The tag set can be used in two different ways to produce run-time help files: shorthand markup or formal markup. The first approach, called shorthand markup, is optimized for authors using a standard text editor to "hand-tag" information. That is, the author types the tags in addition to the actual help topic text. To minimize the impact of hand-tagging, shorthand markup incorporates several shortcuts. First, it reduces the number of required start and end tags. It also offers simple character combinations for frequently used markup and stylistic changes.