Kernel panics in a device driver are often caused by the unexpected interaction of kernel threads after a device failure. When a device fails, threads can interact in ways that the designer had not anticipated.
For example, if processing routines terminate early, they might fail to signal other threads that are waiting on condition variables. Attempting to inform other modules of the failure or handling unanticipated callbacks can result in undesirable thread interactions. Examine the sequence of mutex acquisition and relinquishment that can occur during device failures.
Threads that originate in an upstream STREAMS module can run into unfortunate paradoxes if used to call back into that module unexpectedly. You might use alternative threads to handle exception messages. For instance, a wput procedure might use a read-side service routine to communicate an M_ERROR, rather than doing it directly with a read-side putnext.
A failing STREAMS device that cannot be quiesced during close (because of the fault) can generate an interrupt after the Stream has been dismantled. The interrupt handler must not attempt to use a stale Stream pointer to try to process the message.