The directory schema describes the types of data that can be stored in a directory. During schema design, each data element is mapped to an LDAP attribute. Related elements are gathered into LDAP object classes. A well-designed schema helps maintain data integrity by imposing constraints on the size, range, and format of data values. You decide what types of entries your directory contains and the attributes that are available to each entry.
The predefined schema that is included with Directory Server contains the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard LDAP schema. The schema contains additional application-specific schema to support the features of the server. It also contains Directory Server-specific schema extensions. While this schema meets most directory requirements, you might need to extend the schema with new object classes and attributes that are specific to your directory.
Schema design involves doing the following:
Mapping your data to the default schema.
To map existing data to the default schema, identify the type of object that each data element describes then select a similar object class from the default schema. Use the common object classes, such as groups, people, and organizations. Select a similar attribute from the matching object class that best matches the data element.
Identifying unmatched data.
Extending the default schema to define new elements to meet your remaining needs.
If data elements exist that do not match the object classes and attributes defined by the default directory schema, you can customize the schema. You can also extend the schema to impose additional constraints on the existing schema. For more information, see About Custom Schema in Oracle Fusion Middleware Administration Guide for Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition.
Planning for schema maintenance.
Where possible, use the existing schema elements that are defined in the default Directory Server schema. Standard schema elements help to ensure compatibility with directory-enabled applications. Because the schema is based on the LDAP standard, it has been reviewed and agreed to by a large number of directory users.
Consistent data assists LDAP client applications in locating directory entries. For each type of information that is stored in the directory, select the required object classes and attributes to support that information. Always use the same object classes and attributes. If you use schema objects inconsistently, it is difficult to locate information.
You can maintain schema consistency in the following ways:
Use schema checking to ensure that attributes and object classes conform to the schema rules.
For more information about schema checking, see Chapter 11, Directory Server Schema, in Oracle Fusion Middleware Administration Guide for Oracle Directory Server Enterprise Edition.
Select and apply a consistent data format.
The LDAP schema allows you to place any data on any attribute value. However, you should store data consistently in the DIT by selecting a format appropriate for your LDAP client applications and directory users. With the LDAP protocol and Directory Server, you must represent data using the data formats specified in RFC 4517.