Sun Java Enterprise System Glossary


last-modified header

(n.) The last modification time of the document file that is returned in the HTTP response from the server.


(Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) (n.) Directory service protocol designed to run over TCP/IP and across multiple platforms. A simplification of the X.500 Directory Access Protocol (DAP) that allows a single point of management for storage, retrieval, and distribution of information, including user profiles, distribution lists, and configuration data across Sun Java System servers. Directory Server uses the LDAP protocol.

LDAP database

(n.) A database where lists of users and groups is stored for use in authentication.

LDAP data interchange format


LDAP filter

(n.) A method of specifying a set of entries that is based on the presence of a particular attribute or attribute value.

LDAP referrals

(n.) An LDAP entry that consists of a symbolic link (referral) to another LDAP entry. An LDAP referral consists of an LDAP host and a distinguished name. LDAP referrals are often used to reference existing LDAP data so that this data does not have to be replicated. The LDAP referrals are also used to maintain compatibility for programs that depend on a particular entry that might have been moved.

LDAP search string

(n.) A string with replaceable parameters that defines the attributes used for directory searches. For example, an LDAP search string of “uid=%s” means that searches are based on the user ID attribute.

LDAP server

(n.) A software server that maintains an LDAP directory and services queries to the directory. The Sun Directory Services and the Netscape Directory Services are implementations of an LDAP Server.

LDAP server failover

(n.) A backup feature for LDAP servers. If one LDAP server fails, the system can switch over to another LDAP server.


(n.) A URL that provides the means of locating directory servers using DNS and then completing the query through LDAP. A sample LDAP URL is ldap://


(n.) Version 3 of the LDAPv3 protocol.


(n.) LDAP database manager.

LDBM database

(n.) A high-performance, disk-based database consisting of a set of large files that contain all of the data in Directory Server.


(LDAP Data Interchange Format) (n.) The format used to represent Directory Server entries in text form using type:value pairs.

leaf entry

(n.) An entry under which there are no other entries. A leaf entry cannot be a branch point in a directory tree.

Legato NetWorker® software

(n.) A third-party backup utility distributed by Legato Systems, Inc.


(n.) A designation of logging verbosity, meaning the relative number of types of events that are recorded in log files. For example, at a level of Emergency or SEVERE, very few events are logged. At a level of Informational or INFO, many events are logged.

Liberty-enabled client

(n.) A Liberty-enabled client is a client that has, or knows how to obtain, information about the identity provider that a principal will use to authenticate to a service provider.

Liberty-enabled proxy

(n.) A Liberty-enabled proxy is an HTTP proxy that emulates a Liberty-enabled client.

life cycle

(1) (n.) The framework events of a J2EE component's existence. Each type of component has defining events that mark its transition into states in which it has varying availability for use. For example, a servlet is created and has its init method called by its container before invocation of its service method by clients or other servlets that require its functionality. After the call of its init method, it has the data and readiness for its intended use. The servlet's destroy method is called by its container before the ending of its existence so that processing associated with winding up can be done and resources can be released. The init and destroy methods in this example are callback methods. Similar considerations apply to the life cycle of all J2EE component types: enterprise beans, web components (servlets or JSP pages), applets, and application clients.

(2) (n.) A set of phases during which a request for a JavaServer Faces page is received, a UI component tree representing the page is processed, and a response is produced.

(3) (n.) The framework events of a server's runtime, from startup to shutdown, inclusive.

life-cycle event

(n.) A stage in the server life cycle such as startup or shutdown.

life-cycle module

(n.) A module that listens for and performs its tasks in response to events in the server life cycle.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol



(n.) A class, registered with a posting object, that says what to do when an event occurs.

listen port

(n.) The port that a server uses to communicate with clients and other servers.

listen socket

(n.) The combination of port number and IP address. Connections between the server and clients happen on a listen socket.


(Local Mail Transfer Protocol) (n.) Similar to SMTP but does not require management of a mail delivery queue. In addition, LMTP provides a status code for each recipient of a message where SMTP provides only one status code for the message. Defined in RFC 2033.

load balancer

(n.) Software that controls connections to multiple gateway machines to allow approximately equivalent loads on each of the available systems.

load balancing

(n.) The process of distributing the application load across nodes in the cluster so that the client requests are serviced in a timely manner. Applies only to scalable services.

local database connection

(n.) The transaction context in a local connection is local to the current process and to the current data source, not distributed across processes or across data sources.


(n.) A setting that identifies the collation order, character type, monetary format, and date and time format used to present data for users of a specific region, culture, or custom. The locale includes information on how data of a given language is interpreted, stored, or collated. The locale also indicates which code page should be used to represent a given language.

local interface

(n.) An interface that provides a mechanism for a client that is located in the same JavaTM Virtual Machine (JVMTM machine) with a session or entity bean to access that bean.

Local Mail Transfer Protocol


local part

(n.) The part of an email address that identifies the recipient. See also domain part.

local session

(n.) A user session that is only visible to one server.

local subset

(n.) That part of the DTD that is defined within the current XML file.

local transaction

(n.) A transaction that is native to one database and is restricted within a single process. Local transactions work only against a single backend. Local transactions are typically demarcated using a JDBCTM API. See also global transaction

log directory

(n.) The directory in which all of a service’s log files are kept.

log expiration

(n.) The deletion of a log file from the log directory after it has reached its maximum permitted age.

logical architecture

(n.) A design that depicts the logical building blocks of a distributed application and the relationships (or interfaces) between these building blocks. The logical architecture includes both the distributed application components and the infrastructure services components needed to support them.

logical host

(n.) A Messaging Server 2.0 (minimum) concept that includes an application, the disksets or disk groups on which the application data resides, and the network addresses used to access the cluster. This concept no longer exists in the SunPlexTM system.

log rotation

(n.) The creation of a new log file to be the current log file. All subsequent logged events are written to the new current file. The log file that was the previous log file is no longer written to, but remains in the log directory.


(n.) Same as a search, using the specified parameters for sorting data.