As more computers are connected to the Internet, and the ease of doing business online increases, the frequency of security incidents, including spam and viruses, continues to rise. You should plan your Messaging Server deployment to deal with these problems.
Mail traffic passing into, through, and out of Messaging Server can be separated into distinct channels according to various criteria. This criteria includes source and destination email addresses as well as source IP address or subnet. You can apply different processing characteristics to these different mail flows, or channels. Consequently, you can use different access controls, mail filters, processing priorities, and tools in different ways and combinations on these channels. For example, you can process mail originating from within your domain differently from mail originating from outside your deployment.
In addition to channel-based message flow classification, another useful classification is mailing list traffic. Traffic for a given mailing list can come into Messaging Server through a number of different channels and go back out through a number of different channels. When using mailing lists, you can find it helpful to think in terms of the list itself and not in terms of channels. Messaging Server recognizes this and enables many of the channel-specific spam fighting tools to also be applied in a mailing-list specific fashion.
The following summarizes the anti-spam and anti-virus tools you can use with Messaging Server:
Real-time Blackhole List. Refuses mail from recognized spam sources as identified by the Mail Abuse Protection System”s Real-time Blackhole List (MAPS RBL), a responsibly managed, dynamically updated list of known spam sources
Milter. Provides a plug-in interface for third-party software to validate, modify, or block messages as they pass through the MTA.
You can use these tools individually or together. No one tool by itself will block all spam. However, taken together, these tools provide an effective means of combatting unauthorized use of your mail system. The following sections provide more details on these tools. For more information, see the Sun Java System Messaging Server 6.3 Administration Guide.
Messaging Server has a general purpose mechanism that you can use to reject mail in accordance with a variety of criteria. This criteria includes the message source or destination email addresses, as well as source IP address. For example, you can use this mechanism to refuse mail from specific senders or entire domains (such as mail from email@example.com). Should you have large lists of screening information, you can extend your lists with a database that stores the access criteria. While not UBE-related, this same access control mechanism is also suitable for maintaining a database of internal users who are or are not allowed to send mail out certain channels. For example, you can restrict on a per-user basis who can or cannot send or receive Internet mail.
See Access Controls for more information.
Messaging Server provides mail filters on a per-user, per-channel, and system-wide basis. Per-user channels can be managed from any web browser in Messenger Express. Using these filters, users can control what mail messages are delivered to their mailbox. For example, a user tired of “make money fast” UBE can specify that any message with such a subject be rejected. Mail filtering in Messaging Server is based on the Sieve filtering language (RFCs 3028 and 3685) developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
See Using Mailbox Filters for more information.
You can also implement content-based filtering or virus scanning through the use of third-party content filtering software, such as Brightmail and SpamAssassin. See Anti-Spam and Anti-Virus Considerations for more information.
UBE messages often use invalid originator addresses. The Messaging Server SMTP server can take advantage of this by reflecting messages with invalid originator addresses. If the originator's address does not correspond to a valid host name, as determined by a query to the DNS server, the message can be rejected. Note that a potential performance penalty can be incurred with such use of the DNS.
You enable address verification on a per-channel basis with the mailfromdnsverify channel keyword described in the Sun Java System Messaging Server 6.3 Administration Guide.
The Mail Abuse Protection System’s Real-time Blackhole List (MAPS RBL) is a dynamically updated list of known UBE sources identified by source IP address. The Messaging Server SMTP server supports use of the MAPS RBL and can reject mail coming from sources identified by the MAPS RBL as originators of UBE. The MAPS RBL is a free service provided through the Internet DNS.
For more information, see:
Use of the RBL by the Messaging Server SMTP server is enabled with the ENABLE_RBL option of the MTA Dispatcher.
A comprehensive UBE strategy should include both ways to prevent users from receiving UBE (access controls, mailbox filtering, address verification, RBL) as well as preventing users from unauthorized relay of mail from your system to other systems. This second method is called relay blocking. In its simplest form, relay blocking is achieved by enabling local users and systems to relay mail while rejecting relay attempts from non-local systems. Using IP addresses as the differentiator easily and securely makes this differentiation between local versus non-local. By default, Messaging Server enables relay blocking upon installation. See Configuring Anti-Relaying with Mapping Tables for more information.
The Messaging Server SMTP server implements the Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL, RFC2222) protocol. SASL can be used with POP and IMAP clients to provide password-based access to your SMTP server. A typical usage for SASL is to permit mail relaying for external authenticated users. This solves the common problem posed by local users who use ISPs from home or while traveling. Such users, when connecting to your mail system, will have non-local IP addresses. Any relay blocking that takes into account only the source IP address will not permit these users to relay mail. This difficulty is overcome through the use of SASL, which enables these users to authenticate themselves. Once authenticated, the users are permitted to relay mail.
The access control mechanisms discussed previously can also defer the processing of suspect messages for later, manual inspection. Or, rather than sideline, the mechanisms can change the destination address, thus routing the suspect mail to a specific mailbox or simply deleting it silently. This tactic is useful when UBE is being received from a known, fixed origin and outright rejection will only cause the abuser to change the point of origin. Similar features are available for Messaging Server mailing lists. Great care should exercised when silently deleting mail to ensure that valid senders are not affected.
Messaging Server’s SMTP server discovers and records crucial origination information about every incoming mail message, including, for example, source IP address and the corresponding host name. All discovered information is recorded in the message’s trace fields (for example, the Received: header line) as well as in log files, if they are so configured. Availability of such reliable information is crucial in determining the source of UBE, which often has forged headers. Sites can use their own preferred reporting tools to access this information, which is stored as plain text.
The conversion channel is a very general purpose interface where you can invoke a script or another program to perform arbitrary body part processing of an email message. The conversion program hands off each MIME body part (not the entire message) to the program or script and can replace the body part with the output of the program or script. Conversion channels can be used to convert one file format to another (for example, text to PostScript), to convert one language to another, perform content filtering for company sensitive information, scan for viruses and replace them with something else.
Content-filtering software from third-party suppliers can be hooked in to your deployment through Messaging Server’s conversion channel. Channel keywords are used to enable mail filtering using anti-spam and anti-virus products, such as Brightmail or SpamAssassin. You can configure the MTA to filter for all messages or only those going from or to certain channels, or to set the granularity at a per-user level. A user can decide to use spam or virus filtering, or both. (SpamAssassin only filters for spam.)
An extensive Sieve support enables great flexibility to set the disposition of the message determined to be spam or virus. You can take the default action of discarding the virus and spam, or filing the spam into a special folder. But using Sieve, you can forward a copy of the message to some special account, add a custom header, or use the spamtest Sieve extension to take different action based on a rating returned by SpamAssassin.
Milter refers to the Sendmail Content Management API and also to software written using this API. Milter provides a plug-in interface for third-party software to validate, modify, or block messages as they pass through the MTA. In sendmail, milter consists of support code in sendmail itself and a separate milter library. Filter authors link their filters against this library to produce a server. Sendmail is then configured to connect to these milter servers. Messaging Server provides a library that emulates the sendmail side of the milter interface. Consequently, milters written for sendmail can also be used with Messaging Server. The milter server can run in a variety of configurations. It can run on a separate system of its own, on the same system as Messaging Server, in a single system deployment, or in a two-tier deployment. Messaging Server also supports connecting to multiple milter servers.