System Administration Guide: IP Services

Running DHCP Commands in Scripts

The dhcpconfig, dhtadm, and pntadm commands are optimized for use in scripts. In particular, the pntadm command is useful for creating a large number of IP address entries in a DHCP network table. The following sample script uses pntadm in batch mode to create IP addresses.


Example 12–1 addclient.ksh Script with the pntadm Command

#! /usr/bin/ksh
#
# This script utilizes the pntadm batch facility to add client entries
# to a DHCP network table. It assumes that the user has the rights to
# run pntadm to add entries to DHCP network tables.

#
# Based on the nsswitch setting, query the netmasks table for a netmask.
# Accepts one argument, a dotted IP address.
#
get_netmask()
{
	MTMP=`getent netmasks ${1} | awk '{ print $2 }'`
	if [ ! -z "${MTMP}" ]
	then
		print - ${MTMP}
	fi
}

#
# Based on the network specification, determine whether or not network is 
# subnetted or supernetted.
# Given a dotted IP network number, convert it to the default class
# network.(used to detect subnetting). Requires one argument, the
# network number. (e.g. 10.0.0.0) Echos the default network and default
# mask for success, null if error.
#
get_default_class()
{
	NN01=${1%%.*}
	tmp=${1#*.}
	NN02=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	NN03=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	NN04=${tmp%%.*}
	RETNET=""
	RETMASK=""

	typeset -i16 ONE=10#${1%%.*}
	typeset -i10 X=$((${ONE}&16#f0))
	if [ ${X} -eq 224 ]
	then
		# Multicast
		typeset -i10 TMP=$((${ONE}&16#f0))
		RETNET="${TMP}.0.0.0"
		RETMASK="240.0.0.0"
	fi
	typeset -i10 X=$((${ONE}&16#80))
	if [ -z "${RETNET}" -a ${X} -eq 0 ]
	then
		# Class A
		RETNET="${NN01}.0.0.0"
		RETMASK="255.0.0.0"
	fi
	typeset -i10 X=$((${ONE}&16#c0))
	if [ -z "${RETNET}" -a ${X} -eq 128 ]
	then
		# Class B
		RETNET="${NN01}.${NN02}.0.0"
		RETMASK="255.255.0.0"
	fi
	typeset -i10 X=$((${ONE}&16#e0))
	if [ -z "${RETNET}" -a ${X} -eq 192 ]
	then
		# Class C
		RETNET="${NN01}.${NN02}.${NN03}.0"
		RETMASK="255.255.255.0"
	fi
	print - ${RETNET} ${RETMASK}
	unset NNO1 NNO2 NNO3 NNO4 RETNET RETMASK X ONE
}

#
# Given a dotted form of an IP address, convert it to its hex equivalent.
#
convert_dotted_to_hex()
{
	typeset -i10 one=${1%%.*}
	typeset -i16 one=${one}
	typeset -Z2 one=${one}
	tmp=${1#*.}

	typeset -i10 two=${tmp%%.*}
	typeset -i16 two=${two}
	typeset -Z2 two=${two}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}

	typeset -i10 three=${tmp%%.*}
	typeset -i16 three=${three}
	typeset -Z2 three=${three}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}

	typeset -i10 four=${tmp%%.*}
	typeset -i16 four=${four}
	typeset -Z2 four=${four}

	 hex=`print - ${one}${two}${three}${four} | sed -e 's/#/0/g'`
	 print - 16#${hex}
	 unset one two three four tmp
}

#
# Generate an IP address given the network address, mask, increment.
# 
get_addr()
{
	typeset -i16 net=`convert_dotted_to_hex ${1}`
	typeset -i16 mask=`convert_dotted_to_hex ${2}`
	typeset -i16 incr=10#${3}

	# Maximum legal value - invert the mask, add to net.
	typeset -i16 mhosts=~${mask}
	typeset -i16 maxnet=${net}+${mhosts}

	# Add the incr value.
	let net=${net}+${incr}

	if [ $((${net} < ${maxnet})) -eq 1 ]
	then
		typeset -i16 a=${net}\&16#ff000000
		typeset -i10 a="${a}>>24"

		typeset -i16 b=${net}\&16#ff0000
		typeset -i10 b="${b}>>16"

		typeset -i16 c=${net}\&16#ff00
		typeset -i10 c="${c}>>8"

		typeset -i10 d=${net}\&16#ff
		print - "${a}.${b}.${c}.${d}"
	fi
	unset net mask incr mhosts maxnet a b c d
}

# Given a network address and client address, return the index.
client_index()
{
	typeset -i NNO1=${1%%.*}
	tmp=${1#*.}
	typeset -i NNO2=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	typeset -i NNO3=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	typeset -i NNO4=${tmp%%.*}

	typeset -i16 NNF1
	let NNF1=${NNO1}
	typeset -i16 NNF2
	let NNF2=${NNO2}
	typeset -i16 NNF3
	let NNF3=${NNO3}
	typeset -i16 NNF4
	let NNF4=${NNO4}
	typeset +i16 NNF1
	typeset +i16 NNF2
	typeset +i16 NNF3
	typeset +i16 NNF4
	NNF1=${NNF1#16\#}
	NNF2=${NNF2#16\#}
	NNF3=${NNF3#16\#}
	NNF4=${NNF4#16\#}
	if [ ${#NNF1} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF1="0${NNF1}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF2} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF2="0${NNF2}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF3} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF3="0${NNF3}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF4} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF4="0${NNF4}"
	fi
	typeset -i16 NN
	let NN=16#${NNF1}${NNF2}${NNF3}${NNF4}
	unset NNF1 NNF2 NNF3 NNF4

	typeset -i NNO1=${2%%.*}
	tmp=${2#*.}
	typeset -i NNO2=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	typeset -i NNO3=${tmp%%.*}
	tmp=${tmp#*.}
	typeset -i NNO4=${tmp%%.*}
	typeset -i16 NNF1
	let NNF1=${NNO1}
	typeset -i16 NNF2
	let NNF2=${NNO2}
	typeset -i16 NNF3
	let NNF3=${NNO3}
	typeset -i16 NNF4
	let NNF4=${NNO4}
	typeset +i16 NNF1
	typeset +i16 NNF2
	typeset +i16 NNF3
	typeset +i16 NNF4
	NNF1=${NNF1#16\#}
	NNF2=${NNF2#16\#}
	NNF3=${NNF3#16\#}
	NNF4=${NNF4#16\#}
	if [ ${#NNF1} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF1="0${NNF1}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF2} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF2="0${NNF2}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF3} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF3="0${NNF3}"
	fi
	if [ ${#NNF4} -eq 1 ]
	then
		NNF4="0${NNF4}"
	fi
	typeset -i16 NC
	let NC=16#${NNF1}${NNF2}${NNF3}${NNF4}
	typeset -i10 ANS
	let ANS=${NC}-${NN}
	print - $ANS
}

#
# Check usage.
#
if [ "$#" != 3 ]
then
	print "This script is used to add client entries to a DHCP network"
	print "table by utilizing the pntadm batch facilty.\n"
	print "usage: $0 network start_ip entries\n"
	print "where: network is the IP address of the network"
        print "       start_ip is the starting IP address \n"
        print "       entries is the number of the entries to add\n"
	print "example: $0 10.148.174.0 10.148.174.1 254\n"
	return
fi

#
# Use input arguments to set script variables.
#
NETWORK=$1
START_IP=$2
typeset -i STRTNUM=`client_index ${NETWORK} ${START_IP}`
let ENDNUM=${STRTNUM}+$3
let ENTRYNUM=${STRTNUM}
BATCHFILE=/tmp/batchfile.$$
MACRO=`uname -n`

#
# Check if mask in netmasks table. First try
# for network address as given, in case VLSM
# is in use.
#
NETMASK=`get_netmask ${NETWORK}`
if [ -z "${NETMASK}" ]
then
	get_default_class ${NETWORK} | read DEFNET DEFMASK
	# use the default.
	if [ "${DEFNET}" != "${NETWORK}" ]
	then
		# likely subnetted/supernetted.
		print - "\n\n###\tWarning\t###\n"
		print - "Network ${NETWORK} is netmasked, but no entry was found  \n
              in the 'netmasks' table; please update the 'netmasks'  \n
              table in the appropriate nameservice before continuing. \n 
              (See /etc/nsswitch.conf.) \n" >&2
		return 1
	else
		# use the default.
		NETMASK="${DEFMASK}"
	fi
fi

#
# Create a batch file.
#
print -n "Creating batch file "
while [ ${ENTRYNUM} -lt ${ENDNUM} ]
do
	if [ $((${ENTRYNUM}-${STRTNUM}))%50 -eq 0 ]
	then
		print -n "."
	fi

	CLIENTIP=`get_addr ${NETWORK} ${NETMASK} ${ENTRYNUM}`
	print "pntadm -A ${CLIENTIP} -m ${MACRO} ${NETWORK}" >> ${BATCHFILE}
	let ENTRYNUM=${ENTRYNUM}+1
done
print " done.\n"

#
# Run pntadm in batch mode and redirect output to a temporary file.
# Progress can be monitored by using the output file.
#
print "Batch processing output redirected to ${BATCHFILE}"
print "Batch processing started."

pntadm -B ${BATCHFILE} -v > /tmp/batch.out 2 >&1

print "Batch processing completed."