Solaris 7 due to job grades, a mechanism to help sort and prioritize the work load.

Table 12-1 describes the new files and commands offered with Solaris 7 UUCP that were not part of the SunOS release 4 implementation. Table 12-2 describes the log files added to Solaris 7 UUCP.

Table 12-1 New SunOS release 5.7 UUCP Files and Commands

Command or File 


D. data files

P. data files

These data files are created when a UUCP command line specifies copying the source file to a spool directory. 

All data files have this format: systmxxxxyyy.

systm are the first five characters in the name of the remote system.

xxxx is a four-digit job sequence number assigned by UUCP.

yyy is a subsequence number used to distinguish between several D. files created for a work (C.) file.


Maps text grade names to system names. 


Specifies the number of concurrent UUCP sessions that can occur. Replaces Maxuuscheds and Maxuuxqts files in previous versions.


Contains information to override UUCP parameters that can be tuned. Currently, the only parameter of this type is Protocol, so system administrators normally will not have to modify this file.


Prints the list of service grades available on the system to use with the -g option of uucp(1C) and uux(1C).

Solaris 7 UUCP includes a few additional features that can affect system administration:

The following sections describe the system administration differences made by each of these additions.

Checkpoint Restart

When communication link failures interrupt UUCP transmissions between SunOS release 4 systems, the transmission starts again from the beginning of the file as soon as communication resumes. Communication between two systems running Solaris 7 UUCP resumes where it was interrupted instead of returning to the beginning. This makes better throughput possible, especially on erratic or noisy transmission lines.

The systems use two new files to store sent and received data and to compare the sizes of the files to determine where to restart transmission. The systems use.P files to store received data and.D files to store transmitted data. These files replace the TM. files of previous UUCP versions. If only one system is running SunOS release 5.7 UUCP, no comparison can take place and transmission restarts from the beginning.

User Job Grades

Job grading enables administrators to divide jobs into work loads that compete against others of similar size, type, priority, or all three. You can sort work loads using any one or a combination of these factors. You can also set access permissions allowing users and groups to obtain each grade of UUCP service.

In the SunOS release 4 software, the user has to choose the grade when the job is submitted. Grades are a single letter, not a name, as they are in the Solaris 7 operating environment. Solaris 7 systems enable administrators to define job grades for an entire site.

Limits File

The /etc/uucp/Limits file specifies the maximum number of concurrent uucico, uuxqt, and uusched processes permitted on a system. This single file replaces the Maxuusched and Maxuuxqt parameters on previous releases.

Config File

The /etc/uucp/Config file contains information to override UUCP parameters that can be tuned. Currently the only parameter available is Protocol and it normally should not be altered by system administrators.

Log Files

Solaris 7 UUCP provides four log files in addition to the four supplied in previous versions. These files record accounting, command, performance, and security information. The command and security log files are created if they do not exist. The accounting and performance log files are written only if they already exist.

Table 12-2 Additional SunOS Release 5.7 UUCP Log Files

File Name 



Records account information for billing 


Records statistics on uucico operations


Records attempted security violations 


Records information on commands issued by users or administrators 

When you are ready to set up and use SunOS release 5.7 UUCP, see TCP/IP and Data Communications Administration Guide for complete information.